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> MAY 4 1900 *; 

BL1411.J3 A13 V.3 

J/ataka : or stories 
of the Buddha's former 





aonHon: C. J. CLAY AND SONS, 



©lassofa: 263, ARGYLE STREET. 

Ecipjifl: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
Bombag: G. BELL AND SONS. 

i^ti'4^:"^i:- ij4- M.'' ^A '^J"'m^-^ 

:^ A 

(from Cunningham, PI. xlvii. 5). 











R. A. NEIL, M.A., 





[All Rights reserved.] 

Cambridge : 



This volume of translation corresponds to the third volume of 
the text, and the translators, Mr H. T. Francis, and Mr R. A. Neil, 
have endeavoured to keep up an uniformity with the plan adopted 
in the two former volumes. Mr Francis is responsible for pp. 1 — 
150 and p. 287 to the end, Mr Neil for pp. 151—286. The 
Secretary of State for India has kindly given permission to illustrate 
one of the stories in this volume also from the Bharhut Stupa. The 
story is No. 383 ; the words above the picture are Bidala Jataka 
Kukuta Jataka, 

The two translators of this volume cannot allow the book to 
appear without expressing their gratitude to Professor Cowell for 
his constant help and supervision and for his kindness in compiling 
the index. 

J. III. 












A king, being eager to fight, finds occasion to quarrel with 
another king. Misled by a prophecy of victory and neglecting the 
omens, he is defeated by his adversary. 


A king, being defeated by rebels, finds a hospitable shelter with a 
poor countryman, and rewards his benefactor with the half of his 


A king is taken prisoner and tortured, and by his patience under 
suffering wins his enemy to repentance. 


How two brothers were driven from their father's kingdom, and 
how their pride was humbled by the contumely they suffered in their 


A teacher tests the virtue of his pupils by tempting them to steal. 
The only youth, that stands the test, is rewarded by marrying his 
master's daughter. 


How the daughter of a fruiterer became a queen, and by her 
pride nearly lost her position. 


A brahmin pays honour to a tree-spirit and is rewarded by the 
discovery of a buried treasure. 


The story of the woodpecker and the ungrateful lion. 

X Contents. 


How a pariah, who stole mangoes, ventured to reprove a king for 
allowing a priest to teach him from a lower seat. 


How a brahmin refused to give up the ascetic life in order to 
become family priest to a king. 



How a nimb-tree spirit frightened away a robber whose presence 
endangered the safety of the tree, 


A father and son in journeying together fall out by the way, and 
the old man is reproved for his want of self-restraint. 


How a wicked king cruelly maltreated an ascetic, and how the 
patience of the holy man endured to the end, and the king was cast 
into Hell, 


A king is terrified by hearing awful cries in the night and is 
urged by his family priest to avert the evil omen by the sacrifice of 
living creatures, A young brahmin interprets the sounds to be the 
cries uttered by lost souls in Hell, and the king takes comfort and 
forbids the sacrifice, 


How four young merchants tried to wheedle a hunter out of his 
venison, and how one alone by his cunning address succeeded. 

316. SASA-JATAKA 34 

How a hare, in default of other food, offered its own flesh to be 
eaten, and was rewarded by having its form supernaturally impressed 
on the face of the moon. 


How a youth, when his brother died, demonstrated the folly of 
grieving for the dead. 


How a courtezan rescued a robber by betraying her lover to 
death, and how she was afterwards punished for her treachery. 


A decoy-partridge is troubled with scruples of conscience. 

Contents. xi 



How a prince requited his wife's devotion with base ingratitude, 
until he was brought to a better mind by the admonition of his 


How a monkey, through envy, destroyed a bird's nest. 


Of the timid hare and the flight of the beasts. 


Of the ascetic who for twelve years had not the courage to ask for 
a trifling boon. 


Of a foolish mendicant who met his death by mistaking the 
butting of a ram for a respectful salutation. 


How a greedy ascetic was outwitted by a lizard. 


How a wicked priest was punished for assuming virtues to which 
he had no claim. 


How a roc carried off a king's wife to his island home, and was 
afterwards outwitted by the king's minstrel. 


The story of the holy man who found a wife by means of a golden 
image, and how on her death he neither fasted nor wept. 


The story of the parrots and the black monkey, and how the 
monkey fell into disgrace and the parrots regained the king's favour. 


Of the man who tested the power of virtue and of the moral 
lessons he learned from the hawk and the piece of meat and from the 
slave-girl to whom loss of hope alone brought peace. 


How a talkative king was admonished by the fate of the young 
bird that cried " cuckoo " too soon. 


Of the priest and the carters and the danger of giving judgment 
before hearing both sides. 

xii Contents. 


333. GODHA-JATAKA . 71 

How a roasted lizard ran away, and how a king was convicted of 
ingratitude to his wife. 


A king is taught by the parable of the sweet and bitter fig how 
his realm is affected by a just or unjust rule. 


Of the fate of the jackal that presumed to play the part of the 


How a prince by means of a spell discovered buried treasure and 
substituted grass for gold. 


The duty of hospitality inculcated by the story of the merchant 
and the ascetic. 


How a king was saved from being killed by his son, through the 
repetition of a spell at critical moments. 


How a crow was ousted from a position of favour when a peacock 


How a rich merchant, after he was reduced to beggary, continued 
to exercise charity. 


(See Kunala-Jataka, No. 523.) 


The crocodile outwitted by the monkey. 


The heron's revenge for the loss of her young ones. 


How a false ascetic robbed a mango orchard and charged some 
innocent maidens with the theft. 


Of a slothful king admonished by the example of a lazy tortoise. 

Contents. xiii 



The sick hermit and his friend, or love the best physician. 


How a king who had forbidden the sacrifice of living creatures 
was shielded by a god from the vengeance of a goblin. 


Of a virtuous youth led astray by evil communications. 


A jackal by slanderous words brings about a fatal quarrel between 
a lion and a bull. 


(See Ummagga-Jataka.) 


(Same as No. 303.) 


A father is cured of inordinate grief by the feigned madness of his 


How a king, who was guilty of gross cruelty, met with fitting 

354. URAGA-JATAKA 107 

How, when a brahmin lost his son, neither he nor any of his 
family lamented or wept, and of their exceeding great reward. 


(Same as No. 303.) 


A teacher is taught by his pupil the folly of preaching to unwilling 


How a quail brought about the destruction of an elephant that 
had killed her young ones. 


A king, being jealous of his queen's affection for her child, has 
the boy mutilated and killed, and is punished by being cast into 

xlv Contents. 



How a stag caught in a snare was released from death hy the 
devotion of his doe. 


(Same as No. 327.) 


The jackal as calumniator tries in vain to set a lion and a tiger 
at variance. 


How a man tried his own reputation for virtue. 

363. HIRI-JATAKA . . 129 

(Imperfect. Same as Akataniiu-Jataka, No. 90.) 


(See Mahaummagga. ) 


How a monkey that had been beaten was not to be cajoled by soft 


How a merchant warned the members of his caravan against 
eating strange food, and how those that neglected his warning were 
poisoned by an evil spirit. 


The biter bit, or the story of the knavish doctor who was killed 
by the snake which he pretended was harmless. 


The same story as the preceding one, to which is added how 
certain lads were acquitted of the charge of having caused the death 
of the doctor. 


(A fragment of No. 41.) 


How a Judas tree was destroyed by the parasitic growth of a 
banyan shoot. 


A prince spares the life of the king who had slain his father and 
thereby wins him to repentance. 

Contents. xv 



An ascetic is admonished against excessive grief for the loss of a 
pet deer. 

373. MtJSIKA-JATAKA 142 

A king by repeating a spell at critical moments baffles the 
attempts of his heir to kill him. 


A woman who betrayed her husband to death, and was afterwards 
deserted by her lover, has her folly brought home to her by witnessing 
the fate of a greedy jackal. 


How a greedy crow was made ridiculous and tortured to death. 


How a foolish ferryman behaved when offered good advice instead 
of his fare. 


How caste and feigned sanctity were foiled. 


How a king renounced his kingdom on the advice of an old 
friend, who had become a paccekabuddha. 

379. NERU-JATAKA 159 

How royal birds avoid a golden mountain which makes all birds 
appear alike. 


How a king spent three years in finding out the name of his 
future queen. 


How a disobedient vulture perished. 


How precedence was settled by a good merchant between the 
goddesses of Good and 111 Fortune. 


How a cat failed to deceive a cock. 


How a hypocritical crow was put to death. 





How a good deer brought blessings to his kindred and to all 


How a king got a charm from a naga by which he understood the 
sounds of all animals : his queen tried to get the charm from him, 
but was foiled through some advice given by Sakka, disguised as a 

387. StJCI-JATAKA 178 

How a young smith made a marvellous needle, and thereby won 
to wife the daughter of a head-smith. 


How a pig explained to his younger brother that death is not to 
be feared, 


How a farmer was saved by a good crab from being killed by a 
snake in league with a crow : the two latter were themselves killed. 


How a greedy, murdering uncle was compared to a certain bird, 
and so converted. 


How a wicked person, disguised as a Brother, caused the expulsion 
of Brethren from a kingdom, and the spiritual ruin of the people: 
Sakka interfered and saved the kingdom. 


How a brahmin was accused of stealing the smell of a flower. 

393. VIGHASA-JATAKA . . . " 193 

How certain self-indulgent monks were warned by a parrot. 


How a quail explained to a crow how to get fat. 

395. KAKA-JATAKA 195 

How a greedy crow was made ridiculous and put to death. 

396. KUKKU-JATAKA 197 

How a king was converted by certain parables. 


How a lion was enticed to his death by the counsel of a jackal. 

Contents. xvii 



How a king, falling into the power of a man-eating goblin, sent 
people daily to be eaten : a young man got the better of the goblin 
and converted him. 


How a good young vulture was loosed from a snare by a hunter. 


How two otters, who had caught a fish, were cheated by a 


How a king was cured of a sickness, born of longing for his wife, 
by seeing a man swallowing a sword. 


How an old brahmin was sent away by his wife to beg: a snake 
got into his meal-bag unperceived : a young brahmin preacher guessed 
that the snake was there, and then exposed the wife's wickedness. 


How a brahmin explains to a king why he makes no petition. 

404. KAPI-JATAKA 218 

How a naughty monkey brought ruin on his kindred. 


How an angel was converted from heresy. 


How two kings became ascetics, and one was admonished in a 
fault by the other. 


How a monkey saved his followers at the cost of his own life. 


How four kings became ascetics through observing a mango-tree, 
a bracelet, a flock of birds, and some bulls respectively : a potter and 
his wife separately follow their example. 


How a she-elephant, forgotten by the king in her old age, was 
restored to honour. 


How an ascetic was comforted for the loss of a young elephant. 

xviii Contents. 


How a tree-spirit was frightened by a bird and comforted by a 


How an ascetic kept vigil at nights. 


411. SUSiMA-JATAKA 237 

How a king became an ascetic on being shewn a grey hair by his 
chief queen. 



How a king neglected old friends for new ones : his case illustrated 
by a story of a brahmin goatherd and some deer. 



How a king and queen declared the merits in former births that 
brought about their birth in royal rank. 


How a prince understood the speech of jackals : and how a king's 
son discovered and avenged his father's murder after many years. 


How an old woman, expelled from her son's house owing to her 
daughter-in-law, thought that Right was dead : and how the whole 
family became reconciled. 


How eight sounds that had frightened a king were explained to 
him harmlessly. 


How a man who would have killed his wife was killed by her. 


How a king would not decide a case till his anger was over. 


How a willing servant was reborn as a king : how he shared his 
kingdom for a time with a poor water-carrier who had shown himself 
an honest fellow : how a barber got from the king the explanation of 
his birth in the kingly rank, and became a paccekabuddha, honoured 
by the king. 


How a king, who told a lie in the golden age, sank into the earth 
and so down to Hell. 

Contents. xix 



How a tempted ascetic was warned by the story of a miserable 


How seven paccekabuddhas came and received gifts from a king. 


How an ascetic repulsed a woman who had once behaved harshly 
to him. 

426. DiPI-JATAKA 285 

How a panther ate a she-goat for all her politeness. 


How a vulture perished, through attempting too bold a flight. 

428. KOSAMBi-JATAKA 289 

(Imperfect — with a reference to the story in No. 371.) 


How a grateful parrot refused to leave a barren fig-tree. 


The same story as the preceding one. 


Of an ascetic who would not tell a lie to conceal his sin. 


A boy receives, as a gift from a goblin mother, the power of 
recognizing footsteps even in the air, and a king, to test the boy's 
skill, steals his own jewels and then sets the boy to catch the thief. 
When the boy by a number of pointed stories convicts him of theft, 
the king is put to death by his own subjects and the boy becomes 


How a king promised his daughter iu marriage to an ascetic, if 
he would offer a living sacrifice, and how the ascetic resisted the 


How a crow, through his greediness, could not attain to the 
beauty of the ruddy goose. 


A youth, who was being led astray by female seductions, is 
rescued by the sage counsels of his father. 

XX Cofitents. 



How a demon, who swallowed his wife and carried her about in 
his belly, even so failed to keep her virtuous. 


How a wise she-goat outwitted the jackal that was plotting to kill 

438. TITTIRA-JATAKA .... ... 319 

How a wicked ascetic killed a learned partridge, and how a lion 
and a tiger avenged the death of the partridge. 


No. 301. 


[1] " Open the gate^'' etc. — This story was told by the Master while living at 
Jetavana, about the admission of four female ascetics to the religious life. 

Tradition says that Licchavis of the ruling family to the number of seven 
thousand seven hundred and seven had their abode at Vesali. And all of them 
were given to argument and disputation. 

Now a certain Jain, skilled in maintaining five hundred diflferent theses, 
arrived at Vesali and met with a kind reception there. A female Jain too of a 
similar character also came to Vesali. And the Licchavi chiefs got up a dis- 
putation between them. And when they proved well matched as disputants, the 
Licchavis were struck with the notion that such a jjair would be sure to have 
clever children. So they arranged a marriage between them, and as the issue of 
this union in due course four daughters and a son were born. The daughters 
were named Sacca, Lola, Avavadaka, and Patacara, and the boy was called 
Saccaka. These five children when they reached years of discretion learned a 
thousand diffierent theses, five hundred from the mother and five hundred from 
the father. And the parents schooled their daughters after this manner: "If 
any layman refutes your thesis, you are to become his wives, but if a priest 
refutes you, you must take orders at his hands." 

After a time their parents died. And when they were dead, the Jain Saccaka 
lived on in the same place at Vesali, studying the lore of the Licchavis. [2] But 
his sisters took in their hands a branch of the rose-apple tree, and in the course 
of their wanderings from city to city for purposes of disputation, at last reached 
Savatthi. There they planted the rose-apple branch at the city gate and said to 
some boys who were there, "If any man, be he layman or priest, is equal to 
maintaining a thesis against us, let him scatter with his foot this heap of dust 
and trample under foot this branch." And with these words they went into the 
city to collect alms. 

Now the venerable Sariputta, after sweeping up wherever it was necessary, 
and putting water into the empty pots and tending the sick, later on in the day 
went into Savatthi for alms. And when he had seen and heard about the bough, 
he ordered the boys to throw it down and trample upon it. "Let those," said 
he, "by whom this bough has been planted, as soon as they have finished their 
meal, come and see me in the gable-chamber over the gate of Jetavana." 

1 See R. Morris, Folklore Journal, iii. 61. 
J. III. 1 


The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

So he went into the city, and when he had ended his meal, he took his stand 
in the chamber over the monastery gate. The female ascetics too, after going 
their rounds for alms, returned and found the branch had been trampled on. 
And when they asked who had done this, the boys told them it was Sariputta, 
and if they were anxious for a disputation, they were to go to the chamber over 
the gate of the monastery. 

So they returned to the city, and followed by a great crowd went to the gate- 
tower of the monastery, and propounded to the priest a thousand different 
theses. The priest solved all their difficulties and then asked them if they knew 
any more. 

They replied, " No, my Lord." 

"Then I," said he, "will ask you something." 

"Ask on, my Lord," they said, "and if we know it, we will answer you." 

So the priest propounded just one question to them, and when they had to 
give it up, the priest told them the answer. 

Then said they, "We are beaten, the victory rests with you." 

"What will you do now V he asked. 

"Our parents," they replied, "admonished us thus: 'if you are refuted in 
disputation by a layman, you are to become his wives, but if by a priest, you are 
to receive orders at his hands'. — Therefore," said they, "admit us to the religious 

The priest readily assented and ordained them in the house of the Nun called 
Uppalavanna. And all of them shortly attained to Sainthood. 

Then one day they started this topic in the Hall of Truth, how that Sariputta 
proved a refuge to the four female ascetics, and that through him they all attained 
to Sainthood. When the Master came and heard the nature of their discourse, 
he said, "Not now only, but in former times too, Sariputta jiroved a refuge to 
these women. [3] On this occasion he dedicated them to the religious life, but 
formerly he raised them to the dignity of queen consort." Then he told them 
an old-world story. 

Once upon a time when Kalinga was reigning in the city of Dantapura 
in the Kalinga' kingdom, Assaka was king of Potali in the Assaka 
country. 'Now Kalinga had a fine army and was himself as strong as an 
elephant, but could find no one to fight with him. So being eager for a 
fray he said to his ministers : " T am longing to fight but can find no one 
to war with me." 

His ministers said, " Sire, there is one way open to you. You have 
four daughters of surpassing beauty. Bid them adorn themselves with 
jewels, and then seated in a covered carriage let them be driven to every 
village, town and royal city with an armed escort. And if any king shall 
be desirous of taking them into his harem, we will get up a fight with 

The king followed their advice. But the kings of the various countries, 
wherever they came, were afraid to let them enter their cities, but sent 
them presents and assigned them quarters outside the city walls. Thus 
they passed through the length and breadth of India till they reached 
Potali in the Assaka country. But Assaka too closed his gates against 

^ On the Coromandel coast. 

No. 301. 3 

them and merely sent them a present. Now this king had a wise and 
able minister named Nandisena, who was fertile in expedients. He 
thought to himself: "These princesses, men say, have traversed the 
length of India without finding any to fight for their possession. If this 
is the case, India is but an empty name. I myself will do battle with 
Kalinga. " 

Then he went and bade the guards open the city gate to them, and 
spake the first stanza : 

Open the gate to these maidens : thro' Nandisena's might, 
King Aruna's^ sage lion, our city is guarded aright. 

[4] With these words he threw open the gate, and brought the maidens 
into the presence of king Assaka, and said to him, "Fear not. If there 
is to be a light, I will see to it. Make these fair princesses your chief 
queens." Then he installed them as queens by sprinkling them with holy 
water, and dismissed their attendants, bidding them go and tell Kalinga 
that his daughters had been raised to the dignity of queen-consorts. So 
they went and told him, and Kalinga said, "I presume he does not know 
how powerful I am," and at once set out with a great ai'my. Nandisena 
heard of his approach and sent a message to this effect; "Let Kalinga 
abide within his own marches, and not encroach upon ours, and the battle 
shall be fought on the frontiers of the two countries." On receiving this 
message, Kalinga halted within the limits of his own territory and Assaka 
also kept to his. 

At this time the Bodhisatta was following the ascetic life and was 
living in a hermitage on a spot lying between the two kingdoms. Said 
Kalinga, "These monks are knowing fellows. Who can tell which of us 
will gain the victory, and which will be defeated ? I will ask this ascetic." 
So he came to the Bodhisatta disguised, and sitting respectfully on one 
side, after the usual kindly greetings he said, "Your Reverence, Kalinga 
and Assaka have their forces drawn up each within his own territory, 
eager for a fight. Which of them will be victorious, and which will be 

"Your Excellency," he replied, "the one will conquer, the other will 
be beaten. I can tell you no more. But Sakka, the King of Heaven, is 
coming here. I will ask him and let you know, if you come back again 

[5] So when Sakka came to pay his respects to the Bodhisatta, he put 
this question to him, and Sakka replied, "Reverend Sir, Kalinga will 
conquer, Assaka will be defeated, and such and such omens will be seen 
beforehand." Next day Kaliiiga came and repeated his question, and the 
Bodhisatta gave Sakka's answer. And Kaliiiga, without inquiring what 

^ The scholiast says Aruna was the real name of the Assaka king. 


The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

the omens would be, thought to himself: "They tell me I shall conquer," 
and went away quite satisfied. This report spread abroad. And when 
Assaka heard it, he summoned Nandisena and said, "Kaliiiga, they say, 
will be victorious and we shall be defeated. What is to be done 1 " 

"Sire," he replied, "who knows this? Do not trouble yourself as to 
who shall gain the victory and who shall suffer defeat." 

With these words he comforted the king. Then he went and saluted 
the Bodhisatta, and sitting respectfully on one side he asked, "Who, 
Reverend Sir, will conquer, and who will be defeated 1" 

"Kalinga," he replied, "will win the day and Assaka will be beaten." 

"And what, Reverend Sir," he asked, "will be the omen for the one 
that conquers, and what for the one that is defeated 1" 

"Your Excellency," he answered, "the tutelary deity of the conqueror 
will be a spotless white bull, and that of the other king a perfectly black 
bull, and the tutelary gods of the two kings will themselves fight and be 
severally victorious or defeated." 

On hearing this Nandisena rose up and went and took the king's 
allies — they were about one thousand in number and all of them great 
warriors — and led them up a mountain close at hand and asked them 
saying, "Would you sacrifice your lives for our king?" 

"Yes, Sir, we would," they answered. 

"Then throw youi'selves from this precipice," he said. 

They essayed to do so, when he stopped them, saying, "No more of 
this. Show yourselves staunch friends of our king and make a gallant 
fight for him." 

They all vowed to do so. And when the battle was now imminent, 
Kaliiiga came to the conclusion in his own mind tliat he would be 
victorious, and his army too thought "The victory will be ours." [6] And 
so they put on their armour, and forming themselves into separate detach- 
ments, they advanced just as they thought proper, and when the moment 
came for making a great efibrt, they failed to do so. 

But both the kings, mounted on horseback, drew nigh to one another 
with the intention of fighting. And their two tutelary gods moved before 
them, that of Kaliiiga in the shape of a white bull, and that of the other 
king as a black bull. And as these drew nigh to one another, they too 
made every demonstration of fighting. But these two bulls were visible 
to the two kings only, and to no one else. And Nandisena asked Assaka, 
saying, "Your Highness, are the tutelary gods visible to you?" 

"Yes," he answered, "they are." 

"In what guise?" he asked. 

"The guardian god of Kaliiiga appears in the shape of a white bull, 
while ours is in the form of a black bull and looks distressed." 

"Fear not Sire, we shall conquer and Kaliiiga will be defeated. Only 

No. 301. . 5 

dismount from your well-trained Sindh horse, and grasping this spear, with 
your left hand give him a blow on the flank, and then with this body of a 
thousand men advance quickly and with a stroke of your weapon fell to 
the ground this god of Kaliiiga, while we with a thousand spears will 
smite him and so shall Kaliiiga's tutelary deity perish, and then shall 
Kalinga be defeated and we shall be victorious." 

"Good," said the king, and at a given signal from Nandisena he smote 
with his spear and his courtiers too smote with their thousand spears, and 
the tutelary god of Kalinga died then and there. 

Meanwhile Kalinga was defeated and fled. And at the sight all those 
thousand councillors raised a loud cry, saying, "Kalinga is fled." Then 
Kalinga with the fear of death upon him, as he fled, reproached that ascetic 
and uttered the second stanza : 

"Kalihgas bold shall victory claim. 
Defeat crowns Assakas with shame." 
[7] Thus did your reverence prophesy. 
And honest folk should never lie. 

Thus did Kalinga, as he fled, revile that ascetic. And in his flight 
to his own city he durst not so much as once look back. And a few days 
afterwards Sakka came to visit the hermit. And the hermit conversing 
with him uttered the third stanza : 

The gods from lying words are free, 
Truth should their chiefest treasure be. 
In this, great Sakka, thou didst lie ; 
Tell me, I pray, the reason why. 

On hearing this, Sakka spoke the fourth stanza : 

Hast thou, O brahmin, ne'er been told 

Gods envy not the hero bold 1 

The fixed resolve that may not yield, 

Intrepid prowess in the field, 

High courage and adventurous might 

For Assaka have won the fight. 

[8] And on the flight of Kalinga, king Assaka returned with his 
spoils to his own city. And Nandisena sent a message to Kalinga, that 
he was to forward a portion for the dowry of these four royal maidens. 
"Otherwise," he added, "I shall know how to deal with him." And 
Kalinga, on hearing this message, was so alarmed that he sent a fitting 
portion for them. And from that day forward the two kings lived 
amicably together. 

His discourse ended, the Master identified the Birth:— "In those days these 
young female ascetics were the daughters of king Kalinga, Sariputta was 
Nandisena and I myself was the hermit." 

The Jataha. Book IV. 

No. 302. 


"TTiy gifts bestowed" etc. — This story the Master told while dwelling at 
Jetavana, about the Elder Auanda. The circumstances that suggested the story 
have been already given. "In former days too," the Master said, "wise men 
acted on the principle that one good turn deserves another." And hereupon he 
told them a story of the olden time. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was king of Benares, and exercising 
his rule with justice and equity he gave alms and kept the moral law. 

And being minded to quell some disturbance on his frontier he set out 
with a large force, but being defeated he mounted his horse and fled till he 
reached a certain border village. Now there dwelt here thirty loyal 
subjects and they were gathered together very early, in the middle of the 
village, to transact the business of the place. And at this moment the 
king mounted on his mail-clad horse and splendidly equipped [9] rode into 
the place by the village gate. The people were terrified and saying, 
"What can this be?" fled every man to his own home. But there was 
one man who without going to his own house, came to welcome the king. 
And telling the stranger that the king, he heard, had come to the frontier, 
he inquired who he was and whether he was a royalist or a rebel. " I am 
for the king, Sir," he said. " Then come with me," he answered, and led 
the king to his home and made him sit down on his own seat. Then the 
man said to his wife, "My deai', bathe our friend's feet;" and when she had 
so done, he offered him the best food he could, and had a bed made ready 
for him, bidding him rest awhile. So the king lay down. Then his host 
took off the armour from the horse, turned him loose, gave him water to 
drink and grass to eat and rubbed him down with oil. Thus did he tend 
the king for three or four days, and the king said, " Friend, I am now oflf," 
and again he did all due service both to the king and his horse. The king 
after he had taken food, on leaving said, "I am called the Great Horseman. 
Our home is in the centre of the city. Should you come there on any 
business, stand at the door on the right hand and ask the porter where the 
Great Horseman dwells, and take him with you and come to our house." 
With these woi'ds he departed. 

Now the army, not seeing the king, remained encamped outside the 
town, but when they saw him, they came out to meet him and escorted 
him home. The king on entering the city stood at the entrance of the 

No. 302. 7 

gate and calling the porter ordered the crowd to retire and said, " Friend, 
a certain man who lives in a frontier village will come here, anxious to see 
us, and will ask where the house of the Great Horseman is. Take him 
by the hand and bring him into our presence, and then you shall receive a 
thousand pieces of money." 

But when the man failed to come, the king inci'eased the tax on the 
village where he dwelt. But though the tax was raised, still he did not 
come. So the king increased the tax for the second and third time, and 
still he came not. Then the inhabitants of the villaore gathered together 
and said to the man : " Sir, from the time the Horseman came to you, 
[10] we have been so weighed down by the tax that we cannot lift up our 
head. Go and see the Great Horseman and persuade him to lighten our 

"Well, I will go," he answered, "but I cannot go empty-handed. My 
friend has two sons : so get you ready ornaments and suits of clothes for 
them and for his wife and for my friend himself." 

" Very well," they said, and got everything ready for a present. 

So he took both this gift and a cake fried in his own house. And 
when he came to the door on the right hand he asked the porter where the 
house of the Great Horseman might be. The porter answered, " Come 
with me and I will shew you," and took him by the hand, and on ai-riving 
at the king's gate sent in word, " The porter has come and has brought 
with him the man who dwells in the border village." The king on hearing 
it, rose from his seat and said, " Let my friend and all that have come with 
him enter." Then he went forward to welcome him and embraced him, and 
after inquiring if his friend's wife and children were well, he took him by 
the hand, stepped on the dais and seated him on the royal throne beneath 
the white umbrella. And he summoned his chief consort and said, "Wash 
my friend's feet." So she washed his feet. The king sprinkled water 
from a golden bowl, while the queen washed his feet and anointed them 
with scented oil. Then the king asked, " Have you anything for us to 
eati" And he said, "Yes, my lord," and brought out cakes in a bag. 
The king received them in a golden dish, and showing great favour to- 
wards him he said, " Eat what my friend has bx-ought," and gave some to 
his queen and his ministers, and himself too ate of it. Then the stranger 
brought out his other gift. And the king to show that he accepted it put 
off his silken garments and put on the suit of clothes that he had brought 
him, [11] The queen also laid aside her silk dress and ornaments and put 
on the dress and ornaments he had brought her. Then the king served 
him with food fit for a king and bade one of his councillors, saying, "Go 
and see that his beard is trimmed after the fashion of my own, and let him 
bathe in scented water. Then dress him in a silken robe worth a hundred 
thousand pieces of money, and adorn him in royal style and briug him 

8 The Jatcika. Book IV. 

here." This was done. And the king by beat of drum through the city 
gathered together his councillors, and throwing a thread of pure vermilion 
across the white umbrella, gave him the half of his kingdom. From that 
day they ate, drank and dwelt together and they became firm and in- 
separable friends. 

Then the king sent for the man's wife and family and had a house 
built for them in the city, and they ruled the kingdom in perfect harmony. 
So the courtiers waxed wroth and said to the king's son, " O prince, the 
king has given the half of his kingdom to a certain householder. He eats 
and drinks and dwells with him, and orders us to salute his children. 
What service he has done the king we know nob. What does the king 
mean? We feel ashamed. Do you speak to the king." He readily 
agreed to do so, and told every word to the king and said, " O great king, 
do not act thus." 

"My son," he answered, "do you know where I dwelt after I was 
defeated in battle V ' 

"I know not, my lord," he said. 

" I was living," said the king, " in this man's house, and when I had 
recovered my health I came back and reigned again. How then should I 
not bestow honour on my benefactor % " 

And then the Bodhisatta went on to say, " My son, whosoever giveth 
to one unworthy of his gift, and to the deserving giveth nought, that man 
when he falls into misfortune findeth no one to help him." And to point 
the moral he uttered these verses ; 

[12] Thy gifts bestowed upon or fool or knave. 

In sorest need would bring no friend to save: 
But grace or kindness to the good displayed 
In sorest need would bring thee timely aid. 
Boons to unworthy souls are spent in vain. 
Thy smallest service to the good is gain : 
A noble action though it stands alone, 
Eenders the doer worthy of a throne : 
As fruit abundant from the tiny seed. 
Eternal fame springs from a virtuous deed. 

[13] On hearing this neither the councillors nor the young prince had 
aught to say in answer. 

The Master, his discourse ended, thus identified the Birth: "At that time it 

was Ananda who dwelt in the frontier village, while I myself was king of 

1 Compare No. 157, vol. ii. 

No. 303. 

No. 303. 


"0 monarch that erst" etc. — This story the Master told while dwelling at 
Jetavana, about a courtier of the king of Kosala. The circumstances that 
suggested the story have been already related in the Seyyamsa^ Birth. On this 
occasion the Master said, "You are not the only one who got good out of evil: 
wise men of old also got good out of evil." And he told an old-world story. 

Once upon a time a minister in attendance on the king of Benares 
misconducted himself in the royal harem. The king after witnessing his 
offence with his own eyes banished him from the kingdom. How he took 
service with the king of Kosala, named Dabbasena, is all told in the 
Mahasilava^ Birth, 

But in the present story Dabbasena had the king of Benares seized 
while sitting on the dais in the midst of his councillors, and fastening him 
by a cord on the lintel of the door suspended him head downwards. The 
king cultivated feelings of charity towards the rebel prince, and by a 
process of complete absorption entered upon a state of mystic meditation, 
and bursting his bonds sat cross-legged in the air. The rebel prince was 
attacked with a burning pain in the body, and with a cry of "I burn, 
I burn," he rolled over and over on the ground. When he asked the 
reason of it, his courtiers replied, " It is because the king whom you 
suspend head downwards from the lintel of the door is such an innocent 
and holy man." Then said he, "Go quickly and release him." His 
servants went and found the king sitting cross-legged in the air, and came 
back and told Dabbasena. [14] So he went with all speed, and bowing 
before him asked his pardon and repeated the first stanza : 

monarch that erst in thy kingdom didst dwell. 
Enjoying such bliss as few mortals have seen, 

How is it that lying midst tortures of Hell 

Thou still art so calm and so gracious of mien ? 

On hearing this the Bodhisatta repeated the rest of the stanzas : 

Of yore 'twas my one earnest prayer unto Heaven 
From the ranks of ascetics no more to be barred. 

But now that such glory to me has been given, 
why should the form of my visage be marred ? 

1 No. 282, vol. ii. 
- No. 51, vol. i. 

10 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

The end is accomplished, my task is now done, 
The prince once my foe is no longer estranged, 

But now that the fame I so envied is won, 

O why should the form of my visage be changed i 

iWheu joy turns to sorrow, and weal becomes woe. 

Patient souls even pleasure may wring from their pain. 

But no such distinction of feeling they know. 
When the calm of Nirvana poor mortals attain. 

[15] On hearing this Dabbasena asked forgiveness of the Bodhisatta 
and said, " Rule over your own people and I will drive out the rebels from 
amongst you." And after punishing that wicked councillor he went his 
way. But the Bodhisatta handed over the kingdom to his ministers, and 
adopting the ascetic life of a Rishi he became destined to birth in the 
Brahma- world. 

When the Master had finished this discourse, he identified the Birth: "At 
that time Ananda was Dabbasena, and I myself was the king of Benares." 

No. 304. 


" Daddara, who," etc. — This story the Master told while dwelling at Jetavana, 
about a certain choleric fellow. The circumstance has been already related 
before. On this occasion when a discussion had arisen in the Hall of Truth 
about the passionate nature of the man, the Master came up, and when in 
answer to his inquiry he was told by the Brethren the subject of their discourse, 
he sent for the man and asked, "Is it true. Brother, what they say, that you 
are passionate?" "Yes, my Lord, it is so," he replied. [16] Then the Master 
said, "Not now only. Brethren, but of old too this fellow was very choleric, and 

^ Compare Lord Houghton's poem, "Pleasure and Pain." 

See the Fakeer as he swings on his iron, 
See the thin Hermit that starves in the wild ; 

Think ye no pleasures the penance environ, 
And hope the sole bliss by which pain is beguiled? 

No! in the kingdoms those spirits are reaching, 

Vain are our words the emotions to tell; 
Vain the distinctions our senses are teaching, 

For Pain has its Heaven and Pleasure its Hell! 

No. 304. 11 

owing to his passionate temper wise men of former days though continuing to 
lead perfectly innocent lives as Naga princes, had to dwell three years on a filthy 
dimghill." And herewith he told an old story. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning at Benares, the 
Daddara Nagas dwelt at the foot of Mount Daddara in the Himalaya region 
and the Bodhisatta came to life as Mahadaddara, the son of Suradaddara, the 
king of that country, with a younger brotlier named Culladaddara. The 
latter was passionate and cruel, and went about abusing and striking the 
Naga maidens. The Naga king, on hearing of his cruelty, gave orders for 
his expulsion from the Naga world. But Mahadaddara got his father to 
forgive him and saved his brotlier from expulsion. A second time the 
king was wroth with him, and again he was induced to forgive him. But 
on the third occasion the king said, " You have prevented me from 
expelling this good-for-nothing fellow ; now both of you get you gone from 
this Naga world, and live for three years at Benares on a dunghill." 

So he drove them forth from the Naga country and they went and 
lived at Benai'es. And when the village boys saw them looking for their 
food in a ditch bounding the dunghill, they struck them and threw clods 
and sticks and other missiles at them, and crying out, "What have we 
here — water lizards with big heads and tails like needles 1 " uttered other 
words of abuse. But Culladaddara, by reason of his fierce and passionate 
nature, being unable to put up with such disrespect said, "Brother, these 
boys are mocking us. They don't know that we are venomous serpents. 
I can't stand their contempt for us. I will destroy them by the breath of 
my nostril." And then addressing his brother, he repeated the first 
stanza : 

Daddara, who such an insult could bear ? 

"Ho! frog-eating stick-i'-the-mud," they cry: 
To think that these poor harmless creatures should dare 

A serpent with poisonous fang to defy ! 

[17] On hearing his words Mahadaddara uttered the rest of the 
stanzas : 

An exile driven to a foreign shore 

Must of abuse lay up a goodly store; 

For where his rank and virtues none can know, 

Only the fool his pride would care to show. 

He who at home a "shining light" may be. 

Abroad must suffer men of low degree. 

So they dwelt there three years. Then their father recalled them 
home. And from that day their pride was abated. 

12 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

When the Master had brought his discourse to an end, he proclaimed the 
Truths and identified the Birth:— At the conclusion of the Truths the choleric 
Brother attained Fruition of the Third Path :— " At that time the choleric Brother 
was Culladaddara, and I myself was Mahadaddara." 

No. 305. 


[18] "In sooth there is," etc.— This story the Master told while dwelling at 
Jetavana, about the rebuking of sin. The circumstances will be set forth in the 
Panlya Birth- in the Eleventh Book. The following is a brief summary of it. 

Five hundred Brethren living in Jetavana, at the close of the middle watch 
of the night, entered into an argument on the pleasures of sense. Now the Master 
through all the six divisions of night and day keeps a continual watch over the 
Brethren, even as a one-eyed man carefully guards his eye, a father his only sou, 
or a yak its tail. In the night time, with his supernatm-al vision regarding 
Jetavana, he beheld these Brethren, as it were, like robbers that had found their 
way into some great king's palace. And opening his perfumed chamber he 
summoned Anauda and bade him assemble the Brethren in the Home of the 
Golden Pavement, and prepare a seat for him at the door of the perfumed cham- 
ber. Ananda did as he was commanded and told the Master. Then the Master, 
sitting down on the seat prepared for him, addressed the Brethren collectively 
and said, " Brethren, wise men of old thought there was no such thing as secrecy 
in wrong-doing and so refrained from it," and he told them a story of the olden 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life in a brahmin family, and when he was of age, he was taught 
science by a world-renowned professor of that city, being at the head of a 
class of five hundred students. Now his teacher had a grown-up daughter. 
And he thought : " I will test the virtue of these youths and will give her 
in marriage to him that most excels in virtue." 

So one day he thus addressed his pupils : " My friends, I have a 
grown-up daughter, and I intend to give her in marriage, but I must have 
proper dresses and ornaments for her. Do you then steal some without 
your friends discovering it, and bring them to me. Whatever no one has 
seen you take I will accept, but if you allow anything you bring to be 
seen, I shall refuse it." They assented, saying, " Very well," and from 
that day they stole dresses and ornaments without their friends' knowledge 

^ See R. Morris, Folklore Journal, iii. 244. 
- No. 459, Vol. iv. 

No. 305. 13 

and brought them to him. And the teacher arranged whatever each pupil 
brought in a separate place. But the Bodhisatta stole nothing. 

Then the teacher said, [19] "But you, my friend, bring me nothing." 
"True, Master," he replied. " Why is this, my friend] " he asked. " You 
accept nothing," he answered, " unless it is taken secretly. But I find 
there is no such thing as secrecy in wrong-doing." 

And to illustrate this ti'uth he repeated these two stanzas : 

In sooth there is no act of sin, that in this world may hidden lie, 
That which the fool a secret deems, the spirits of the wood espy. 
Concealment nowhere may be found, nor can a void exist for me, 
E'en where no being is in sight, while I am there, no void can be. 

The Master, being pleased with his words, said, " Friend, there is no 
lack of wealth in my house, but I was anxious to marry my daughter to a 
virtuous man, and I acted thus to prove these youths. But you alone are 
worthy of my daughter." Then he adorned his daughter and gave her in 
marriage to the Bodhisatta, but to his other pupils he said, "Take back all 
that you brought me to your several homes again." 

Then the Master said, "It was thus. Brethren, that the wicked pupils by 
their dishonesty failed to win this woman, while this one wise youth by his 
virtuous conduct obtained her as his wife." And in his Perfect Wisdom he gave 
utterance to yet two other stanzas : 

Masters Bastard ^ and Low and Easy and Gay, 

With Bravo and Frail, for a wife, went astray ; 

But our Brahmin, well seen in the Law from his youth. 

Won a bride by his courage in holding the Truth. 

[20] The Master, having brought this solemn lesson to an end, declared the 
Truths and identified the Birth:— At the conclusion of the Truths these five 
hundred Brethren attained to Sainthood: — "At that time Sariputta was the 
Teacher, and I myself was the Wise Youth." 

No. 306. 


" What is this egg-shaped fruit " e^c— This story was told by the Master while 
dwelling at Jetavana, about queen Mallika. 

One day, they say, there was a dispute at court between her and the king 2. 
Men still speak of it as the ' Harem Quarrel.' The king was so enraged that he 

1 The Scholiast explains that these were the names of six leading disciples amongst 
those that yielded to temptation. 
* Pasenadi, king of Kosala. 

14 Tlie Jataka. Booh IV. 

ignored her existence. Mallika thought : " The Master, I fancy, knows not how- 
angry the king is with me." But the Master knew all about it and resolved to 
make i^eace between them . So early in the morning he put on his inner garment 
and taking his bowl and robes he entered Savatthi with a following of five 
hundred brethren and came to the palace gate. The king took his bowl from 
him, brought him into the house, and placing him on the seat prepared for him, 
pom-ed the Water of Donation on the hands of the Brotherhood with Buddha at 
their head, and brought them rice and cakes to eat. But the Master covered up 
his bowl with his hand and said, " Sire, where is the queen ? " 

" What have you to do with her, Reverend Sir ? " he answered. " Her head 
is turned, she is intoxicated with the honour she enjoys." 

"Sire," he said, "after you yourself bestowed this honom- on the woman, it is 
wrong of you now to get rid of her, and not to put up with the offence she has 
committed against you." 

The king hearkened to the words of the Master and sent for the queen. 
[21] And she ministered to the Master. " You ought," he said, " to live together 
in peace," and singing the praises of the sweets of concord he went his way. And 
from that day they lived happily together. 

The Brethren raised a discussion in the Hall of Truth, how that the Master 
had reconciled the king and queen by a single w^ord. The Master, when he 
came, inquired what the Brethren were discussing, and on being told said, " Not 
now only. Brethren, hut formerly too I reconciled them by a single word of 
admonition." And he told an old story. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king at Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was his minister and his temporal and spiritual adviser. 

Now one day the king stood at an open window looking into the palace 
court. And at this veiy moment the daughter of a fruiterer, a beautiful 
girl in the flower of her youth, stood with a basket of jujubes on her head 
crying, "Jujubes, ripe jujubes, who'll buy my jujubes'?" But she did not 
venture into the royal court \ 

And the king no sooner heard her voice than he fell in love with her, 
and when he learned that she was unmarried he sent for her and raised 
her to the dignity of chief queen, and bestowed great honour upon her. Now 
she was dear and pleasing in the king's eyes. And one day the king sat 
eating jujubes in a golden dish. And the queen Sujata, when she saw the 
king eating jujubes, asked him, saying, " My lord, what in the world are 
you eating ? " And she uttered the first stanza : 

What is this egg-shaped fruit, my lord, so pretty and red of hue, 
In a gold dish set before thee? Pray tell me, where they grew. 

And the king was wroth and said, " daughter of a greengrocer, 
dealer in ripe jujubes, do you not recognise the jujubes, the special fruit 
of your own family ? " And he repeated two stanzas : 

[22] Bare-headed and meanly clad, my queen, thou once didst feel no shame. 
To fill thy lap with the jujube fruit, and now thou dost ask its name ; 
Thou art eaten up with pride, my queen, thou findest no pleasure in life. 
Begone and gather thy jujubes again. Thou shalt be no longer my wife. 

^ Beading rdjahgane na gacchati. With Fausbfill's text rujanganena, it must be 
•' She passed by way of the court." 

No. 306. 15 

Then the Bodhisatta thought, " No one, except myself, will be able to 
reconcile this pair. I will appease the king's anger and prevent him from 
turning her out of doors." Then he repeated the fourth stanza : 

These are the sins of a woman, my lord, promoted to high estate : 
Forgive her and cease from thine anger, king, for 'twas thou didst make 

her great. 

So the king at his word put up with the offence of the queen and 
restored her to her former position. And thenceforth they lived amicably 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : "At that time the king of 
Kosala was king of Benares, Mallika was Sujata and I myself was the Minister." 

No. 307. 


[23] " Why, brahmin, though,^' etc. — The Master, when he was stretched upon 
the bed of death, told this story of the Elder Ananda. 

The venerable man, knowing that the Master on this very night at eventide 
would die, said to himself, " I am still under discipline and have duties to per- 
form, and my Master is certainly going to die, and then the service I have ren- 
dered to him for five-and-twenty years will be fruitless." And so being over- 
whelmed with sorrow he leaned upon the monkey-head which formed the bolt of 
the garden store-room and burst into tears. 

And the Master, missing Ananda, asked the Brethren where he was, and on 
hearing what was the matter he sent for him and addressed him as follows : 
"Ananda, thou hast laid up a store of merit. Continue to strive earnestly and 
thou wilt soon be free from human passion. Grieve not thyself Wherefore 
should the service thou hast rendered me prove fruitless now, seeing that thy 
former services in the days of thy sinfulness were not without their reward 1 " 
Then he told a legend of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta x*eigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life in the form of a Judas-tree sprite. Now at this time all 
the inhabitants of Benares were devoted to the worship of such deities, 
and constantly engaged in religious offerings and the like. 

* See R. Morris, Folklore Journal, iii. 355. 

16 The Jataka. Booh IV. 

And a certain poor brahmin thought, " I too will watch over some 
divinity." So he found a big Judas-tree growing on high ground, and by- 
sprinkling gravel and sweeping all round it, he kept its root smooth and 
free from grass. Then he px*esented it with a scented wreath of five sprays 
and lighting a lamp made an offering of flowers and perfume and incense. 
And after a reverential salutation he said, " Peace be with thee," and then 
went his way. On the next day he came quite early and asked after its 
welfare. Now one day it occurred to the tree-sprite, " This brahmin is 
very attentive to me. I will test him and find out why he thus worships 
me, and grant him his desire." So when the brahmin came and was 
sweeping about the root of the tree, the spirit stood near him disguised as 
an aged brahmin and repeated the first stanza : 

[24] Why, brahmin, though thyself with reason blest. 
Hast thou this dull insensate tree addressed ? 
Vain is thy prayer, thy kindly greeting vain. 
From this dull wood no answer wilt thou gain. 

On hearing this the brahmin replied in a second stanza : 

Long on this spot a famous tree has stood. 
Meet dwelling-place for spirits of the wood ; 
"With deepest awe such beings T revere, 
They guard, methinks, some sacred treasure here. 

The tree-sprite on hearing these words was so pleased with the brahmin 
that he said, " O brahmin, I was born as the divinity of this tree. Fear 
not, I will grant you this treasure." And to reassure him, by a great 
manifestation of divine power, he stood suspended in the air at the 
entrance of his celestial mansion, while he recited two more stanzas ; 

O brahmin, I have marked thy act of love ; 

A pious deed can never fruitless prove. 

Lo ! where yon fig-tree casts its ample shade. 

Due sacrifice and gifts of old were paid. 

Beneath this fig a buried treasure lies, 

The gold unearth, and claim it as thy prize. 

[25] The spirit moreover added these words : " O brahmin, thou 
wouldst be weary, if thou hadst to dig up the ti'easure and carry it away 
with thee. Do thoxi therefore go thy way, and I will bring it to thy house 
and deposit it in such and such a place. Then do thou enjoy it all thy 
life long, and give alms and keep the moral law." And after thus admon- 
ishing the brahmin, the tree-sprite, by an exercise of divine power, con- 
veyed the treasui'e into the brahmin's house. 

The Master here brought his lesson to an end and identified the Birth : " At 
that time Ananda was the Brahmin, and I myself was the Tree-sprite." 

No. 308. 17 

No. 308. 


" Kindness as much" etc. — This story was told by the Master while dwelling 
at Jetavana, about the ingi-atitude of Devadatta. 

He ended it by saying, "Not only now, but in former days did Devadatta 
show ingratitude," and with these words he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a woodpecker in the Himalaya country. 

[26] Now a certain lion, while devouring his prey, had a bone stick in 
his throat. His throat swelled up so that he could not take any food and 
severe pains set in. Then this woodpecker, while intent on seeking its 
own food, as it was perched on a bough, saw the lion and asked him, 
saying, " Friend, what ails you 1 " He told him what was the matter, and 
the bird said, " I would take the bone out of your throat, friend, but I 
dare not put my head into your mouth, for fear you should eat me up." 

" Do not be afraid, friend ; I will not eat you up. Only save my 

" All right," said the bird, and ordered the lion to lie down upon his 
side. Then it thought: "Who knows what this fellow will be about?" 
And to prevent his closing his mouth, it fixed a stick between his 
upper and lower jaw, and then putting its head into the lion's mouth, it 
struck the end of the bone with its beak. The bone fell out and dis- 
appeared. And then the woodpecker drew out its head from the lion's 
mouth, and with a blow from its beak knocked out the stick, and hopping 
off sat on the top of a bough. 

The lion recovered from his sickness, and one day was devouring a wild 
buffalo which he had killed. Thought the woodpecker: "I will now put 
him to the test," and perching on a bough above the lion's head, it fell to 
conversing with him and uttered the first stanza : 

Kindness as mucla as in us lay. 

To thee, my lord, we once did show : 
On us in turn, we humbly pray. 

Do thou a trifling boon bestow. 

1 Compare Tibetan Tales, xxvii. p. 311: "The Ungrateful Lion." ^sop.- "The 
Wolf and the Crane." Jdtakavidld, No. 34 : "The Woodpecker." 

J. Ill, 2 

18 TJie Jcltaka. Bool IV. 

On hearing this the lion repeated the second stanza : 

To trust thy head to a lion's jaw, 
A creature red in tooth and claw, 
To dare such a deed and be living still, 
Is token enough of my good will. 

The woodpecker on hearing this uttered two more stanzas : 

From the base ingrate hope not to obtain 
The due requital of good service done ; [27] 

From bitter thought and angry word refrain, 
But haste the presence of the wretch to shun. 

With these words the woodpecker flew away. 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : " At that time Devadatta 
was the Lion, and I myself was the Woodpecker." 

No. 309. 


" Holi/ Teacher" etc. — The Master while residing at Jetavana told this story, 
about the Fraternity of Six Priests. It is related in detail in the Vinaya^. Here 
is a brief summary of it. 

The Master sent for the Six Priests and asked if it were true that they taught 
the law from a low seat 2, while their pupils sat on a higher seat. They confessed 
that it was so, and the Master in reproving these brethren for their want of 
respect for his law, said that wise men of old had to rebuke men for teaching 
even heretical doctrines while sitting on a low seat. Then he told them an old 

Once upon a time when Bralimadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life as the son of a pariah woman, and when he was grown 
up, he established himself as a householder. And his wife being with 
child had a great longing for the mango fruit, and said to her husband, 
" My loi^d, I have a desire to eat mangoes." 

1 See Oldenberg's Vinaya, iv. 203. (Suttavibhaiiga, Sekhiya, 68, 69.) 

2 See Manu ii. 198 for the rule that the disciple must sit on a seat lower than his 

No. 309. - 19 

" My dear," he said, " there are no mangoes at this season, I will bring 
you some other acid fruit." 

*' My lord," said she, " if I can have a mango, I shall live. Otherwise 
I shall die." 

[28] He being infatuated about his wife thought, " Where in the world 
am I to get a mango ? " Now at this time there was a mango tree in the 
garden of the king of Benares, which had fruit on it all the year round. 
So he thought, " I will get a ripe mango there to appease her longings." 
And going to the garden by night he climbed i^p tlie tree, and stepped 
from one branch to another, looking for the fruit, and while he was thus 
engaged, the day began to break. Thought he, " If I shall come down 
now to go away, I shall be seen and seized as a thief. I will wait till 
it is dai'k." So he climbed up into a fork of the tree and remained there, 
perched upon it. 

Now at this time the king of Benares was being taught sacred texts by 
his chaplain. And coming into the garden he sat down on a high seat at 
the foot of the mango tree, and placing his teacher on a lower seat, he had 
a lesson from him. The Bodhisatta sitting above them thought, " How 
wicked this king is. He is learning the sacred texts, sitting on a high 
seat. The brahmin too is equally wicked, to sit and teach him from a lower 
seat. I also am wicked, for I have fallen into the power of a woman, and 
counting my life as nought, I am stealing the mango fruit." Then taking 
hold of a hanging bough, he let himself down from the tree, and stood 
before these two men and said, " O Great King, I am a lost man, and thou 
a gross fool, and this priest is as one dead." And being asked by the king 
what he meant by these words, he uttered the first stanza : — 

Holy Teacher, Royal Scholar, lo ! the sinful deed I saw. 

Both alike from grace are fallen, both alike transgressed the law^. 

[29] The brahmin, on hearing this, repeated the second stanza : — 

My food is pm'e rice from the hill. 

With a delicate flavoiu" of meat, 
For why should a sinner fulfil 

A rule meant for saints, when they eat? 

On hearing this the Bodhisatta recited two more stanzas : — 

Brahmin, go range the length and breadth of earth ; 

Lo ! suffering is found the common lot. 
Here marred by sin thy ruined life is worth 

Less than the fragments of a shattered pot. 
Beware ambition and o'ermastering gi-eed : 
Vices like these to "Worlds of Suffering" lead. 

* The Scholiast in his explanation adds this verse : 

True faith of yore prevailed on earth, 
False doctrine was a later birth. 


20 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

[30] Then the king being pleased with his exposition of the law, 
asked him of what caste he was. "I am a pariah, my lord," he said. 
" Friend," he replied, " had you been of a high caste family, I would have 
made you sole king. But henceforth I will be king by day, and you shall 
be king by night." And with these words he placed upon his neck the 
wreath of flowers with which he himself was adorned, and made him lord 
protector over the city. And hence is derived the custom for the lords of 
the city to wear a wreath of red flowers on their neck. And from that 
day forward the king abiding in his admonition paid respect to his teacher, 
and learned sacred texts from him, sitting on a lower seat. 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : " At that time Ananda 
was the king, and I myself was the pariah." 

No. 310. 


"No thro7ie on earth" etc. — The Master told this story while in residence at 
Jetavana, about a backsliding brother, who in going his rounds for alms at 
Savatthi caught sight of a beautiful woman, and thenceforth had grown discon- 
tented and lost all pleasure in the Law. So the Brethren brought him before the 
Blessed One. Said the Blessed One, " Is it true, Brother, what I hear, that you 
are discontented 1 " He confessed it was so. The Master on learning the cause 
of his discontent said, " Why, Brother, are you longing for the world, after taking 
orders in a religion that leads to Salvation ? Wise men of old when offered the 
dignity of family priest rejected it, and adopted the ascetic life." And he told 
them a story of the olden time. 

Once ujjon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was conceived in the womb of the brahmin wife of the king's 
chaplain, [31] and was born on the same day as the king's son. And when 
the king asked his ministers if any child had been born on the same day 
as his son, they said, "Yes, Sire, a son of your family priest." So the 
king had him brought and given into the charge of nurses to be carefully 
tended together with the young prince. And they both had the same 
ornaments to wear and had exactly the same things to eat and drink. 

No. 310. 21 

And when they were grown np, they went together to Takkasila and 
as soon as they had attained proficiency in all the sciences they returned 

The king made his son viceroy and bestowed great honour upon him. 
From that time the Bodhisatta ate, drank, and lived with the prince, and 
there was a firm friendship between them. By and bye at the death of his 
father, the young prince ascended the throne and enjoyed great prosperity. 
Thought the Bodhisatta: "My friend now rules tlie kingdom; when he 
sees a fitting opportunity, he will certainly give me the office of his family 
priest. What have I to do with a householder's life ? I will become an 
ascetic and devote myself to solitude." 

So he saluted his parents and having asked their permission to take 
orders, he gave iip his worldly fortune and setting forth quite alone he 
entered the Himalaya country. There on a charming spot he built him- 
self a hermitage, and adopting the religious life of an anchorite he de- 
veloped all the Faculties and Attainments, and lived in the enjoyment of 
the pleasure of the mystic life. 

At this time the king remembered him and said, " What has become of 
my friend? He is nowhere to be seen." His ministers told him he had 
taken orders, and was living, they heard, in some delightful grove. The 
king asked the place of his abode, and said to a councillor named Sayha, 
" Go and bring my friend back with you. I will make him my chaplain." 
Sayha readily assented, and going forth from Benares in course of time 
reached a frontier village and taking up his abode there, he went with 
some foresters to the place where the Bodhisatta dwelt and found him 
sitting like a golden statue at the door of his hut. After saluting him 
with the usual compliments he sat at a respectful distance and thus 
addressed him : " Reverend Sir, the king desires your return, being 
anxious to raise you to the dignity of his family priest." [32] The Bodhi- 
satta replied, " If I were to receive not merely the post of chaplain but 
all Kasi and Kosala, and the realm of India and the glory of a Universal 
Empii'e, I would refuse to go. The wise do not again take up the sins 
they have once abandoned any more than they would swallow the phlegm 
they have once raised." So saying he repeated these stanzas : — 

iNo throne on earth should tempt me to my shame. 
No sea-girt realm, safe-guarded in the deep ; 
Accm'sed be the lust of wealth and fame 

That dooms poor man in "Suffering Worlds" to weep. 

Better through earth a homeless waif to stray, 
And bowl in hand to beg from door to door. 

Than as a king, to sinful lusts a prey. 
To bear a tyrant rule and vex the poor. 

^ These stanzas occur again in Jataka 433. 

22 The Jataka. Book IV. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta though again and again importuned by him 
reject his offer. And Sayha, being unable to prevail on him, saluted him, 
and returned and told the king of his refusal to come. 

[33] When the Master had brought his lesson to an end, he revealed the 
Truths and identified the Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the back- 
sliding Brother attained to fruition of the First Path. Many others too 
experienced like fruits of Conversion : — " At that time Ananda was the king, 
Sariputta was Sayha, and I myself was the family priest." 

No. 311. 


"Robber, arise" etc. — The Master, while dwelling in the Bamboo-Grove, told 
this story about the venerable Moggallana. 

When that elder was living near Rajagaha in a forest hut, a certain robber, 
after breaking into a house in a subiu'ban village, fled with his hands full of 
plunder till he came within the precincts of the elder's cell, and thinking that he 
should be safe there he lay down at the entrance of his hut of leaves. The elder 
noticed him lying there and suspecting his character said to himself, " It would 
be wrong for me to have any dealings with a robber." So coming out of his hut 
he told him not to lie there, and drove him away. 

The robber starting oft' fled with the greatest haste. And men with torches 
in their hands, following close upon the robber's track, came and saw the various 
spots marked by the presence of the robber and said, " It was this way the 
robber came. Here is where he stood. There he sat down. And that is the 
way he fled. He is not to be seen here." So they rushed about hither and 
thither, but at last had to return without finding him. On the next day early in 
the morning the elder went his round for alms in Rajagaha, and on coming back 
from his pilgrimage he went to the Bamboo-Grove and told the Master what had 
happened. The Master said, " You are not the only one, Moggallana, to suspect 
in a case in which suspicion is justified. Wise men of old suspected in like 
manner." And at the request of the elder he told a story of bygone times. 

[34] Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta came to life as a Nimb-tree spirit in a cemetery grove of 
that city. Now one day a robber having been guilty of an act of theft in 
an outlying hamlet of the city entered the cemetery grove. And at this 
time two old trees stood there, a Nimb-tree and a Bo-tree. The robber 
placed his stolen goods at the foot of this Nimb-tree and lay down there. 

No. 311. 23 

Now in these days robbers that were caught were put to toi-ture by being 
impaled on a stake of the Nimb-tree. So the spirit of the Nimb-tree 
thought : " If people should come and capture this robber, they will cut 
off a branch and make a stake from this Nimb-tree and impale him on 
it. And in that case the tree will be destroyed. So I will drive the 
fellow away." Then addressing him, he repeated the first stanza : — 

Robber, arise ! why sleepest thou ? For slumber 'tis no time, 
The king's men are upon thee, the avengers of thy crime. 

Moreover he added these words, "Get you gone, before the king's 
men take you." Thus did he frighten the robber away. And no 
sooner had he fled than the deity of the Bo-tree repeated the second 
stanza : — 

And even if this robber bold red-handed they should take, 

To thee, Nimb-tree, woodland sprite, what difiereuce would it make ? 

The deity of the Nimb-tree on hearing this uttered the third 
stanza : — 

Bo-tree, sure thou knowest not the secret of my fear; 

1 would not have the king's men find that wicked robber here. 
They from my sacred tree, I know, straightway a branch would take. 
And to requite the guilty wretch, impale him on a stake. 

[35] And while the two sylvan deities were thus conversing together, 
the owners of the property, following on the trail of the robber, with 
torches in their hand, when they saw the place where he had been lying 
down said, " Lo ! the robber has just risen up and fled from this place. 
We have not got him yet, but if we do, we will come back and either im- 
pale him at the foot of this Nimb-tree, or hang him from one of its 

And with these words rushing about hither and thither, and not 
finding the robber, they made ofi". And on hearing what they said the 
spirit of the Bo-tree uttered the fourth stanza : — 

Beware a danger yet unseen: suspect before too late. 
The wise e'en in this present world look to a future state. 

The Master, when he had brought this lesson to an end, identified the Birth : 
" At that time Sariputta was the hjpirit of the Bo-tree. I myself was the Nimb- 
tree Spirit." 

24 Tlie Jdtaha. Book IV. 

No. 312. 


[36] " Should foolish ^outh," etc.— This story the Master told while residing at 
Jetavana, about an aged Brother. A young nobleman at Savatthi, tradition says, 
from a sense of the evil consequences of sinful desires, received ordination at the 
hands of the Master, and by devotion to the rite by which ecstasy may be 
induced, in no long time attained to Sainthood. By and bye on the death of his 
mother, he admitted his father and younger brother to orders, and they took up 
their abode at Jetavana. 

At the opening of the rainy season, hearing of a village retreat where the 
necessary robes were to be easily obtained^, they all three entered upon the Vassa 
residence there, and when it was ended they returned straight to Jetavana. The 
youthful Brother, when they came to a spot not far from Jetavana, told the 
novice lad to bring on the old man quietly, while he himself pushed on ahead to 
Jetavana to get ready their cell. The old priest walked slowly on. The novice 
repeatedly butted him, as it were, with his head, and dragged him along by force, 
crying, " Come on. Master." The elder said, " You are pulling me along against 
my will," and turning back he made a fresh start from the beginning. As they 
were thus quarrelling, the sun went down and darkness set in. The young 
Brother meanwhile swept out his hut, set water in the pots, and not seeing them 
coming, he took a torch and went to meet them. When he saw them coming, he 
asked what made them so late. The old man gave the reason. So he made 
them rest and brought them slowly on their way. That day he found no time to 
pay his respects to the Buddha. So on the next day, when he had come to pay 
his respects to Buddha, after he had saluted him and taken his seat, the Master 
asked, "When did you arrive?" "Yesterday, Sir." "You came yesterday and 
pay your respects to me only to-day 1 " " Yes, Sir," he answered, and told him 
the reason. The Master rebuked the elder: "Not now only does he act like 
this. Of old too he did just the same. Now it is you that are annoyed by him. 
Formerly he annoyed wise men." And at the Brother's request he told an old 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life in a brahmin family in a town of the Kasi country. 
[37] When he was grown up, his mother died. And after due per- 
formance of her funeral rites, at the end of six weeks he gave away in 
alms all the money that was in the house, and taking his father and 
younger brother with him he put on the bark garment of somebody or 
other, and adopted the religious life of an ascetic in the Himalaya country. 
And there he dwelt in a pleasant grove, supporting himself by gleaning in 
the fields and living on roots and wild fruits. 

1 Compare Mahdvagga, iii. 14. 

N'o. 312. 25 

Now in the Himalaya, during the rainy season, when the rains are 
incessant, as it is impossible to dig up any bulb or root, or to get any wild 
fruits, and the leaves begin to fall, the ascetics for the most part come 
down from the Himalayas, and take up their abode amidst the haunts of 
men. And at this time the Bodhisatta, after living here with his father 
and younger brother, as soon as the Himalaya country began to blossom 
again and bear fruit, took his two companions and returned to his 
hermitage in the Himalayas. And at sunset when they were not far from 
his hut he left them, saying, " You can come on slowly, while I go forward 
and set the hermitage in order." 

Now the young hermit coming on slowly with his father kept butting 
him in the waist with his head. The old man said, "I do not like the way 
in which you are taking me home." So he turned back and started afresh 
from the same point. And while they were thus quarrelling, darkness set 
in. But the Bodhisatta as soon as he had swept out his hut of leaves, and 
got ready some water, took a torch and returned on the way back, and 
when he found them he asked why they had taken such a long time. And 
the boy ascetic told him what his father had done. But the Bodhisatta 
brought them quietly home, and having stowed safely away all the 
Buddhist requisites, he gave his father a bath, and washed and anointed 
his feet and shampooed his back. Then he set oiat a pan of charcoal and 
when his father had recovered from his fatigue, he sat near him and said, 
" Father, young boys are just like earthen vessels : they are broken in a 
moment, [38] and when they are once broken, it is impossible to mend 
them again. Old men should bear with them patiently, when they are 
abusive." And for the admonition of his father Kassapa, he repeated these 
stanzas : — 

Should foolish youth in word or deed offend, 
'Tis wisdom's part long-suffering to display; 

Quarrels of good men find a speedy end, 
Fools part asunder, like untempered clay. 

Men wise to learn, of their own sins aware, 
Friendshi}) can prove, that suffers no decay ; 

Such are a brother's burden strong to bear. 
And strife of neighbours skilful to allay. 

[39] Thus did the Bodhisatta admonish his father. And he from that 
time forward exercised self-restraint. 

The Master, having brought his lesson to an end, identified the Birth : "At 
that time the old priest was the father hermit, the novice was the boy hermit, 
and I myself was the son who admonished his father." 

26 The Jataka. Book IV. 

No. 313. 


" Whoso cut off" etc. — This story the Master, while dweUing at Jetavana, told 
about a wrathful Brother. The iucideut that gave rise to the story has been 
already described. The Master asked that Brother, saying, " Why after taking 
orders under the dispensation of the Buddha who knows not what wrath is, do 
you show anger ? Wise men in bygone days, though they suffered a thousand 
stripes, and had their hands and feet and ears and nose cut off, showed no anger 
against another." And he then told a story of the olden time. 

Once upon a time a king of Kasi named Kalabu I'eigned at Benares. 
At that time the Bodhisatta came to life in a brahmin family endowed 
with eighty crores of treasure, in the form of a youth named Kundaka- 
kumara. And when he was of age, he acquired a knowledge of all the 
sciences at Takkasila and afterwards settled down as a householder. 

On the death of his parents, looking at his pile of treasure he thought : 
" My kinsmen who amassed this treasure are all gone without taking it 
with them : now it is for me to own it and in my turn to depart." Then 
he carefully selected persons, who by virtue of their almsgiving deserved it, 
and gave all his wealth to them, and entering the Himalaya country he 
adopted the ascetic life. There he dwelt a long time, living on wild fruits. 
And descending to the inhabited parts for the sake of procuring salt and 
vinegar he gradually made his way to Benares, where he took up his abode 
in the royal park. Next day he went his rounds in the city for alms, till 
he came to the door of the commander-in-chief. And he being pleased 
with the ascetic for the propriety of his deportment, brought him into 
the house [40] and fed him with the food prepared for himself. And 
having gained his consent he got him to take up his abode in the royal 

Now one day king Kalabu being inflamed with strong drink came into 
the park in gi-eat pomp, surrounded by a company of dancers. Then he 
had a couch spread on the royal seat of stone, and lay with his head on the 
lap of a favourite of the harem, while the nautch girls who were skilful in 
vocal and instrumental music and in dancing provided a musical enter- 
tainment — So great was his magnificence, like to that of Sakka, Lord of 
heaven — And the king fell asleep. Then the women said, "He for whose 
sake we are providing music, is gone to sleep. What need is there for us 
to sing ] " Then they cast aside their lutes and other musical instruments 

1 See Jdtakamuld, No. 28 : "The Story of Kshantivadin." 

No. 313. 27 

hither and thither, and set out for the garden, where tempted on by the 
flowers and fruit-bearing shrubs they were soon disporting themselves. 

At this moment the Bodhisatta was seated in this garden, like a royal 
elephant in the pride of his vigour, at the foot of a flowering Sal tree, 
enjoying the bliss of retirement from the world. So these women in 
wandering about came upon him and said, " Come hither, ladies, and let 
us sit down and liear somewhat from the priest who is resting at the foot 
of this tree, until the king awakes." Then they went and saluted him and 
sitting in a circle round about him, they said, "Tell us something worth 
hearing." So the Bodhisatta preached the doctrine to them. 

Meanwhile the royal favourite with a movement of her body woke up 
the king. And the king on waking up, and not seeing the women asked, 
"Where ai-e those wretches gone?" "Your Highness," she said, "they are 
gone away and are sitting in attendance on a certain ascetic." The king in 
a rage seized his sword and went ofi" in haste, saying, "I will give this false 
ascetic a lesson." Then those of the women that were most in favour, 
when they saw the king coming in a rage, went and took the sword from 
the king's hand and pacified him. Then he came and stood by the Bodhi- 
satta and asked, "What doctrine are you preaching. Monk?" "The 
doctrine of patience, Your Majesty," he replied. "What is this patience?" 
said the king. "The not being angry, when men abuse you and strike 
you and revile you." Said the king, " I will see now the reality of your 
patience," [41] and he summoned his executioner. And he in the way of 
his ofiice took an axe and a scourge of thorns, and clad in a yellow robe 
and wearing a red garland, came and saluted the king and said, " What is 
your pleasure. Sire 1" "Take and drag off" this vile rogue of an ascetic," 
said the king, " and throwing him on the ground, with your lash of thorns 
scourge him before and behind and on both sides, and give him two 
thousand stripes." This was done. And the Bodhisatta's outer and 
inner skins were cut through to the flesh, and the blood flowed. The king 
again asked, "What doctrine do you preach, Monk?" "The doctrine of 
patience. Your Highness," he replied. "You fancy that my patience is 
only skin deep. It is not skin deep, but is fixed deep within my heart, 
where it cannot be seen by you, Sire." Again the executioner asked, 
" What is your pleasure. Sire?" The king said, "Cut off" both the hands 
of this false ascetic." So he took his axe, and placing the victim within 
the fatal circle, lie cut off both his hands. Then the king said, " OflT with 
his feet," and his feet were chopped off". And the blood flowed from the 
extremities of his hands and feet like lac juice from a leaking jar. Again 
the king asked what doctrine he preached. "The doctrine of patience, 
Your Highness," he replied. " You imagine, Sii'e, that my patience dwells 
in the extremities of my hands and feet. It is not there, but it is deep 
seated somewhere else." The king said, "Cut off" his nose and ears." The 

28 The Jdtaha. Book IV. 

executioner did so. His whole body was now covered with blood. Again 
the king asked of his doctrine. And the asetic said, " Think not that my 
patience is seated in the tips of my nose and ears : my patience is deep 
seated within my heart." The king said, " Lie down, false Monk, and 
thence exalt your patience." And so saying, he struck the Bodhisatta 
above the heart with his foot, and betook himself off. 

When he was gone, the commander-in-chief wiped off the blood from 
the body of the Bodhisatta, [42] putting bandages^ on the extremities of 
his hands, feet, ears and nose, and then having gently placed him on a seat, 
he saluted him and sitting on one side he said, " If, Reverend Sir, you 
would be angry with one who has sinned against you, be angry with the 
king, but with no one else." And making this request, he repeated the 
first stanza : — 

Whoso cut off thy nose and ear, and lopped oflf foot and hand. 
With him be wroth, heroic soul, but spare, we pray, this land. 

The Bodhisatta on hearing this uttered the second stanza : — 

Long live the king, whose cruel hand my body thus has marred. 
Pure souls like mine such deeds as these with anger ne'er regard. 

And just as the king was leaving the garden and at the very moment 
when he passed out of the range of the Bodhisatta's vision, the mighty 
earth that is two hundred and forty thousand leagues in thickness split in 
two, like unto a strong stout cloth garment, and a flame issuing forth from 
Avici seized upon the king, wrapping him up as it were with a royal robe 
of scarlet wool. Thus did the king sink into the earth just by the garden 
gate and was firmly fixed in the great Hell of Avici. Aud the Bodhisatta 
died on that same day. And the king's servants and the citizens came 
with perfumes and wreaths and incense in their hands and performed the 
Bodhisatta's obsequies. And some said that the Bodhisatta had gone 
straight back to the Himalayas. But in this they said the thing that was 

[43] A saint of old, as men have told. 
Great courage did display : 
That saint so strong to suffer wrong 
The Kasi king did slay. 

Alas ! the debt of vain regret 

That king will have to pay ; 
When doomed to dwell in lowest Hell, 

Long will he rue the day. 

These two stanzas were inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

Mahdvagga, vi. 14. 5. 

No. 313. 29 

The Master, his lesson ended, revealed the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
At the conclusion of the Truths the choleric Brother attained fruition of the 
Second Path, while many others attained fruition of the First Path: — "At that 
time Devadatta was Kalabu king of Kasi, Sariputta was the Commander-in-Chief, 
and I myself was the Ascetic, the Preacher of Patience." 

No. 314. 


" Due share of tvealth," etc. — This story the Master, while living at Jetavana, 
told concerning a king of Kosala. The king of Kosala of those days, they say, 
one night heard a cry uttered by four inhabitants of Hell — the syllables du, 
sa, na, so, one from each of the four. In a previous existence, tradition says, they 
had been princes in Savatthi, and had been guilty of adulteiy. After miscon- 
ducting themselves with their neighbours' wives, however carefully guarded they 
might be, and indulging their amorous propensities, their evil life had been cut 
short by the Wheel of Death, near Savatthi. They came to life again in Four 
Iron Cauldrons. After being tortured for sixty thousand years they had come 
up to the top, and on seeing the edge of the Cauldron's mouth they thought to 
themselves, " When shall we escape from this misery ? " And then all four 
uttered a loud cry, one after another. The king was terrified to death at the 
noise, and sat waiting for break of day, unable to stir. 

At dawn the brahmins came and inquired after his health. The king replied, 
" How, my Masters, can I be well, [44] who to-day have heard four such terrible 
cries." The brahmins waved their hands-. "What is it, my Masters?" said 
the king. The brahmins assure him that the sounds are ominous of great 
violence. " Do they admit of remedy, or not I " said the king. " You might say 
not," said the brahmins, "but we are well-trained in these matters. Sire." 
"By what means," said the king, "wiJl you avert these evils?" "Sii'e," they 
replied, " there is one gi'eat remedy in our power, and by offering the fourfold 
sacrifice 2 of every living creature we will avert all evil." "Then be quick," said 
the king, " and take all living creatures by fours — men, bulls, horses, elephants, 
down to quails and other birds — and by this fourfold sacrifice restore my peace 
of mind." The brahmins consented, and taking whatever they required, they 
dug a sacrificial pit and fastened their numerous victims to their stakes, and 
were highly excited at the thought of the dainties they were to eat, and the 
wealth they would gain, and went about backwards and forwards, saying, " Sir, I 
must have so and so." 

The queen Mallika came and asked the king, why the brahmins went about 
so delighted and smiling. The king said, " My queen, what have you to do with 
this ? You are intoxicated with your own glory, and you do not know how 
wretched I am." "How so. Sire?" she replied. "I have heard such awful 
noises, my queen, and when 1 asked the brahmins what would be the result of 

1 Compare Buddlmghosha's Parables, No. 15 : "Story of the Four Thuthe's Sons." 
King Pasenadikosala in this story was meditating the sin of David against Uriah the 
Hittite, and was deterred from his purpose by the awful vision related in this Jataka. 
See also Tumour's Mahxhvanso, i. iv. 18. A king in a dream sees his soul cast into 
the Lohakumbhi Hell. 

2 Possibly to avert the evil omen. 
* See Colebrooke's Essays, i. 348. 

30 The Jataha. Book IV. 

my hearing these cries, they told me I was threatened with danger to my king- 
dom or my property or my life, but by ofiering the fourfold sacrifice they would 
restore my peace of mind, and now in obedience to my command, they have dug 
a sacrificial pit and are gone to fetch whatever victims they require." The queen 
said, " Have you, my lord, consulted the chief brahmin in the Deva-world as to 
the origin of these cries ? " " Who, lady," said the king, " is the chief brahmin 
in the Deva-world ? " " The Great Gotama," she replied, " the Supreme Buddha.' 
" Lady," he said, " I have not consulted the Supreme Buddha." " Then go," she 
answered, " and consult him." 

The king hearkened to the words of the queen and after his morning meal he 
mounted his state chariot and drove to Jetavana. Here after saluting the Master 
he thus addressed him : " Reverend Sir, in the night season I heard four cries 
and consulted the brahmins about it. [45] They undertook to restore my peace 
of mind, by the fourfold sacrifice of every kind of victim, and are now busy 
preparing a sacrificial pit. What does the hearing of these cries betoken 
to me?" 

" Nothing whatever," said the Master. " Certain beings in Hell, owing to 
the agony they sufier, cried aloud. These cries," he added, "have not been 
heard by you alone. Kings of old heard the same. And when they too, after 
consulting their brahmins, were anxious to offer sacrifices of slain victims, on 
hearing what wise men had to say, they refused to do so. The wise men 
explained to them the nature of these cries, and bade them let loose the crowd of 
victims and thus restored their peace of mind." And at the request of the king 
he told a story of bygone days. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family, in a certain village of Kasi. 
And when he was of mature years, renouncing the pleasures of sense and 
embracing the ascetic life he developed the supex'natural powers of mystic 
meditation, and enjoying the delights of Contemplation took up his abode 
in a pleasant grove in the Himalaya country. 

The king of Benares at this time was fearfully alarmed by hearing 
those four sounds uttered by four beings who dwelt in Hell. And when 
told by brahmins in exactly the same way that one of three dangers must 
befall him, he agreed to their pi'oposal to put a stop to it by the fourfold 
sacrifice. The family priest with the help of the brahmins provided a 
sacrificial pit, and a great crowd of victims was brought up and fastened 
to the stakes. Then the Bodhisatta, guided by a feeling of charity, 
regarding the world with his divine eye, when he saw what was going on, 
said, " I must go at once and see to the well-being of all these creatui'es." 
And then by his magic power flying up into the air, he alighted in the 
garden of the king of Benares, and sat down on the royal slab of stone, 
looking like an image of gold. The chief disciple of the family priest 
approached his teacher and asked, "Is it not written, Master, in our 
Vedas that there is no happiness for those who take the life of any 
creature?" The priest replied, "You are to bring here the king's property, 
and we shall have abundant dainties to eat. Only hold your peace." And 
with these words he drove his pupil away. [46] But the youth thought, 

No. 314. 31 

" I will have no part in this matter," and went and found the Bodhisatta 
in the king's garden. After saluting him in a friendly manner he took a 
seat at a respectful distance. The Bodhisatta asked him saying, "Young 
man, does the king rule his kingdom righteously?" "Yes, Reverend Sir, 
he does," answered the youth, " but he has heard four cries in the night, 
and on inquiring of the brahmins, he has been assured by them that they 
would restore his peace of mind, by offering up the fourfold sacrifice. So 
the king, being anxious to recover his happiness, is preparing a sacrifice of 
animals, and a vast number of victims has been brought up and fastened 
to the sacrificial stakes. Now is it not right for holy men like yourself to 
explain the cause of these noises, and to rescue these numerous victims 
from the jaws of death 1" "Young man," he replied, "the king does not 
know us, nor do we know the king, but we do know the origin of these 
cries, and if the king were to come and ask us the cause, we would resolve 
his doubts for him." "Then," said the youth, "just stay here a moment. 
Reverend Sir, and I will conduct the king to you." 

The Bodhisatta agreed, and the youth went and told the king all about 
it, and brought him back with him. The king saluted the Bodhisatta and 
sitting on one side asked him if it wei-e true that he knew the origin of 
these noises. " Yes, Your Majesty," he said. " Then tell me, Reverend 
Sir." " Sire," he answered, " these men in a former existence were guilty 
of gross misconduct with the carefully guarded wives of their neighbours 
near Benares, and therefore were re-born in Four Iron Cauldrons. Where 
after being tortured for thirty thousand years in a thick corrosive liquid 
heated to boiling point, they would at one time sink till they struck the 
bottom of the cauldron, and at another time I'ise to the top like a foam 
bubble', but after those years they found the mouth of the cauldron, and 
looking over the edge they all four desired to give utterance to four com- 
plete stanzas, but failed to do so. And after getting out just one syllable 
each, they sank again in the iron cauldrons. [47] Now the one of 
them that sank after uttering the syllable ^du' was anxious to speak as 
follows: — 

Due share of wealth we gave not ; an evil life we led : 
We found no sure salvation in joys that now are fled. 

And when he failed to utter it, the Bodhisatta of his own knowledge 
repeated the complete stanza. And similarly with the rest. The one that 
uttered merely the syllable ' sa ' wanted to repeat the following stanza : — 

Sad fate of those that suffer ! ah ! when shall come release ? 
Still after countless ajons. Hell's tortures never cease. 

* See Milindapahha, 357. 

32 The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

And again in the case of the one that uttered the syllable * im,' this 
was the stanza he wished to repeat : — 

N'ay endless are the sufferings to which we're doomed by fate; 
The ills we wrought upon the earth 'tis ours to expiate. 

And the one that uttered the syllable 'so' was anxious to repeat the 
following : — 

*S'oon shall I passing forth from hence, attain to human birth, 
And richly dowered with virtue rise to many a deed of worth. 

[48] The Bodhisatta, after reciting these verses one by one, said, " The 
dweller in Hell, Sire, when he wanted to utter a complete stanza, through 
the greatness of his sin, was unable to do it. And when he thus ex- 
perienced the result of his wrong-doing he cried aloud. But fear not ; no 
danger shall come nigh you, in consequence of hearing this cry." Thus 
did he I'eassure the king. And the king proclaimed by beat of his golden 
drum that the vast host of victims was to be released, and the sacrificial 
pit destroyed. And the Bodhisatta, after thus providing for the safety of 
the numerous victims, stayed there a few days, and then returning to the 
same place, without any break in his ecstasy, was born in the world of 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : " Sariputta at 
that time was the young priest, I myself was the ascetic." 

No. 315. 


"For one who is asking," etc. — This was a story told by the Master, while 
living at Jetavana, as to how the Elder Sariputta prociu-ed dainty fare for some 
sick Brothers under medical treatment. The story goes that certain of the 
Brethren at that time at Jetavana, after taking oil as a pm-gative, wished for 
some dainty food. Those who ministered to them in their sickness went into 
Savatthi to fetch some dainties, but after going their round for alms in a street 
in the Cooks' quarters, had to come back without getting what they wanted. 
Later on in the day the Elder was going into the town for alms and meeting 
these Brethren asked them why they had returned so soon. They told him 

^ See R. Morris, Folklore Journal, iii. 242. 

No. 315. 33 

what had haj)pened. " Come then with me," said the Elder, [49] and took them 
to the very same street. And the people there gave him a full measure of dainty 
fare. The attendants brought the food to the sick Brethren, and they partook 
of it. So one day a discussion was started in the Hall of Truth how that when 
some servants were leaving a town, without being able to get dainty fiire for 
their sick masters, the Elder took them with him on his round for alms in a 
street in the Cooks' quarters, and sent them home with abundant dainties. The 
Master came up and inquired the nature of their discussion, and on being told 
what it was he said, " Not now only. Brethren, did Sariputta alone obtain food. 
Formerly also wise men who had a soft voice and knew how to speak pleasantly 
obtained the same." And then he told a tale of the olden time. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as the son of a wealthy merchant. 

Now one day a certain deer-stalker had taken venison, and filling his 
cart with the meat, ret\;rned to the city with the intention of selling it. 
At this time four sons of rich merchants who were living in Benares 
sallied out of the city, and meeting at some cross roads they sat down and 
conversed with one another about whatever they had seen or heard. One 
of these youths on seeing the cart full of meat proposed to go and get a 
piece of venison from the hunter. The others bade him go and try. So 
he went up to the hunter, and said, "Hi, Sirrah, give me a piece of 
meat." The hunter replied, " A man who begs somewhat from another 
ought to speak with a gentle voice : you shall receive a piece of meat 
appropriate to your manner of speech." Then he uttered the first 
stanza : — 

For one who is asking a favour, my friend, thy language is coarse in its tone. 
Such language deserves coarse fare in return, so I offer thee mere skin and bone. 

Then one of his companions asked him what language he had used in 
begging for a piece of meat. " I said, Hi, Sirrah ! " he replied. " I too," 
said the other, " will beg of him." [50] Then he went to the hunter and 
said, " O elder bi-other, give me a piece of venison." The hunter answered, 
" You shall receive such a piece as the words you have spoken deserve," 
and he repeated the second stanza : — 

The name of a brother a strong link is found, to join those akin to each other. 
As thy kind words suggest the gift I should make, so a joint I present to my 


And with these words he took up and threw him a joint of venison. 
Then a third youth inquired with what words the last had begged for the 
meat. "I addressed him as brother," he replied. "Then I too will beg 
of him," he said. So he went to the hunter and cried, "Dear father, 
give me a piece of venison." The hunter replied, "You shall receive a 

J. III. 3 

34 The Jataka. Booh IV. 

piece suitable to the words you have spoken," and he repeated the third 
stanza : — 

As a parent's fond heart to pity is moved, the cry of " Dear father " to hear. 
So I too respond to thy loving appeal, and give thee the heart of the deer. 

And with these words he picked up and gave him a savoury piece of 
meat, heart and all. Then the fourth of the youths asked the third youth, 
with what words he had asked for the venison. " Oh I called him ' Dear 
father,' " he answered. " Then I too will beg a piece," said the other, 
and he went to the hunter and said, " My friend, give me a piece of meat." 
Said the hunter, " According to the words you have spoken, shall you 
receive." And he repeated the fourth stanza : — 

A world without friends, I venture to think, a wilderness siirely must be. 

In that title of friend all that's dear is implied, so I give all the deer unto thee. 

Moreover he said, " Come, friend, I will convey all this cartful of meat 
to your house." [51] So this merchant's son had the cart driven to his 
house, and he went and unloaded the meat. And he treated the hunter 
with great hospitality and respect, and sending for his wife and son he 
took him away from his cruel occupation, and settled him on his own 
estate. And they became inseparable friends, and all their life long lived 
amicably together. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : " At that time 
Sariputta was the Hunter, and I myself was the Merchant's Son who had all the 
venison given to him." 

No. 316. 


" Seven red fish" etc. — This story was told by the Master while living at 
Jetavana, about a gift of all the Buddhist requisites. A certain landowner at 
Savatthi, they say, provided all the requisites for the Brotherhood with Buddha 
at its head, and setting up a pavilion at his house door, he invited all the 

^ See R. Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, ii. 336 and 370. Jutakamdld, No. 6. On the 
wide-spread prevalence of the legend of the Hare in the Moon, see T. Harley's 
Moon-Lore, p. 60. 

No. 316. 35 

company of priests with thfiir chief Buddha, seated them on elegant seats pre- 
pared for them, and offered them a variety of choice and dainty food. And 
saying, " Come again to-morrow," he entertained them for a whole week, and on 
the seventh day he presented Buddha and the live hundred priests under him 
with all the requisites. At the end of the feast the Master, in returning thanks, 
said, " Lay Brother, you are right in giving pleasure and satisfaction by this 
charity. For this is a tradition of wise men of old, who sacrificed their lives for 
any beggars they met with, and gave them even their own flesh to eat." And at 
the request of his host he related this old-world legend. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a young hare and lived in a wood. On one 
side of this wood was the foot of a mountain, on another side a river, and 
ou the third side a border-village. The hare had three friends — a monkey, 
a jackal and an otter. These four wise creatures lived together [52] and 
each of them got his food on his own hunting-ground, and in the evening 
they again came together. The hare in his wisdom by way of admonition 
preached the Truth to his three companions, teaching that alms are to be 
given, the moral law to be observed, and holy days to be kept. They 
accepted his admonition and went each to his own part of the jungle and 
dwelt there. 

And so in the course of time the Bodhisatta one day observing the sky, 
and looking at the moon knew that the next day would be a fast-day, aud 
addressing his three companions he said, "To-morrow is a fast-day. Let 
all three of you take upon you the moral precepts, and observe the holy 
day. To one that stands fast in moral practice, almsgiving brings a great 
reward. Therefore feed any beggars that come to you by giving them 
food from your own table." They readily assented, and abode each in his 
own place of dwelling. 

On the morrow quite early in the morning, the otter sallied forth to 
seek his prey and went down to the bank of the Ganges. Now it came to 
pass that a fisherman had landed seven red fish, and stringing them together 
on. a withe, he had taken and buried them in the sand on the river's bank. 
And then he dropped down the stream, catching more fish. The otter 
scenting the buried fish, dug up the sand till he came upon them, and 
pulling them out cried aloud thrice, " Does any one own these fish 1 " 
And not seeing any owner he took hold of the withe with his teeth and 
laid the fish in the jungle where he dwelt, intending to eat them at a 
fitting time. And then he lay down, thinking how virtuous he was ! 
The jackal too sallied forth in quest of food and found in the hut of a 
field-watcher two spits, a lizard and a pot of milk-curd. And after thrice 
crying aloud, "To whom do these belong 1" and not finding an owner, he 
put on his neck the rope for lifting the pot, and grasping the spits and the 


36 The Jataka. Booh IV. 

lizard with his teeth, he brought and laid them in his own lair, thinking, 
" In due season I will devour them," and so lay down, [53] reflecting how 
virtuous he had been. 

The monkey also entered the clump of trees, and gathering a bunch of 
mangoes laid them up in his part of the jungle, meaning to eat them in 
due season, and then lay down, thinking how virtuous he was. But the 
Bodhisatta in due time came out, intending to broM'^se on the kuQa grass, 
and as he lay in the jungle, the thought occurred to him, " It is impossible 
for me to offer grass to any beggars that may chance to appear, and I have 
no oil or rice and such like. If any beggar shall appeal to me, I shall 
have to give him my own flesh to eat." At this splendid display of virtue, 
Sakka's white marble throne manifested signs of heat. Sakka on reflection 
discovered the cause and resolved to put this royal hare to the test. First 
of all he went and stood by the otter's dwelling-place, disguised as a 
brahmin, and being asked why he stood there, he replied, " Wise Sir, if I 
could get something to eat, after keeping the fast, I would perform all my 
priestly duties." The otter replied, "Very well, I will give you some food," 
and as he conversed with him he repeated the first stanza : — 

Seven red fish I safely brought to land from Ganges flood, 
brahmin, eat thy fill, I pray, and stay within this wood. 

The brahmin said, " Let be till to-morrow. I will see to it by and 
bye." Next he went to the jackal, and when asked by him why he stood 
there, he made the same answer. The jackal, too, readily promised him 
some food, and in talking with him repeated the second stanza : — 

[54] A lizard and a jar of curds, the keeper's evening meal. 
Two spits to roast the flesh withal I wrongfully did steal: 
Such as I have I give to thee : O brahmin, eat, I pray, 
If thou shouldst deign within this wood a while with us to stay. 

Said the brahmin, " Let be till to-morrow. I will see to it by and 
bye." Then he went to the monkey, and when asked what he meant by 
standing there, he answered just as before. The monkey readily offered 
him some food, and in conversing with him gave utterance to the third 
stanza : — 

An icy stream, a mango ripe, and pleasant gi-eenwood shade, 
'Tis thine to enjoy, if thou canst dwell content in forest glade. 

Said the brahmin, " Let be till to-morrow. I will see to it by and 
bye." And he went to the wise hare, and on being asked by him why he 
stood there, he made the same reply. The Bodhisatta on hearing what he 
wanted was highly delighted, and said, " Brahmin, you have done well in 
coming to me for food. This day will I grant you a boon that I have 
never granted before, but you shall not break the moral law by taking 

No. 316. 37 

animal life. Go, friend, and when you have piled together logs of wood, 
and kindled a fire, come and let me know, [55] and I will sacrifice myself 
by falling into the midst of the flames, and when my body is roasted, you 
shall eat my flesh and fulfil all your priestly duties." And in thus 
addressing him the hare uttered the fourth stanza : — 

Nor sesame, nor beans, nor rice have I as food to give, 

But roast with fire my flesh I yield, if thou with us wouldst live. 

Sakka, on hearing what he said, by his miraculous power caused a heap 
of burning coals to appear, and came and told tlie Bodhisatta. Rising 
from his bed of ku^a grass and coming to the place, he thrice shook him- 
self that if there were any insects within his coat, they might escape death. 
Then oflfering his whole body as a free gift he sprang up, and like a royal 
swan, alighting on a cluster of lotuses, in an ecstasy of joy he fell on the 
heap of live coals. But the flame failed even to heat the pores of the hair 
on the body of the Bodhisatta, and it was as if he had entered a region of 
frost. Then he addressed Sakka in these words : " Brahmin, the fire you 
have kindled is icy-cold : it fails to heat even the pores of the hair on my 
body. What is the meaning of this 1 " " Wise sir," he replied, " I am no 
brahmin. I am Sakka, and I have come to put your virtue to the test." 
The Bodhisatta said, "If not only thou, Sakka, but all the inhabitants 
of the world were to try me in this matter of almsgiving, they would not 
find in me any unwillingness to give," and with this the Bodhisatta 
uttered a cry of exultation like a lion i-oaring. Then said Sakka to the 
Bodhisatta, " O wise hare, be thy virtue known throughout a whole eeon." 
And squeezing the mountain, with the essence thus extracted, he daubed 
the sign of a hare on the orb of the moon. And after depositing the 
hare on a bed of young ku9a grass, in the same wooded pai't of the jungle, 
Sakka returned to his own place in heaven. [56] And these four wise 
creatures dwelt happily and harmoniously together, fulfilling the moral 
law and observing holy days, till they departed to fare according to their 

The Master, when he had ended his lesson, revealed the Truths and identified 
the Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the householder, who gave as a free- 
gift all the Buddhist requisites, attained fruition of the First Path: — "At that 
time Ananda was the otter, Moggallana was the jackal, Sariputta the monkey, 
and I myself was the wise hare." 

38 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

No. 317. 


" Weep for the living" etc. — The Master while in residence at Jetavana told 
this story of a certain landowner who dwelt at Savatthi. 

On the death of his brother, it is said, he was so overwhelmed with grief that 
he neither ate nor washed nor anointed himself, but in deep affliction he used to 
go to the cemetery at daybreak to weep. The Master, early in the morning 
casting his eye upon the world and observing in that man a capacity for attaining 
to the fruition of the First Path, thought, " There is no one but myself that can, 
by telling him what happened long ago, assuage his grief and bring him to the 
fruition of the First Path. I must be his Refuge." So nest day on returning in 
the afternoon from his round of alms-begging, he took a junior priest and went 
to his house. On hearing of the Master's arrival, the landowner ordered a seat 
to be prejjared and bade him enter, and saluting him he sat on one side. In 
answer to the Master, who asked him why he was grieving, he said he had been 
sorrowing ever since his brother's death. Said the Master, " All compound 
existences are impermanent, and what is to be broken is broken. One ought 
not to make a trouble of this. Wise men of old, from knowing this, did not 
grieve, when their brother died." And at his request the Master related this 
legend of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was reborn in the family of a rich mei'chant, worth eighty crores. 
When he was come of age, his parents died. And on their death a brother 
of the Bodhisatta managed the family estate. [57] And the Bodhisatta 
lived in' dependence on him. By and bye the brother also died of a fatal 
disease. His relations, friends and companions came together, and throw- 
ing up their arms wept and lamented, and no one was able to control his 
feelings. But the Bodhisatta neither lamented nor wept. Men said, 
" See now, though his bx'other is dead, he does not so much as pull a wry 
face : he is a very hard-hearted fellow. Methinks he desired his brother's 
death, hoping to enjoy a double portion." Thus did they blame the 
Bodhisatta. His kinsfolk too reproved him, saying, " Though your 
brother is dead, you do not shed a tear." On hearing their words he 
said : "In your blind folly, not knowing the Eight Worldly Conditions, 
you weep and cry, ' Alas ! my brother is dead,' but I too, and you also, 
will have to die. Why then do you not weep at the thought of your own 
death? All existing things are transient, and consequently no single 
compoxmd is able to remain in its natural condition. Though you, blind 
fools, in your state of ignorance, from not knowing the Eight Wox-ldly 

No. 317. 39 

Conditions, weep and lament, why should I weep?" And so saying, he 
repeated these stanzas : — 

Weep for the living rather than the dead ! 
All creatures that a mortal form do take, 
Four-footed beast and bird and hooded snake. 

Yea men and angels all the same path tread. 

Powerless to cope with fate, rejoiced to die. 
Midst sad vicissitude of bliss and pain. 
Why shedding idle tears should man complain. 

And plunged in sorrow for a brother sigh? 

Men versed in fraud and in excess grown old. 
The untutored fool, e'en valiant men of might. 
If worldly-wise and ignorant of right, 

Wisdom itself as foolishness may hold. 

[58] Thus did the Bodhisatta teach these men the Truth, and delivered 
them all from their sorrow. 

The Master, after he had ended his religious exposition, revealed the Truths 
and identified the Birth : — At tlie conclusion of the Truths the landowner attained 
to fruition of the First Path :— "At that time the wise man who by his religious 
exposition delivered people from their sorrow was I myself." 

No. 318. 


" 'Twas the joyous time^^ etc. — This was a story told by the Master at Jetavana, 
about a Brother who was tempted by thoughts of the wife he had left. — The 
circumstances that led up to the story will be set forth in the Indriya Birth i. — 
The Master, addressing this Brother, said, " Once before, through her, you had 
your head cut oif." And then he related a legend of the past. 

[59] Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a village of Kasi in the home of a certain house- 
holder, under the star of a robber. When he grew up to be a man, he 

1 No. 423. 

40 The Jdtaha. Booh IV. 

gained his living by robbery, and his fame was blazed abroad in the world, 
as a bold fellow and as strong as an elephant. And no man could catch 
him. One day he broke into a rich merchant's house and carried off much 
treasure. The townsfolk came to the king and said, "Sire, a mighty 
robber is plundering the city: have him arrested." The king ox'dered the 
governor of the city to seize him. So in the night the governor posted 
men here and there in detachments, and having effected his capture with 
the money upon him, he reported it to the king. The king bade the 
governor cut off his head. Then the governor had his arms tightly bound 
behind him, and having tied a wreath of red kanavera flowers about his 
neck and sprinkled brickdust on his head, had him scourged with whips in 
every square, and then led to the place of execution to the music of the 
harsh-sounding drum. Men said, " This rapacious robber who loots our 
city is taken," and the whole city was greatly moved. 

At this time there lived in Benares a courtezan named Sama, whose 
price was a thousand pieces of money. She was a favourite of the king's, 
and had a suite of five hundred female slaves. And as she stood at an 
open window on the upper floor of the palace, she saw this robber being 
led along. Now he was comely and gracious to look upon, and stood 
forth above all men, exceedingly glorious and god-like in appearance. 
And when she saw him being thus led past, she fell in love with him and 
thought within herself, " By what device can I secure this man for my 
husband 1 " " This is the way," she said, and sent by the hand of one of 
her female attendants a thousand pieces of money to the governor, and 
"Tell him," she said, "this robber is Sama's brother, and he has no other 
refuge except in Sama. And ask him to accept the money and let his 
prisoner escape." [60] The handmaid did as she was told. But the 
governor said, " This is a notorious robber, I cannot let him go free after 
this sort. But if I could find another man as a substitute, I could put 
the robber in a covered carriage and send him to you." The slave came 
and reported this to her mistress. 

Now at this time a certain rich young merchant, who was enamoured 
of Sama, presented her every day with a thousand pieces of money. And 
that very day at sunset her lover came as usual to her house with the 
money. And Sama took the money and placed it in her lap and sat 
weeping. And when she was asked what was the cause of her sorrow, she 
said, " My lord, this robber is my brother, though he never came to see 
me, because people say I follow a vile trade : when I sent a message to the 
governor he sent word that if he were to receive a thousand pieces of money, 
he would let his prisoner go free. And now I cannot find any one to go 
and take this money to the governor." The youth for the love he bare her 
said, "I will go." "Go, then," said she, "and take with you the money 
you brought me." So he took it and went to the house of the governor. 

No. 318. 41 

The governor hid the young merchant in a secret place, and had the 
robber conveyed in a close carriage to Sama. Then he thought, "This 
robber is well known in the country. It must be quite dark first. And 
then, when all men are retired to rest, I will have the man executed." 
And so making some excuse for delaying it awhile, when people had 
retired to rest, he sent the young merchant with a large escort to the place 
of execution, and cutting ofi" his head with a sword impaled his body, and 
returned into the city. 

Thenceforth Sama accepted nought at any other man's hand, but passed 
all her time, taking her pleasure with this robber only. The thought 
occurred to the robber : " If this woman should fall in love with any one 
else, she will have me too put to death, and take her pleasure with him. 
She is very treacherous to her friends. I must no longer dwell here, but 
make haste to escape." "When he was going away, [61] he thought, "I 
will not go empty-handed, but will take some of the ornaments belonging 
to her." So one day he said to her, " My dear, we always stay indoors 
like tame cockatoos in a cage. Some day we will disport ourselves in the 
garden." She readily assented and prepared every kind of food, hard and 
soft, and decked herself out with all her ornaments, and drove to the 
garden with him seated in a close carriage. While he was disporting 
himself with her, he thought, " Now must be the time for me to escape." 
So under a show of violent afiection for her, he entered into a thicket of 
kanavera bushes, and pretending to embrace her, he squeezed her tUl she 
became insensible. Then throwing her down he spoiled her of all her 
ornaments, and fastening them in her outer garment he placed the bundle 
on his shoulder, and leaping over the garden wall made oflf. 

And when she had recovered consciousness, rising up she went and 
asked her attendants, what had become of her young lord. " We do not 
know, lady." "He thinks," she said, "I am dead, and must in his alarm 
have run away." And being distressed at the thought, she returned 
thence to her house, and said, " Not till I have set eyes on my dear lord, 
will I rest upon a sumptuous couch," and she lay down upon the ground. 
And from that day she neither put on comely garments, nor ate more 
than one meal, nor affected scents and wreaths and the like. And being 
resolved to seek and recover her lover by every possible means, she sent 
for some actors and gave them a thousand pieces of money. On their 
asking, "What are we to do for this, lady?" She said, "There is no 
place that you do not visit. Go then to every village, town and city, and 
gathering a crowd around you, first of all sing this song in the midst of 
the people,"— teaching the actors the first stanza, — "And if," said she, 
" when you have sung this song, my husband shall be one of the crowd, he 
will speak to you. [62] Then you may tell him I am quite well, and bring 
him back with you. And should he refuse to come, send me a message." 

42 The Jataka. Book IV. 

And giving them their expenses for the journey, she sent them off. They 
started from Benares, and calling the people together here and there, at 
last arrived at a border-village. Now the robber, since his flight, was 
living here. And the actors gathered a crowd about them, and sang the 
first stanza : — 

'Twas the joyous time of spring, 

Bright with flowers each shrub and tree. 

From her swoon awakening 
Sama lives, and lives for thee. 

The robber on hearing this drew nigh to the actor, and said, " You say 
that Sama is alive, but I do not believe it." And addressing him he 
repeated the second stanza : 

Can fierce winds a mountain shake? 
Can they make firm earth to quake ? 
But alive the dead to see 
Marvel stranger far would be ! 

[63] The actor on hearing these words uttered the third stanza : 

Sama surely is not dead. 
Nor another lord would wed. 
Fasting from all meals but one, 
She loves thee and thee alone. 

The robber on hearing this said, "Whether she be alive or dead, I don't 
want her," and with these words he repeated the fourth stanza : 

Sama's fancy ever roves 
From tried faith to lighter loves: 
Me too Sama would betray. 
Were I not to flee away. 

The actors came and told Sama how he had dealt with them. And 
she, full of regi'ets, took once more to her old course of life. 

The Master, when his lesson was ended, revealed the Truths and identified 
the Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the worldly-minded Brother attained 
to fruition of the First Path : — "At that time this Brother was the rich merchant's 
son, the wife he had left was Sama, and I myself was the robber." 

No. 319. 43 

No. 319. 


[64] '■'■Happy life" etc. — This was a story told by the Master while living in 
the Badarika Monastery near Kosambi, regarding the elder Rahula. The intro- 
ductory story has been already related in full in the Tipallattha Birth i. Now 
when the Brethren in the Hall of Truth were setting forth the praises of the 
venerable Rahula, and speaking of him as fond of instruction, scrupulous and 
patient of rebuke, the Master came up and on hearing from them the subject of 
their discourse said, " Not now only, but formerly also Rahula possessed all 
these virtues." And then he told them a legend of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family. And when he grew up, he studied 
all the arts at Takkasila, and giving up the world devoted himself to the 
ascetic life in the Himalaya country, and developed all the Faculties and 
Attainments. There enjoying the pleasures of ecstatic meditation he dwelt 
in a pleasant grove, whence he journeyed to a frontier village to procure 
salt and vinegar. The people, on seeing him, became believers, and built 
him a hut of leaves in a wood, and providing him with all that a Buddhist 
requires, made a home for him there. 

At this time a fowler in this village had caught a decoy partridge, and 
putting it in a cage carefully trained and looked after it. Then he took it 
to the wood, and by its cry decoyed all the other jjartridges that came 
near. The partridge thought : " Through me many of my kinsfolk come 
by their death. This is a wicked act on my part." So it kept quiet. 
Wheii its master found it was quiet, he struck it on the head with a piece 
of bamboo. The partridge from the pain it suffered uttered a cry. And 
the fowler gained a living by decoying other partridges through it. Then 
the partridge thought : " Well, suppose they die. There is no evil inten- 
tion on my part. Do the evil consequences of my action affect me ] When 
I am quiet, they do not come, but when I utter a cry, they do. And all 
that come this fellow catches and puts to death. Is there any sinful act 
here on my part, or is there not % " Thenceforth the only thought of the 
partridge is, "Who verily may resolve my doubt?" [65] and it goes 
about seeking for such a wise man. Now one day the fowler snared a lot 
of partridges, and filling his basket with them he came to the Bodhisatta's 
hermitage to beg a draught of water. And putting down the cage near 
the Bodhisatta, he drank some water and lay down on the sand and fell 

1 No. 16, Vol. i. 

44 The Jataka. Book IV. 

asleep. The partridge observing that he was asleep thought, " I will ask 
this ascetic as to my doubt, and if he knows he will solve my diflficulty." 
And as it lay in its cage, it repeated the first stanza in the form of a 
question : 

Happy life I lead all day, 

Food abundant falls to me: 
Yet I'm in a parlous way, 

What's my futiu-e state to be ? 

The Bodhisatta solving this question uttered the second stanza : 

If no evil in thy heart 

Prompts to deed of villainy, 
Shouldst thou play a passive part. 

Guilt attaches not to thee. 

The partridge on hearing this uttered the third stanza : 

" Lo ! our kinsman " : thus they cry, 

And in crowds they flock to see. 
Am I guilty, should they die? 

Please resolve this doubt for me. 

[66] On hearing this, the Bodhisatta repeated the fourth stanza : 

If no sin lurks in the heart, 

Innocent the deed will be. 
He who plays a passive part 

From all guilt is counted free. 

Thus did the Great Being console the partridge. And through him 
the bird was freed from remorse. Then the fowler waking up saluted the 
Bodhisatta and took up his cage and made off. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : "At that time 
Rahula was the part.ridge, and I myself was the ascetic." 

No. 320. 


"He might give," etc. — This story was told by the Master, while residing at 
Jetavana, with regard to a certain landowner. According to the story he went 
to a village with his wife to get in a debt, and seizing a cart in satisfaction for 
what was due to him he deposited it with a certain family, intending to fetch it 

No. 320. 45 

later on. While on the road to Savatthi, they came iii sight of a mountain. 
The wife asked him, " Suppose this mountain were to become all gold, would you 
give me some of it?" "Who are you?" he replied, "I would not give you a 
jot." "Alas!" she cried, "he is a hard-hearted man. Though the mountain 
should become i^ure gold, he would not give me an atom." And she was highly 

When they drew nigh to Jetavana, feeling thirsty, they went into the monas- 
tery, and had some water to drink. [67] At daybreak the Master seeing in them 
a capacity for Salvation, sat in a cell of his Perfumed Chamber, looking out for 
their arrival, and emitted the six-coloured rays of Buddhahood. And after they 
had quenched their thirst, they came to the Master and respectfully saluting him 
sat down. The Master, after the usual kindly greetings, asked them where they 
had been. " We have been. Reverend Sir, to call in a debt." " Lay Sister," he 
said, " I hope your husband is anxious for your good and ready to do you a 
kindness." " Reverend Sir," she replied, " I am very affectionate to him, but he 
has no love for me. To-day when I asked him, on catching sight of a mountain, 
'Supposing it were all pure gold, would you give me some?' he answered, 'Who 
are you ? I would not give you a jot.' So hard-heai-ted is he." " Lay Sister," 
said the Master, " he talks like this. But whenever he calls to mind your virtues 
he is ready to give you lordship over all." " Tell us about it, your Reverence," 
they cried, and at their request he related this legend of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was his minister, rendering him all due service. One day the 
king saw his son, who acted as his viceroy, coming to pay his respects to 
him. He thought to himself, "This fellow may do me wrong, if he gets an 
opportunity." So he sent for him and said, "As long as I live, you cannot 
dwell in this city. Live somewhere else, and at my death bear rule in the 
kingdom." He agreed to these conditions, and bidding his father farewell 
he started from Benares with his chief wife. On coming to a fi'ontier 
village, he built himself a hut of leaves in a wood, and stayed there, 
supporting life on wild roots and fruit. By and bye the king died. The 
young viceroy, from his observation of the stars, knew of his father's death, 
and as he journeyed to Benares, a mountain came into sight. His wife 
said to him, "Supposing, Sir, yonder mountain were turned into pure gold, 
would you give me some of iti" "Who are you?" he cried, "I would 
not give you an atom." She thought: "Through my love for him I 
entered this forest, not having the heart to desert him, and he speaks to 
me thus. [68] He is very hard-hearted, and if he becomes king, what 
good will he do me 1 " And she was sore at heart. 

On reaching Benares he was established on the throne and raised her 
to the dignity of chief queen. He merely gave her titular rank, but 
beyond this he paid her no respect or honour, and did not even recognize 
her existence. Thought the Bodhisatta, " This queen was helpmeet to the 
king, not counting the pain, and dwelt with him in the wilderness. But 
he, taking no count of this, goes about, taking his pleasure with other 
women. But I will bring it about that she shall receive lordship over 

46 The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

all." And with this thought he went one day and saluting her said, 
" Lady, we do not receive from you so much as a lump of rice. Why are 
you so hard-hearted, and why do you thus neglect us 1 " " Friend," she 
replied, "if I myself were to receive aught, I would give it you, but if I 
get nothing, what am I to give ? What, pray, is the king likely to give 
me ? On the road here, when asked, ' If yonder mountain were all pure 
gold, would you give me anything?' he answered, 'Who are you? I would 
give you nothing.' " " Well, could you repeat all this before the king % " 
he said. "Why should I not, friend?" she answered. "Then when I 
stand in the king's presence," he said, " I will ask and you shall repeat it." 
" Agreed, friend," she said. So the Bodhisatta, when he stood and paid 
his respects to the king, asked the queen, saying, " Are we not, lady, to 
receive aught at your haads?" "Sir," she answered, "when I get any- 
thing, I will give you something. But, pray, what is the king likely to 
give me now? When we were coming from the forest, and a mountain 
came into sight, I asked him, ' If yonder mountain were all pui-e gold, would 
you give me some of it ? ' ' Who are you ? ' he said, 'I will give you nothing.' 
And in these words he refused what it was easy to give." [69] To illus- 
trate this, she repeated the first stanza : 

He might give at little cost 
What he would not miss, if lost. 
Golden mountains I bestow; 
He to all I ask says "No." 

The king on hearing this uttered the second stauza : 

When you can, say "Yes, I will," 
When you cannot, promise nil. 
Broken promises are lies ; 
Liars all wise men despise. 

The queen, when she heai-d this, raising her joined hands in respectful 
salutation, repeated the third stanza : 

Standing fast in righteousness. 
Thee, O prince, we humbly bless. 
Fortune may all else destroy; 
Truth is still thy only joy. 

[70] The Bodhisatta, after hearing the queen sing the praises of the 
king, set forth her virtues and repeated the fourth stanza : 

Known to fame as peerless wife. 
Sharing weal and woe of life. 
Equal she to either fate, 
Fit with even kings to mate. 

The Bodhisatta in these words sang the praises of the queen, saying, 
"This lady, your majesty, in the time of your adversity, lived with you 

No. 320. 47 

and shared your sorrows in the forest. You ought to do her honour." 
The king, at his words, called to mind the queen's virtues and said, " Wise 
Sir, at your words I am reminded of the queen's virtues," and so saying he 
gave all power into her hand. Moreover he bestowed great power upon 
the Bodhisatta. " For it was by you," he said, " I was reminded of the 
queen's virtues." 

The Master, having ended his lesson, revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth: — At the conclusion of the Truths, the husband and wife attained to 
fruition of the First Path : — "At that time this landowner was the kiug of Benares, 
this lay sister was the queen, and I myself was the wise councillor." 

No. 321. 


[71] '■'Monkey, in feet" etc. — This was a story told by the Master while dwell- 
ing at Jetavana, about a young disciple who burnt down the hut of leaves of the 
elder Mahakassapa. The incident that led to the story originated in Rajagaha. 
At that time, they say, the elder was living in a cell in the forest near Rajagaha. 
Two young novices ministered to his wants. The one of them was serviceable 
to the elder, the other was ill-behaved. Whatever was done by his comrade, he 
makes as if it were done by himself For instance, when the other lad had 
placed water to rinse the mouth, he goes to the elder and saluting him, says, 
"Sir, the water is ready. Please to rinse your mouth." And when his com- 
panion had risen betimes and swept out the elder's cell, as soon as the elder 
appears, he knocks things about hither and thither, and makes as if the whole 
cell had been swept out by himself. 

The dutiful disciple thought, " This ill-behaved fellow claims whatever I do 
just as if he had done it himself I will expose his cunning behaviour." So 
when the young rogue had returned from the village and was sleeping after his 
meal, he heated water for the bath, and hid it in a back room, and then put 
merely a small quantity of water in the boiler. The other lad on waking went 
and saw the steam rising up and thought, " No doubt our friend has heated the 
water and put it in the bath-room." So going to the elder he said, " Sir, the 
water is in the bath-room. Please, take your bath." The elder went with him 
to take a bath, and finding no water in the bath-room asked where the water was. 
The lad went hastily to the heating chamber and let down a ladle into the empty 
boiler. The ladle struck against the bottom of the empty vessel, and gave forth 
a rattling sound. (Thenceforth the boy was known by the name of " Rattle- 
Ladle.") At this moment the other lad fetched the water from the back room, and 
said, " Sir, please take your bath." The elder had his bath, [72] and being now 
aware of Rattle- Ladle's misconduct, when the boy came in the evening to wait 
upon him, he reproached him and said, " When one that is under religious vows 

48 The Jdtaha. Book IV. 

has done a thing himself, then only has he the right to say, 'I did that.' Other- 
wise it is a deliberate lie. Henceforth be not guilty of conduct like this." 

The boy was wroth with the elder, and next day refused to go into the town 
with him to beg for alms. But the other youth accompanied the elder. And 
Rattle-Ladle went to see a family of the elder's retainers. When they inquired 
where the elder was, he answered that he remained at home ill. They asked 
what he ought to have. He said, " Give me so and so," and took it and went to 
a place that he fancied, and ate it and returned to the hermitage. Next day the 
elder visited that family and sat down with them. The people said, "You are 
not well, are you ? Yesterday, they say, you stopped at home in your cell. We 
sent you some food by the hand of such and such a lad. Did your Reverence 
partake of it '? " The elder held his peace, and when he had finished his meal, 
returned to the monastery. 

In the evening when the boy came to wait upon him, the elder addressed 
him thus : " You went begging. Sir, in such and such a family, and in such and 
such a village. And you begged, saying, ' The elder must have so and so to eat.' 
And then, they say, you ate it yourself. Sixch begging is highly improper. See 
that you are not guilty of such misconduct again." 

So the boy for ever so long nursed a grudge against the elder, thinking, 
"Yesterday merely on account of a little water he picked a quarrel with me. 
And now being indignant because of my having eaten a handful of rice in the 
house of his retainers, he quarrels with me again. I will find out the right way 
to deal with him." And next day, when the elder had gone into the city for 
alms, he took a hammer and broke all the vessels used for food, and setting fire 
to the hut of leaves, took to his heels. While still alive he became a preta in 
the world of men, and withered away till he died and was born again in the 
Great Hell of Avici. And the fame of his evil deed spread abroad amongst the 

So one day some Brethren came from Rajagaha to Savatthi, and after putting 
away their bowls and robes in the Common Room they went and saluting the 
Master sat down. The Master conversed pleasantly with them and asked whence 
they had come. "From Rajagaha, Sir." "Who is the teacher that preaches 
there 1 " he said. " The Great Kassapa, Sir." " Is Kassapa quite well. Brethren ?" 
he asked. "Yes, Reverend Sir, the elder is well. But a youthful member of 
the fraternity was so angry on account of a reproof he gave him, that he set fire 
to the elder's hut of leaves, and made ofi"." [73] The Master, on hearing this, 
said, " Brethren, solitude is better for Kassapa than keeping company with a fool 
like this." And so saying he repeated a stanza in the Dhammapada : 

To travel with the vulgar herd refuse. 
And fellowship with foolish folk eschew; 

Thy peer or better for a comrade choose 
Or else in solitude thy way pursue. 

Moreover he again addressed the Brethren and said, " Not now only. Brethren, 
did this youth destroy the hut and feel wroth with one that reproved him. In 
former times too he was wroth." And he then told them a legend of the past. 

Once vipon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhisatta 
came to life as a young singila bird. And when he grew to be a big bird, 
he settled in the Himalaya country and built him a nest to his fancy, that 
was proof against the rain. Then a certain monkey in the rainy season, 
when the rain fell without intermission, sat near the Bodhisatta, his teeth 
chattering by reason of the severe cold. The Bodhisatta, seeing him thus 
distressed, fell to talking with him, and uttered the stanza : 

No. 321. 49 

Monkey, in feet and hands and face 

So like the human form, 
Why buildest thou no dwelling-place, 

To hide thee from the storm ? 

The monkey, on hearing this, replied with a second stanza : 

In feet and hands and face, O bird. 

Though close to man allied, 
Wisdom, chief boon on him conferred, 

To me has been denied. 

The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, repeated yet two more couplets : 

He that inconstancy betrays, a light and fickle mind, 
Unstable proved in all his ways, no happiness may find. 
[74] Monkey, in virtue to excel, do thou thy utmost strive. 

And safe from wintry blast to dwell, go, hut of leaves contrive. 

Thought the monkey, " This creatui'e, through dwelling in a place that 
is sheltered from the rain, despises me. I will not suifer him to rest 
quietly in this nest." Accordingly, in his eagerness to catch the Bodhi- 
satta, he made a spring upon him. But the Bodhisatta flew up into the 
air, and winged his way elsewhere. And the monkey, after smashing up 
and destroying his nest, betook himself off. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : — " At that time 
the youth that fii'ed the hut was the monkey, and I myself was the singila bird." 

No. 322. 


^^ From the spot where," etc. — This story was told by the Master, when he 
dwelt at Jetavana, about some heretics. These heretics, they say, in various 
places near Jetavana, made their beds on thorns, suffered the five-fold forms of 
fire penance, and practised false asceticism of many different kinds. Now a 
number of the Brethren, after going their rounds for alms in Savatthi, on their' 
way back to Jetavana saw these heretics undergoing their pretended austerities, 
and came and asked the Master, [75] " Is there. Sir, any virtue in these heterodox 
priests in taking upon them these practices ? " The Master said, " There is no 

1 See Tibetan Tales, xxii. p. 296, "The Flight of the Beasts." R. Morris, Folk-Lore 
Journal, Vol. iii. 121. 

J. III. 4 

50 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

virtue, Brethren, nor any special merit in it. When it is examined and tested, 
it is like a path over a dunghill, or like the noise the hare heard." " We do not 
know, Sir, what that noise was. Tell us. Holy Sir." So at their request he told 
them an old-world legend. 

Once upon a time when Brahraadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life as a young lion. And when fully grown he lived in a 
wood. At this time there was near the Western Ocean a grove of palms 
mixed with vilva trees. A certain hare lived here beneath a palm sapling, 
at the foot of a vilva tree. One day this hare after feeding came and lay 
down beneath the young palm tree. And the thought struck him : "If 
this earth should be destroyed, what would become of me ? " And at this 
very moment a I'ipe vilva fruit fell on a palm leaf. At the sound of it, 
the hare thought : " This solid earth is collapsing," and starting up he fled, 
without so much as looking behind him. Another hare saw him scampei^- 
ing off, as if frightened to death, and asked the cause of his panic flight. 
" Pray, don't ask me," he said. The other hare cried, " Pray, Sir, what is 
it ? " and kept running after him. Then the hare stopped a moment and 
without looking back said, " The earth here is breaking up." And at this 
the second hare ran after the other. And so first one and then another 
hare caught sight of him running, and joined in the chase till one hundred 
thousand hares all took to flight together. They were seen by a deer, a 
boar, an elk, a buflalo, a wild ox, a rhinoceros, a tiger, a lion and an 
elephant. And when they asked what it meant and were told that the 
earth was breaking up, they too took to flight. [76] So by degrees this 
host of animals extended to the length of a full league. 

When the Bodhisatta saw this headlong flight of the animals, and 
heard the cause of it was that the earth was coming to an end, he thought : 
"The earth is nowhere coming to an end. Surely it must be some sound 
which was misunderstood by them. And if I don't make a great effort, 
they will all perish. I will save their lives." So with the speed of a lion 
he got before them to the foot of a mountain, and lion-like roared three 
times. They were terribly frightened at the lion, and stopping in their 
flight stood all huddled together. The lion went in amongst them and 
asked why they were running away. 

" The earth is collapsing," they answered. 

" Who saw it collapsing 1 " he said. 

" The elephants know all about it," they replied. 

He asked the elephants. "We don't know," they said, "the lions 
know." But the lions said, "We don't know, the tigers know." The 
tigers said, " The rhinoceroses know." The rhinoceroses said, " The wild 
oxen know." The wild oxen, "the buffaloes." The buffaloes, "the elks." 
The elks, "the boars." The boars, "the deer." The deer said, "We 

No. 322. 51 

don't know, the hares know." When the hares were questioned, they 
pointed to one particular hare and said, "This one told us." 

So the Bodhisatta asked, " Is it true, Sir, that the earth is breaking up 1 " 

" Yes, Sir, I saw it," said the hare. 

"Where," he asked, "were you living, when you saw it?" 

" Near the ocean, Sir, in a grove of palms mixed with vilva trees. For 
as I was lying beneath the shade of a palm sapling at the foot of a vilva 
tree, methought, * If this earth should break up, where shall I go 1 ' And 
at that very moment I heard the sound of the breaking up of the earth 
and I fled." 

Thought the lion : " A ripe vilva fruit evidently must have fallen on a 
palm leaf and made a 'thud,' and this hare jumped to the conclusion that 
the earth was corning to an end, and ran away. [77] I will find out the 
exact truth about it." So he reassured the herd of animals, and said, 
" I will take the hare and go and find out exactly whether the earth is 
coming to an end or not, in the place pointed out by liim. Until I return, 
do you stay here." Then placing the hare on his back, he sprang forward 
with the speed of a lion, and putting the hare down in the palm grove, he 
said " Come, show us the place you meant." 

" 1 dare not, my lord," said the hare. 

" Come, don't be afraid," said the lion. 

The hare, not venturing to go near the vilva tree, stood afar off and 
cried, "Yonder, Sir, is the place of dreadful soimd," and so saying, he 
repeated the first stanza : 

From the spot where I did dwell 

Issued forth a fearful ' thud ; ' 
What it was I could not tell, 

Nor what caused it understood. 

After hearing what the hare said, the lion went to the foot of the vilva 
tree, and saw the spot where the hare had been lying beneath the shade of 
the palm tree, and the ripe vilva fruit that fell on the palm leaf, and 
having carefully ascertained that the earth had not broken up, he placed 
the hare on his back and with the speed of a lion soon came again to the 
herd of beasts. 

Then he told them the whole story, and said, " Don't be afraid." And 
having thus reassured the herd of beasts, he let them go. Verily, if it had 
not been for the Bodhisatta at that time, all the beasts would have rushed 
into the sea and perished. It was all owing to the Bodhisatta that they 
escaped death. 

Alarmed at sound of fallen fruit 

A hare once ran away, 
The other beasts all followed suit 

Moved by that hare's dismay. 


52 The Jataka. Book IV. 

They hastened not to view the scene, 

But lent a wilUng ear 
To idle gossip, and were clean 

Distraught with foolish fear. 

[78] They who to Wisdom's calm delight 
And Virtue's heights attain, 
Though ill example should invite. 
Such panic fear disdain. 

These three stanzas were inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : " At that time I 
myself was the lion." 

No. 323. 


" Such is the qualiti/," etc. — This story was told by the Master, while dwelling 
in the Aggalava shrine near Alavi, concerning the regulations to be observed in 
the building of cells ^. 

The introductory story has been already set forth in the Manikantha Bii-th^, 
but on this occasion the Master said, " Is it true. Brethren, that you Uve here by 
your importunity in asking and begging for alms ? " And when they answered 
" Yes," he reproved them and said, " Wise men of old, when offered their choice 
by the king, though they were longing to ask for a pair of single-soled shoes, 
through fear of doing violence to their sensitive and scrupulous nature, did not 
venture to say a word in the presence of the people, but spoke in private." And 
so saying he told them an old-world legend. 

[79] Once upon a time in the Kampillaka kingdom, when a Pancala 
king was reigning in a North Paiicala city, the Bodhisatta was born 
into a brahmin family, in a certain market town. And when he was 
grown up, he acquired a knowledge of the arts at Takkasila. Afterwards 
taking orders as an ascetic and dwelling in the Himalaya country, he lived 
for a long time by what he could glean — feeding on wild fruits and i-oots. 

^ See Siittavibhahga vi. 1. 
2 No. 253, Vol. ii. 

No. 323. 53 

And wandering iato the haunts of men for the purpose of procuring salt 
and vinegar, he came to a city of North Paiicala and took up his abode in 
the king's garden. Next day he went into the city to beg alms, and came 
to the king's gate. The king was so pleased with his deportment and 
behaviour that he seated him on the dais and fed him with food worthy of 
a king. And he bound him by a solemn promise and assigned him a 
lodging in the gai'den. 

He lived constantly in the king's house, and at the end of the rainy 
season, being anxious to return to the Himalayas, he thought, " If I go 
upon this journey, I must get a pair of single-soled shoes' and a parasol of 
leaves. I will beg them of the king." One day he came to the gai'den, 
and finding the king sitting there, he saluted him and resolved he would 
ask him for the shoes and parasol. But his second thought was, " A man 
who begs of another, saying, ' Give me so and so,' is apt to weep. And 
the other man also when he refvises, saying, 'I have it not,' in his turn 
weeps." And that the people might not see either him or the king weep- 
ing, he thought, "We will both weep quietly in some secret place." So 
he said, " Great King, I am anxious to speak with you in private." The 
royal attendants on hearing this departed. Thought the Bodhisatta, "If 
the king should refuse my prayer, our friendship will be at an end. So I 
will not ask a boon of him." That day, not venturing to mention the 
subject, he said, " Go now, Great King, I will see about tliis matter by and 
bye." Another day on the king's coming to the gai-den, saying, as before, this and then that, he could not frame his request. And so twelve 
years elapsed. 

Then the king thought, [80] " This priest said, ' I wish to speak in 
private,' and when the courtiex's are departed, he has not the courage to 
speak. And while he is longing to do so, twelve years have elapsed. 
After living a religious life so long, I suspect, he is regretting the world. 
He is eager to enjoy pleasures and is longing for sovereignty. But being 
unable to frame the word ' kingdom,' he keeps silent. To-day now I will 
offer him whatever he desires, from my kingdom downwards." So he 
went to the garden and sitting down saluted him. The Bodhisatta asked 
to speak to him in private, and when the courtiers had departed, he 
could not utter a word. The king said, " For twelve years you have 
asked to speak to me in private, and when you have had the oppor- 
tunity, you have not been able to say a word. I offer you everything, 
beginning with my kingdom. Do not be afraid, but ask for whatever you 

" Great King," he said, " will you give me what I want 1 " 

^ See Mahdvagga, v. 1. 28. Shoes with more than a single lining were not to be 
worn by the Brethren, except when they had been cast off by others. 

54 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

" Yes, Reverend Sir, I will." 

" Great King, when I go on my journey, I must have a pair of single- 
soled shoes and a parasol of leaves." 

"Have you not been able. Sir, for twelve years to ask for such a trifle 
as this 1 " 

"That is so, Great King." 

" Why, Sir, did you act thus t " 

"Great King, the man who says 'Give me so and so,' sheds tears, and 
the one who refuses and says ' I have it not,' in his turn weeps. If, when 
I begged, you should have refused me, I feared the people might see us 
mingling our tears. This is why I asked for a secret interview." Then 
from the beginning he repeated three stanzas : 

Such is the quality of prayer, king, 
'Twill a rich gift or a refusal bring. 

Who beg, Paiicala lord, to weep arc fain, 
They who refuse are apt to weep again. 

Lest people see us shed the idle tear, 
My prayer I whisper in thy secret ear. 

[81] The king, being charmed with this mark of I'espect on the part of 
the Bodhisatta, granted him the boon and spoke the fourth stanza : 

Brahmin, I offer thee a thousand kine, 
Red kine, and eke the leader of the herd ; 

Hearing but now these generous words of thine, 
I too in turn to generous deed am stirred. 

But the Bodhisatta said, " I do not. Sire, desire material pleasures. 
Give me that only which I ask for." And he took a pair of single-soled 
.shoes and the parasol of leaves, and exhorted the king to be zealous in 
religion and to keep the moral law and observe fast days. And though 
the king begged him to stay, he went off to the Himalayas, where he 
developed all the Faculties and Attainments, and was destined to birth in 
the Brahma-world. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth: "At that time 
Ananda was the king, and I myself was the ascetic." 

No. 324. 55 

No. 324. 


[82] " The kindly beast" etc.— This, story was told by the Master while living 
at Jetavana, about a mendicant priest who wore a leather jerkin^. Both his upper 
and under garment, it is said, were of leather. One day sallying out of the 
monastery, he went his rounds in Savatthi for alms, till he came to the fighting- 
ground of the rams. A ram on seeing him drew back, desiring to butt him. The 
mendicant thought, "He is doing this, as an act of respect for me," and himself 
did not draw back. The ram came on with a rush and striking him on the thigla 
felled him to the ground. This case of imaginary salutation was blazed abroad in 
the Congregation of the Brethren. The matter was discussed by them in the 
Hall of Truth, as to how the leather-coated mendicant fancied he was being 
saluted and met with his death. The Master came and inquired the subject of 
their discussion and on being told what it was said, "Not now only. Brethren, 
but of old too this ascetic imagined he was being saluted and so came by his 
death," and he then related to them an old-world legend. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was born in a merchant family and 
plied his trade. At that time a certain religious mendicant, clad in a 
leather garment, in going his rounds for alms, came to the rams' fighting . 
ground, and on seeing a ram falling back before him, he fancied it did this 
as a mark of respect, and did not himself retire. "In the whole world," 
he thought, "this ram alone recognises my merits," and raising his joined 
hands in respectful salutation he stood and repeated the first stanza : 

The kindly beast obeisance makes before 
The high-caste brahmin versed in holy lore. 

Good honest creature thou, 
Famous above all other beasts, I vow ! 

[83] At this moment a wise merchant sitting in his stores, to restrain 
the mendicant, uttered the second stanza : 

Brahmin, be not so rash this beast to trust, 
Else will he haste to lay thee in the dust. 

For this the ram falls back. 
To gain an impetus for his attack. 

While this wise merchant was still speaking, the ram came on at full 
speed, and striking the mendicant on the thigh, knocked him down. He 

^ See R. Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 248. 
2 Mahdvagga, viii. 28. 2. 

56 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

was maddened with the pain and as he lay groaning, the Master, to explain 
the incident, gave utterance to the third stanza : 

With broken leg and bowl for alms upset, 

His damaged fortune he will sore regret. 

Let him not weep with outstretched arms in vain, 

Haste to the rescue, ere the priest is slain. 

Then the mendicant repeated the fourth stanza : 

Thus all that honour to the unworthy pay, 
Share the same fate that I have met to-day; 
Prone in the dust by butting ram laid low 
To foolish confidence my death I owe. 

[84] Thus lamenting he there and then came by his death. 

The Master, his lesson ended, thus identified the Birth: "The man in the 
leather coat of to-day was the same then as now. And I myself was the wise 

No. 325. 


" One that plays" eic— This story was told by the Master, while Hving at 
Jetavana, with regard to a certain cheating rogue. The introductory story has 
been already given in full. But on this occasion they brought the Brother to 
the Master and exposed him, saying, "Holy Sir, this Brother is a cheat." The 
Master said, " Not now only, but formerly also he was a rogue." And then he 
told an old-world story. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a young lizard, and when he grew up and was 
lusty and sti'ong, he dwelt in a forest. And a cei'tain wicked ascetic built 
a hut of leaves, and took up his abode near him. The Bodhisatta, in 
ranging about for food, saw this hut of leaves and thought to himself, 

1 Compare No. 277, vol. ii. 

No. 325. 57 

"This hut must certainly belong to some holy ascetic," and he went 
there and after saluting the holy man returned to his own place of 

Now one day this false ascetic ate some savoury food prepared in the 
house of one of his retainers, and asked what meat it was. On hearing 
that it was lizard-flesh, he became such a slave to his love of dainties that 
he thought, " I will kill this lizard that so constantly keeps coming to my 
hermitage and will cook him to my taste and eat him." So he took some 
ghee, curds, condiments and the like, and went with his club concealed 
under his yellow robe and sat perfectly still at the door of his hut, waiting 
for the Bodhisatta to come, as quiet as quiet could be. 

[85] And when the Bodhisatta saw this depraved fellow he thought, 
" This wretch must have been eating the flesh of my kinsfolk. I will put 
it to the test." So he stood to leeward of him and getting a whiff from his 
person he knew that he had been eating the flesh of a lizard, and without 
going near him he turned back and made off. And when the ascetic saw 
he was not coming, he threw his club at him. The club missed his body, 
but just reached the tip of his tail. The ascetic said, " Be off" with you, I 
have missed you." Said the Bodhisatta, "Yes, you have missed me, but 
you will not miss the fourfold States of Sufi'ering." Than he ran off and 
disappeared in an ant-hill which stood at the end of the cloister walk, and 
putting out his head at some other hole, he addressed the ascetic in these 
two stanzas : 

One that plays the ascetic role 
Should exhibit self-control. 
Thou didst hiu-1 thy stick at me, 
False ascetic thou must be. 

Matted locks and robe of skin 
Serve to cloke some secret sin. 
Fool ! to cleanse for outward show, 
Leaving what is foul below. 

The ascetic, on hearing this, replied in a third stanza : 

Prithee, lizard, hasten back, 
Oil and salt I do not lack : 
Pepper too I would suggest 
May to boiled rice add a zest. 

[86] The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, uttered the fourth stanza : 

I will hide me snug and warm 
Midst the anthill's myriad swarm. 
Cease of oil and salt to prate. 
Pepper I abominate. 

Moreover he threatened him and said, "Fie! false ascetic, if you con- 
tinue to dwell here, I will have you seized as a thief by the people who 

58 The Jataka. Booh IV. 

live in my feeding ground, and given over to destruction. So make haste 
and be off." Then the false ascetic fled from that place. 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth: "At that time the rogue 
of a Brother was the false ascetic, but I myself was the royal lizard." 

No. 326. 


" He that from thievish act" etc. —This story was told by the ]\Iaster while 
he was at Jetavana, about Devadatta, how that after causing a schism in the 
Order, as he was going away with his chief disciples, when the assembly broke 
up, a hot stream of blood gushed from his mouth. Then the Brethren discussed 
the matter in the Hall of Truth, and said that Devadatta by speaking falsely had 
created a schism, and afterwards fell sick and suffered great pain. The Master 
came and inquired what subject the Brethren were discussing as they sat in 
conclave, and on hearing what it was he said, " Not now only. Brethren, but of 
old too this fellow was a liar, and not now only, but of old also he suffered pain 
as the penalty of lying." And so saying he repeated this old-world legend. 

[87] Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta became a certain god in the heaven of the Thirty-three. 
Now at this time thei'e was a great festival at Benares. A crowd of 
Nagas and Garuda birds and terrestrial deities came and watched the 
festival. And four divine beings from the heaven of the Thirty-three, 
weai-ing a wreath made of heavenly kakkaru flowers, came to see the 
festival. And the city for the space of twelve leagues was filled with 
the fragrance of these flowers. Men moved about, wondering by whom 
these flowers were worn. The gods said, "They are watching us," and 
flying up from the royal court, by an act of supernatui-al power they 
stood poised in the air. The multitude gathered together, and the king 
with his vassal princes came and asked from what world of the gods they 
had come. 

"We come from the heaven of the Thirty- three." 

"For what purpose ai-e you comel" 

"To see the festival." 

No. 326. 59 

"What are these flowers'? " 

"They are called the heavenly kakkarvi flowers." 

" Sii's," they said, "in the world of the gods you may have other flowers 
to wear. Give these to us." 

The gods made answer, "These divine flowers are fit for those possessed 
of great powers : for the base, foolish, faithless and sinful beings in this 
world of men they are not fitted. But whosoever amongst men are endued 
with such and such virtues, for them they are suitable." And with these 
words the chief amongst these divine beings repeated the first stanza : — 

He that from thievish act refrains. 

His tongue from lying word restrains. 

And reaching dizzy heights of fame 

Still keeps his head — this flower may claim. 

[88] On healing this the family priest thought, " I own not one of 
these qualities, but by telling a lie I will get these flowers to wear, and 
thus the people will credit me with these virtues." Then he said, "I am 
endued with these qualities," and he had the flowers brought to him and 
he put them on, and then begged of the second god, who replied in a 
second stanza :— 

He that should honest wealth pursue 
And riches gained by fraud eschew, 
In pleasure gross excess would shun, 
This heavenly flower has duly won. 

Said the priest, "I am endued with these virtues," and had the flowers 
brought to him and put them on, and then begged of the third god, who 
uttered the third stanza : — 

He that from purpose fixed ne'er swerves 
And his unchanging faith preserves. 
Choice food alone scorns to devour. 
May justly claim this heavenly flower. 

[89] Said the priest, "I am endued with these virtues," and had the 
flowers brought to him and he put them on, and then begged of the fourth 
god, who spoke the fourth stanza : — 

He that good men will ne'er attack 
When present, nor behind their back, 
And all he says, fulfils in deed, 
This flower may claim as his due meed. 

The pi'iest said, "I am endued with these vii-tues," and he had the 
flowers brought to him and put them on. So these divine beings gave the 
four wreaths of flowers to the priest and returned to the world of gods. 
As soon as they were gone, the priest was seized with a violent pain in the 
head, as if it were being pounded by a sharp spike, or crushed by an 

60 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

instrument of iron. Maddened with the pain he rolled up and down, and 
cried out with a loud voice. When men asked, "What means this]" he 
said, " I claimed these virtues when I had them not, and spoke falsely and 
so begged these flowers of the gods : take them from off my head." They 
would have removed them, but could not, for they were fastened as it were 
with an iron band. Then they raised him up and led him home. And as 
he lay there crying aloud, seven days passed. The king spake to his 
councillors and said, "This wicked brahmin will die. What are we to 
dol" "My lord," they answered, "let us again celebrate a festival. The 
sons of the gods will come back." 

[90] And the king held a festival, and the sons of the gods returned 
and filled all the city with the perfume of the flowers, and took their stand 
in the same place in the royal court. The people gathered together, and 
bringing that wicked brahmin they laid him down before the gods on his 
belly. He prayed the gods, saying, " My lords, spare my life." They said, 
" These flowers are not meet for a wicked and evil man. You thought in 
your heart to deceive us. You have received the reward of your false 
words. " 

After thus rebuking him in the presence of the people, they removed 
the wreath of flowers from his head and having admonished the people, 
they returned to their own place of abode. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : " At that time 
Devadatta was the brahmin, of the divine beings Kassapa was one, Moggallana 
was another, Sariputta a third, and 1 myself was the chief one of all." 

No. 327. 


'^^ Fragrant odours," e^c— This story was told by the Master while residing 
at Jetavana, of a certain Brother who regretted having taken orders. On this 
occasion the Master asked the Brother if it were true that he was discontented, 
and on his answering, " Yes, Holy Sir," he asked him the reason. The Brother 
replied, "By reason of sinful passion." The Master said, "Woman cannot be 
guarded. There is no keeping her safe. Sages of old placed a woman in mid 
ocean in a palace by the Simball lake 2, but failed to preserve her honour." Then 
he told a story of the olden time. 

Compare No. 360 /w/'ra. 

On Mount Meru : the Garudas live round it. 

No. 327. 61 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as the son of the king by his queen- consort. And 
when he was grown up, at his father's death he bare rule. Kakati was his 
chief queen and as lovely as an Apsara. [91] The old form of the legend 
will be found set forth in full in the Kunala Births Hei'e follows a brief 
summary of it. 

Now at this time a certain Garuda king came disguised as a man, and 
played at dice with the king of Benares. Falling in love with the chief 
queen Kakati, he carried her off with him to the dwelling place of the 
Garudas and lived happily with her. The king missing her told his 
musician named Natakuvera to go in quest of her. He found the Garuda 
king lying on a bed of eraka grass in a certain lake, and just as the 
Garuda was on the point of leaving that spot, he seated himself in the 
midst of the royal bird's plumage^, and was in this way conveyed to the 
dwelling place of the Garudas. There he enjoyed the lady's favours, and 
again seating himself on the bird's wing returned home. And when the 
time came for the Garuda to play at dice with the king, the minstrel took 
his lute and going up to the gaming board he stood before the king, and in 
the form of a song gave utterance to the first stanza : — 

Fragrant odours round me playing 

Breath of fair Kakati's love, 
From her distant home conveying 

Thoughts my inmost soul to move. 

On hearing this the Garuda responded in a second stanza : — 

Sea and Kebuk stream defying 

Didst thou reach my island home ? 
Over seven oceans flying 

To the Simbal gi-ove didst come ? 

[92] Natakuvera, on hearing this, uttered the third stanza : — 

'Twas through thee all space defying 

I was borne to Simbal grove. 
And o'er seas and rivers flying 

'Twas through thee I found my love. 

Then the Garuda king replied in the fourth stanza : — 

Out upon the foolish blimder. 

What a booby I have been ! 
Lovers best were kept asunder, 

Lo! I've served as go-between. 

So the Garuda brought the queen and gave her back to the king of 
Benares, and came not there any more. 

1 No. 536. 

- Compare Tibetan Tales, xii. p. 231. SuSrmii. 

62 The Jataka. Booh IV. 

The Master, his lesson ended, revealed the Truths and identified the Birth :— 
At the conclusion of the Truths the discontented Brother attained the fruition of 
the First Path :— " At that time the discontented Brother was Natakuvera, and 
I myself was the king." 

No. 328. 


" WhT/ should I shed tears" eilc— This story was told by the Master while 
living at Jetavana, of a certain landowner who had lost his wife. On her death, 
they say, he neither washed himself nor took food, and neglected his farm duties. 
Overcome with grief he would wander about the cemetery lamenting, while his 
predestination to enter the First Path blazed forth like a halo about his head. 
The Master, early one morning, casting his eye upon the world and beholding 
him said, "Save me there is no one that can remove this man's sorrow and 
bestow upon him the power of entering the First Path. I will be his refuge." 
So when he had returned from his rounds and had eaten his meal, he took an 
attendant priest and w^ent to the door of the landowner's house. [93] And he on 
hearing that the Master was coming went out to meet him, and with other 
marks of respect seated him in the prescribed seat and came and sitting on one 
side saluted him. 

The Master asked, " Wherefore, lay brother, are you silent ? " 

" Reverend Sir," he replied, " I am grieving for her." 

The Master said, " Lay brother, that which is breakable is broken, but when 
this happens, one ought not to grieve. Sages of old, when they lost a wife, knew 
this tiaith, and therefore sorrowed not." And then at his request the Master told 
an old-world tale. 

The old legend will be found set forth in the Cullabodhi Birth' in the 
Tenth Book. Here follows a short summary of it. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a brahmin family. And when he grew up, he 
studied all the arts at Takkasila and then returned to his parents. In 
this Birth the Great Being became a holy young student. Then his 
parents told him they would look out a wife for hira. 

" I have no desire for a married life," said the Bodhisatta. " When 
you are dead, I will adopt the religious life of an ascetic." 

And being greatly importuned by them, he had a golden image" made, 

» No. 443. 

2 For the incident of the golden image and the story generally compare Tibetan 
Tales, IX. p. 186. Mahdkdsyapa and Bhadrd, 

No. 328. 63 

and said, ' If you can find me a maiden like unto this, I will take her to 
wife.' His parents sent forth some emissaries with a large escort, and 
bade them place the golden image in a covered carriage and go and search 
through the plains of India, till they found just such a young brahmin girl, 
when they were to give this golden image in excliange, and bring the girl 
back with them. Now at this time a certain holy man passing from the 
Brahma world was born again in the form of a young girl in a town 
in the kingdom of Kasi, in the house of a brahmin worth eighty crores, 
and the name given her was Sammillabhasinl. At the age of sixteen she 
was a fair and gracious maiden, like to an Apsara, endued with all the 
marks of female beauty. And since no thought of evil was ever suggested 
to her by the power of sinful passion, she was perfectly pure. [94] So the 
men took the golden image and wandered about till they reached this 
village. The inhabitants on seeing the image asked, " Why is Sammilla- 
bhasinl, the daughter of such and such a brahmin, placed there?" The 
messengers on hearing this found the brahmin family, and chose Sammilla- 
bhasinl for the prince's bride. She sent a message to her pai-ents, saying, 
"When you are dead, I shall adopt the religious life; I have no desire for 
the maiTied state." They said, "What art thou thinking of, maiden?" 
And accepting the golden image they sent off their daughter with a great 
retinue. The marriage ceremony took place against the wishes of both the 
Bodhisatta and Sammillabhasinl. Though sharing the same room and the 
same bed they did not regard one another with the eye of sinful passion, 
but dwelt together like two holy men or two female saints. 

By and bye the father and mother of the Bodhisatta died. He per- 
formed their funeral rites and calling to him SammillaljhasinI, said to her, 
" My dear, my family property amounts to eighty crores, and yours too is 
worth another eighty crores. Take all this and enter upon household life. 
I shall become an ascetic." 

"Sir," she answered, "if you become an ascetic, I will become one too. 
I cannot forsake you." 

" Come then," he said. So spending all their wealth in almsgiving and 
throwing up their worldly fortune as it were a lump of phlegm, they 
journeyed into the Himalaya country and both of them adopted the ascetic 
life. There after living for a long time on wild fruits and roots, they at 
length came down from the Himalayas to procure salt and vinegar, and 
gradually found their way to Benai^es, and dwelt in the royal grounds. 
And while they were living there, this young and delicate female ascetic, 
from eating insipid rice of a mixed quality, was attacked by dysentery and 
not being able to get any healing remedies, she grew very weak. The 
Bodhisatta at the time for going his rounds to beg for alms, took hold of 
her and carried her to the gate of the city and there laid her on a bench 
in a certain hall, and himself went into the city for alms. He had scarce 

64 The Jataka. Book IV. 

gone out when she expired. The people, beholding the great beauty of 
this female ascetic, [95] thronged about her, weeping and lamenting. The 
Bodhisatta after going his round of begging returned, and hearing of her 
death he said, " That which has the quality of dissolution is dissolved. 
All impermanent existences are of this kind." With these words he sat 
down on the bench whei-eon she lay and eating the mixture of food he 
rinsed out his mouth. The people that stood by gathered round him and 
said, " Eeverend Sir, what was this female ascetic to you 1 " 
"When I was a layman," he replied, "she was my wife." 
" Holy Sir," they said, " while we weep and lament and cannot control 
our feelings, why do you not weep % " 

The Bodhisatta said, "While she was alive, she belonged to me in some 
sort. Nothing belongs to her that is gone to another world : she has 
passed into the power of others. Wherefore should I weep 1 " And 
teaching the people the Truth, he recited these stanzas : 

Why should I shed tears for thee, 
Fair Sammillabhasini ? 
Passed to death's majority^ 
Thou art henceforth lost to me. 

Wherefore should frail man lament 
What to him is only lent ? 
He too draws his mortal breath 
Forfeit every hour to death. 

Be he standing, sitting still. 
Moving, resting, what he will. 
In the twinkling of an eye, 
In a moment death is nigh. 

Life I count a thing unstable. 
Loss of friends inevitable. 
Cherish all that are alive, 
Sorrow not shouldst thou survive. 

[97] Thus did the Great Being teach the Truth, illustrating by these 
four stanzas the impermanence of things. The people performed funeral 
rites over the female ascetic. And the Bodhisatta returned to the 
Himalayas, and entering on the higher knowledge arising from mystic 
meditation was destined to birth in the Brahma-world. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths, the landowner attained to fruition of 
the First Path: — "At that time the mother of Rahula was Sammillabhasini, 
and I myself was the ascetic." 

^ Compare the classical usage of oi irXelovs, plures, for the dead. 

No. 329. * 65 

No. 329. 


" 07ice we enjoyed," etc. — This was a story told by the Master while dwelling 
in the Bamboo Grove, with regard to Devadatta's loss of gains and honour. For 
when Devadatta had unreasonably conceived a grudge against the Buddha and 
suborned a band of archers to slay him, his offence became known by the letting 
loose of the elephant Nalagiri i. Then men took away his office and the rations 
provided for him, and the king ceased to regard him. And having lost his 
source of gains and honour, he went about living on what he begged in noble 
families. The Brethren started a discussion in the Hall of Truth, how that 
Devadatta thought to get gain and honour, but when he had got it he could not 
keep it. The Master came and inquired what was the subject the Brethren sat 
in conclave to discuss, and on being told what it was he said, " Not only now. 
Brethren, but formerly too, Devadatta was deprived of gains and honour." And 
he then told them an old-world legend. 

Once upon a time when Dhanafijaya was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became a parrot named Radha. He was a well-grown bird 
with perfectly-formed limbs. And his younger brother was called 
Potthapada. A certain fowler trapped these two birds and brought 
them as a present to the king of Benares. The king put the pair in 
a golden cage [98] and took care of them and gave them honey and 
parched corn to eat in a golden dish and sugar-water to drink. Great 
attention was paid them, and they attained to the highest degree of 
profit and honour. Then a certain forester brought a big black monkey, 
called Kalabahu, as a present to the king, and from the fact of his coming 
later than the parrots, he received still greater gain and respect, while that 
paid to the parrots fell ofl". The Bodhisatta through his possession of 
Buddha qualities said not a word, but his younger brother, from the 
absence of these qualities being unable to put up with the honour paid to 
the monkey, said, "Brother, formerly in this royal house men gave us 
savoury food, but now we get nothing, and they offer it all to the monkey 
Kalabahu. As we receive neither gain nor honour in this place from the 
king, what are we to do ? Come, let us go and live in the forest." And 
as he talked with him, he uttered the first stanza : 

Once we enjoyed of food abundant store. 
This monkey now has what was ours before. 
Come, Radha, let us to the forest hie ; 
Such scurvy treatment what can justify ? 

1 See vol. ii. p. 140, and p. 168. 

J. III. 5 

66 The JataJca. Book IV. 

Radha, on hearing this, replied in the second stanza : 

Gain and loss and praise and blame, 
Pleasure, pain, dishonour, fame, 
All as transient states conceive — 
Why should Potthapada grieve? . 

[99] On hearing this, Potthapada was unable to get rid of his grudge 
against the monkey and repeated the third stanza : 

Radha, wisest bird alive. 

Sure thou knowest things to come, 
This vile creature who shall drive 

From the court to his old home ? 

Radha, on hearing this, uttered the fourth stanza : 

Oft will his puckered face and moving ears 
The royal children fill with foolish fears : 
Soon Kalabahu through some impish freak, 
Far far away his food will have to seek. 

In a very short time the monkey by shaking his ears and the like 
tricks before the young princes terrified them. In their alarm they made 
an outcry. The king asked what it meant, and hearing the cause, said, 
" Drive him away." So he had the monkey driven away, and the parrots 
were restored to their former condition of gain and honour. 

[100] The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : — " At that 
time Devadatta was Kalabahu, Ananda was Potthapada, and I myself was 

No. 330. 


'^ Power on earth,^' etc. — This was a story told by the Master when at Jetavana, 
about a brahmin who was ever proving his virtue. Two similar stories have 
been told before ^ In this case the Bodhisatta was the family priest of the king 
of Benares. 

1 No. 86, Vol. i., and No. 290, Vol. ii. 

No. 330. 67 

In testing his virtue he for three days took a coin from the royal 
treasurer's board. They informed against him as a thief, and when 
brought before the king, he said : 

Power on earth beyond compare, 

Virtue owns a wondrous charm : 
Putting on a virtuous air 

Deadly snakes avoid all harm. 

After thus praising virtue in the first stanza, he gained the king's 
consent and adopted the ascetic life. Now a hawk seized a piece of meat 
in a butcher's shop and darted up into the air. The other birds surrounded 
him and struck at him with feet, claws and beaks. Unable to bear the 
pain he dropped the piece of meat. Another bird seized it. It too in like 
manner being hard pressed let the meat fall. Then another bird pounced 
on it, and whosoever got the meat was pursued by the rest, and whosoever 
let it go was left in peace. The Bodhisatta on seeing this thought, 
"These desires of ours are like pieces of meat. To those that grasp at 
them is sorrow, and to those that let them go is peace." And he repeated 
the second stanza : 

While the hawk had aught to eat. 

Birds of prey pecked at him sore, 
When perforce he dropped the meat. 

Then they pecked at him no more. 

[101] The ascetic going forth from the city, in the course of his journey 
came to a village, and at evening lay down in a certain man's house. Now a 
female slave there named Pingala made an assignation with a man, saying, 
"You are to come at such and such an hour." After she had bathed the 
feet of her master and his family, when they had lain down, she sat on the 
threshold, looking out for the coming of her lover, and passed the first and 
the middle watch, repeating to herself, " Now he will be coming," but at 
daybreak, losing hope, she said, "He will not come now," and lay down and 
fell asleep. The Bodhisatta seeing this happen said, "This woman sat ever 
so long in the hope that her lover would come, but now that she knows he 
will not come, in her despair, she slumbers peacefully." And with the 
thought that while hope in a sinful world brings sorrow, despair brings 
peace, he uttered the third stanza : 

The fruit of hope fulfilled is bliss ; 
How differs loss of hope from this ? 
Though dull despair her hope destroys, 
Lo ! Pingala calm sleep enjoys i. 

Next day going forth from that village he entered into a forest, and 
beholding a hermit seated on the ground and indulging in meditation he 

' Compare Sdnkhya Aphorisms, iv. 11. Mahdbhdrata, xii. 6447. 


68 The Jataka. Book IV. 

thought, "Both in this world and in the next there is no happiness beyond 
the bliss of meditation." And he repeated the fourth stanza : 

In this world and in worlds to be 

Nought can surpass ecstatic joy: 
To holy calm a devotee, 

Himself unharmed, will none annoy. 

[102] Then he went into the forest and adopted the ascetic life of a 
Rishi and developed the higher knowledge born of meditation, and became 
destined to birth in the Brahma- World. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth: "At that time I 
myself was the family priest." 

No. 331. 


'•'■They that ivith speech inopportune^'' etc. — This story was told by the Master 
at Jetavana about Kokalika. The introductory story is told in full in the 
Takkarika Birth i. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was his valued minister. Now the king was very talkative. 
Thought the Bodhisatta, "I will put an end to his talkativeness," and went 
about looking for an apt illustration. So one day the king came to his 
garden and sat down on the royal slab of stone. Above his head was a 
mango tree and there in a crow's nest a black cuckoo had laid her egg and 
gone off. The female crow watched over that cuckoo's egg. By and bye a 
young cuckoo came forth from it The crow thinking it was her own 
offspring took care of it, bringing food for it in her beak. The young bird 
while still unfledged uttered a cuckoo cry prematurely. The crow thought, 
"This young bird even now utters a strange note. [103] What will it do, 
when it is olderf And so she killed it by pecking it with her beak and 
threw it out of the nest, and it fell at the king's feet. The king asked the 

1 No. 481. Compare No. 215, Vol. ii. 

No. 331. 69 

Bodhisatta, "What is the meaning of this, my friend?" Thought the 
Bodhisatta, " I am seeking for an illustration to teach the king a lesson, 
and now I have got one." So he said, "Garrulous folk. Great King, who 
talk too much out of season, meet with a fate like this. This young cuckoo, 
sire, being fostered by the crow, while yet unfledged, uttered a premature 
cry. So the crow knew it was not her offspring and killed it by pecking 
it with her beak and threw it out of the nest. All those that are too 
talkative out of season, be they men or beasts, suffer like trouble." And 
with these words he recited these stanzas : 

They that with speech inopportune offend 
Like the young cuckoo meet untimely end. 
Nor deadly poison, nor sharp-whetted sword 
Is half so fatal as ill-spoken word. 

The sage his measured words discreetly guides, 
Nor rashly to his second self confides : 
Before he speaks will prudent counsel take, 
His foes to trap, as Garuda the snake. 

[104] The king, after hearing the religious teaching of the Bodhisatta, 
thenceforth became more measured in his words, and increasing the glory 
of the Bodhisatta ever gave him more and more. 

The Master, having brought his lesson to an end, identified the Birth: 
"Kokalika in those days was the young cuckoo, and I myself was the wise 

No. 332. 


" WoundAng another^^ etc. — This story was told by the Master when he was at 
Jetavaua, about the family priest of the king of Kosala, who, it is said, as he was 
driving in his chariot to a village on his estate came upon a caravan in a narrow 
road, and crying out once and again, "Out of the way with you," was so enraged 
at a cart not clearing out of his way that he threw his goad-stick at the driver of 
the first cart. The stick struck against the yoke of the chariot, and rebounding 
hit him on the forehead and raised a bump on his head. The priest turned back 
and went and told the king he had been wounded by some carters. The carters 
were summoned, and the judges examining into the case found the priest only 
was to blame. One day the matter was discussed in the Hall of Truth, [105] 

70 The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

how that the king's chaplain, who said he had been assaulted by some carters, on 
going to law was cast in his suit. When the Master came and inquired what the 
Brethren were sitting in council to discuss, on hearing what it was he said, "Not 
now only, Brethren, but formerly also this fellow acted in precisely the same 
way." And he then told them a story of the olden time. 

Once upon a time when Brahinadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became his lord justice. The king's chaplain drives to a village 
where he was headman, and acts in exactly the same way as in the other 
tale, but in this version, when the king heard the priest's story, he sum- 
moned the carters and himself sat in judgment, and without examining 
into the matter he said, "You have beaten my priest and raised a bump on 
his forehead," and ordered all their property to be taken from them. Then 
said the Bodhisatta to him, "Sire, without even investigating the matter 
you order them to be mulcted of all their goods, but some men after 
inflicting wounds on themselves declare that they have been wounded by 
another. Therefore it is wrong for one who bears rule to act thus without 
trying the case. He ought not to act till he has heard everything." And 
then he recited these verses : 

Wounding another, his own wound he shows, 
Himself the smiter, he complains of blows. 
Wise men, king, of partial views beware. 
Hear both sides first, then judgment true declare. 
The idle sensual layman I detest, 
The false ascetic is a rogue confest. 
A bad king will a case unheard decide, 
Wrath in the sage can ne'er be justified. 
[106] The wari'ior prince a well-weighed verdict gives, 
Of righteous judge the fame for ever lives. 

The king on hearing the words of the Bodhisatta judged righteously, 
and when the case was duly tried, the blame was found to rest with the 
brahmin alone. 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth: "The Brahmin played the 
same part in both stories, and I myself was the wise minister in those days." 

N'o. 333. 71 

No. 333. 


" Theii ivert thou" etc. — This is a story told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
of a certain landowner. The introductory story has been told in full before 2. 
But in this case, as the husband and wife were returning home, after calling in a 
debt, in the course of their journey some hunters gave them a roasted lizard, 
bidding them both to eat of it. The man sent his wife to fetch water and ate up 
the whole lizard, and when she came back, he said, "My dear, the lizard has run 
away." "Well, my lord," she said, "what can one do with a roast lizard that 
runs away?" [107] She drank some water and afterwards at Jetavana when 
sitting in the presence of the Master, she was asked by him as follows: "Lay 
sister, is this man affectionate, loving and helpful to you?" She answered, "I 
am loving and affectionate to him, but he has no love for me." The Master 
said, "Well, suppose he does behave thus to you. Do not be grieved. When he 
recalls to mind your virtues, he will give supreme power to you alone." And at 
their request he related an old-world story. 

This old story is just like the one given above, but in this case, as the 
husband and wife were on their way home, some hunters saw how dis- 
tressed they were and gave them a roasted lizard and bade them share it 
between them. The royal lady tied it about with a creeper used as a 
string, and went on her way, carrying it in her hand. They came upon 
a lake, and leaving the high road sat down at the foot of a Bo-tree. 
The prince said, "Go, my dear, and fetch water from the lake in a lotus 
leaf, then we will eat this meat." She hung the lizard on a bough and 
went to fetch water. Her companion ate up all the lizard and then sat 
with averted face, holding the tip of the tail in his hand. When she 
returned with the water, he said, "My dear, the lizard came down from the 
bough and made for an ant-heap. I ran and seized it by the tip of its tail. 
The lizard broke in two and left in my hand the part I had seized and 
disappeared in the hole." 

" Well, my lord," she replied, " how can we deal with a roast lizard 
that runs away ? Come, let us be off." 

And so drinking the water, they journey to Benares. The prince when 
he came to the throne gave her the titular rank of queen consort, but no 
honour or respect was paid to her. The Bodhisatta, desiring to win honour 
for her, standing in the king's presence asked her, " Lady, is it not the case 
that we receive nothing at your hands % Why do you neglect us ] " 

1 Compare No. 223, Vol. ii. 

2 See No. 320, Vol. iii. 

72 The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

" Dear sir," she said, " I get nothing from the king. How then should 
I give a present to you 1 What is the king likely to give me nowl When 
we were coming from the forest, he ate a roast lizard all by himself." 

[108] "Lady," he said, "the king would not act after this sort. Do 
not speak thus of him." 

Then the lady said to him, " Sir, this is not clear to you, but it is clear 
enough to the king and me," and she repeated the first stanza : — 

Then wert thou first known to me. 

When in forest-depths, O king, 

Roasted lizard broke its string 
And from Bo-tree branch got free. 
Though 'neath robe of bark, I ween. 
Sword and coat of mail were seen. 

Thus spake the queen, making known the king's offence in the midst 
of his courtiers. The Bodhisatta, on hearing her, said, " Lady, ever since 
the time when your husband ceased to love you, why do you go on living 
here, making unpleasantness for both ? " and he repeated two stanzas : — 

To one that honours thee, due honom' show 

With full requital of good service done : 
No kindness on illiberal folk bestow. 

Nor those affect that would thy presence shun. 

Forsake the wretch who has forsaken thee, 
And love not one who has for thee no love, 

E'en as a bird forsakes a barren tree, 

And seeks a home in some far distant grove. 

[109] The king, while the Bodhisatta was yet speaking, called to mind 
her virtues and said, " My dear, ever so long I observed not your virtues, 
but through the words of this wise man, I have observed them. Bear with 
my offence. This whole realm of mine I give to you alone." And here- 
upon he spoke the fourth stanza : 

Far as in his power may be, 

Gratitude a king should show : 
All my realm I grant to thee. 

Gifts, on whom thou wilt, bestow. 

With these words the king confei-red on the queen supreme power, and 
thinking, " It was by this man that I was reminded of her virtues," he 
gave great power to the wise man also. 

The Master, having brought his lesson to an end, identified the Birth : — At 
the conclusion of the Truths, both husband and wife attained fruition of the 
First Path : — " The husband and wife of the present story played the same part 
in the old tale. But I myself was the wise minister." 

No. 334. 73 

No. 334. 


[110] " The bull through floods " etc. — This story was told by the Master when 
at Jetavaua concerning the admonition of a king. The introdnctory story will 
be found in full in the Tesakuna Birth i. But in this version of it the Master 
said, " Kings of old, Sire, hearkening to the words of the wise, bare rule justly 
and attained to the heavenly world." And at the request of the king he told a 
story of the olden times. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family. And when he came of age, he 
was trained in all the arts, and adopting the ascetic life he developed all 
the Faculties and Attainments, and took up his abode in a pleasant quarter 
of the Himalayas, living on wild fruits and roots. At this time the king 
being anxious to find out his defects, went about inquiring if there was 
any one who would tell him his faults. And not finding any one to speak 
to his dispraise, either within doors or without, either within the city or 
outside it, he wandered about the country side in disguise, thinking, " How 
will it be in the country ? " And not meeting with any one there to speak 
to his dispraise, and hearing men speak only of his merits, he thought, 
" How will it be in the Himalaya region ? " And he went into the forest 
and wandered about till he reached the hermitage of the Bodhisatta, whei'e 
after saluting him, and addressing him in a friendly manner he took a 
seat on one side. At that moment the Bodhisatta was eating some ripe 
figs which he had brought from the wood. They were luscious and sweet, 
like powdered sugar. He addressed the king and said, "Your Excellency, 
pray eat this ripe fig and drink some water." 

The king did so, and asked the Bodhisatta, " Why, Reverend Sir, is 
this ripe fig so exceedingly sweet ? " 

"Your Excellency," he replied, "the king now exercises his rule with 
justice and equity. That is why it is so sweet." 

[Ill] "In the reign of an unjust king, does it lose its sweetness. Sir?'' 

"Yes, Your Excellency, in the time of unjust kings, oil, honey, 
molasses and the like, as well as wild roots and fruits, lose their sweetness 
and flavour, and not these only but the whole realm becomes bad and 
fiavourless ; but when the rulers are just, these things become sweet and 
full of flavour, and the whole realm recovers its tone and flavour," 

1 No. 521, Vol. V. 

74 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

The king said, " It must be so, Reverend Sir," and without letting him 
know that he was the king, he saluted the Bodhisatta and returned to 
Benares. And thinking to prove the words of the ascetic, he ruled un- 
justly, saying to himself, "Now I shall know all about it," and after the 
lapse of a short time he went back and saluting the Bodhisatta, sat 
respectfully on one side. The Bodhisatta using exactly the same words, 
offered him a ripe fig, which proved to be bitter to his taste. Finding it 
to be bitter he spat it out, saying, "It is bitter. Sir." 

Said the Bodhisatta, "Your Excellency, the king must be unjust, for 
when rulers are unjust, everything beginning with the wild fruits in the 
wood, lose all their sweetness and flavour." And hereupon he recited these 
stanzas : — 

The bull through floods a devious course will take. 

The herd of kine all straggling in his wake: 

So if a leader tortuous paths pursue, 

To base ends will he guide the vulgar crew. 

And the whole realm an age of license rue. 

But if the bull a course direct should steer. 
The herd of kine straight follow in his rear. 
So shoiild their chief to righteous ways be true. 
The common folk injustice will eschew. 
And through the realm shall holy peace ensue. 

[112] The king after hearing the Bodhisatta's exposition of the Truth, 
let him know he was the king and said, " Holy Sir, formerly it was due 
to me alone that the figs were first sweet and then bitter, but now I will 
make them sweet again." Then he saluted the Bodhisatta and returned 
home, and ruling righteously restored everything to its original condition. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : " At that time 
Auanda was the king, and I myself was the ascetic." 

No. 335. 


'■'Jackal beware," etc. — This story was told by the Master while dwelling in 
the Bamboo Grove, about the attempt of Devadatta to imitate the Buddha. The 
incident that gave rise to the story has been told in full before '. Here is a short 
summary of it. 

1 See No. 204, Vol. ii. 

No. 335. 75 

When the Master asked Sariputta what Devadatta did when he saw him, the 
Elder replied, " Sir, in taking you off he put a fan in my hand and lay down, and 
then Kokalika struck him on the breast with his knee : and so in taking you off 
he got into trouble." The Master said, "This happened to Devadatta before," 
and being pressed by the Elder, he told an old-world legend. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a young lion, and dwelt in a cave of the Himalayas, 
[113] and one day after killing a buffalo and eating of its flesh he took a 
draught of water and returned home. A jackal saw him, and being- 
unable to escape lay down on his belly. 

The lion said, " What is the meaning of this, Mr Jackal 1 " 

" Sir," he said, " I would be your servant." 

The lion said, " Well, come on then," and conducting him to the place 
where he dwelt, he day by day brought him meat and fed him. When the 
jackal had grown fat on the lion's broken meat, one day a feeling of pride 
sprang up in him, and he drew nigh to the lion, and said, " My lord, I 
am ever a hindi'ance to you. You constantly bring me meat and feed 
me. To-day do you remain here. I will go and slay an elephant, and 
after eating my fill will bring some meat to you." Said the lion, " Friend 
jackal, let not this seem good in your eyes. You are not sprung from a 
stock that feeds on the flesh of the elephants that it kills. I will kill an 
elephant and bring its flesh to you. The elephant surely is big of body. 
Do not undertake what is contrary to your nature, but hearken to my 
words." And hereupon he spoke the first stanza: — 

Jackal, beware ! 

His tusks are long. 
One of thy puny race 
Would scarcely dare 
So huge and strong 
A beast as this to face. 

The jackal, though forbidden by the lion, issued forth from the cave 
and thrice uttered the cry of a jackal. And looking to the base of the 
mountain, he spied a black elephant moving below, and thinking to fall on 
his head he sprang up and turning over in the air fell at the elephant's 
feet. The elephant lifting up his fore foot planted it on the jackal's head 
and smashed his skull to pieces. [114] The jackal lay there groaning, and 
the elephant went off trumpeting. The Bodhisatta came and standing on 
the top of the precipice saw how the jackal had met his death, and said, 
"Through his pride was this jackal slain," and uttered three stanzas: — 

A jackal once assumed the lion's pride. 

And elephant as equal foe defied. 

Prone on the earth, while groans his bosom rent, 

He learned the rash encounter to repent. 

76 The Jataha. Booh IV. 

Who thus should challenge one of peerless fame, 
Nor mark the vigour of his well-knit frame, 
Shares the sad fate that on the jackal came. 

But who the measure of his own power knows. 

And nice discretion in his language shows, 

True to his duty lives and triumphs o'er his foes. 

[11-5] Thus did the Bodhisatta in these stanzas declare the duties 
proper to be done in this world. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth: "At that time 
Devadatta was the jackal, and I myself was the lion." 

No. 336. 


"Grass is still" etc. — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, of 
a certain rogue. The incident that suggested the story has been already related. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became his minister and temporal and spiritual adviser. The 
king of Benares went against the king of Kosala with a large army, and 
coming to Savatthi, after a battle entered the city and took the king 
prisoner. Now the king of Kosala had a son, prince Chatta by name. 
He made his escape in disguise, and went to Takkasila, where he acquired 
the three Vedas and the eighteen liberal arts. Then he left Takkasila, 
and while still studying the practical uses of science he arrived at a certain 
border village. In a wood near this five hundred ascetics dwelt in huts of 
leaves. The i^riuce approached them, and with the idea of learning some- 
what of them, he became an ascetic, and so acquii'ed whatsoever knowledge 
they had to impart. By and bye he became the leader of that band of 

One day he addressed his company of holy men and asked them, 
saying, " Sirs, why do you not go to the central region ? " 

No. 336. 77 

"Sir," they said, "in the central region are said to be living wise 
men. [116] They pose one with questions, call upon one to return thanks 
and to i-epeat a form of blessing, and reprove the incompetent. And there- 
foi'e we are afraid to go there." 

" Fear not," he said, " I will manage all this for you." 

"Then we will go," they said. And all of them taking their various 
requisites in due course reached Benares. Now the king of Benares, 
having got all the kingdom of Kosala into his possession, set up loyal 
officials as governors, and himself, having collected all their available 
treasure, returned with his spoil to Benares. And filling iron pots with 
it, he buried them in the I'oyal garden, and then continued to live there. 
So these holy men spent the night in the king's garden, and on the morrow 
went into the city to beg alms, and came to the door of the palace. The 
king was so charmed with their deportment that he called them up and 
made them sit on the dais and gave them rice and cakes, and till it was 
their meal-time asked them such and such questions. Chatta won the 
king's heart by answering all his questions, and at the close of the meal he 
oflfered up various forms of thanksgiving. The king was still more pleased, 
and exacting a promise from them he made them all stay in his garden. 

Now Chatta knew a spell for bringing to light buried treasure, and 
while dwelling there he thought, " Where can this fellow have put the 
money which belonged to my father 1 " So repeating the spell and looking 
about him he discovered that it was buried in the garden. And thinking 
that with this money he would recover his kingdom also, he addressed the 
ascetics and said, " Sirs, I am the son of the king of Kosala. When our 
kingdom was seized by the king of Benares, I escaped in disguise, and so 
far I have saved my life. But now I have got the property which belonged 
to my family. With this will I go and i-ecover my kingdom. What will 
you do 1 " 

"We too will go with you," they replied. 

" Agreed," he said, and had some big leather sacks made, and at night 
digging a hole in the ground he pulled out the treasure-pots, [117] and 
putting the money into the sacks he had the pots tilled with grass. Then 
he ordered the five hundred holy men and others as well to take the 
money, and fled to Savatthi. There he had all the king's oflScers seized, 
and recovering his kingdom he restored the walls, watch-towers and other 
works, and having thus made the city impregnable against the attack of 
any hostile king, he took up his abode there. It was told to the king of 
Benares, " The ascetics have carried oflf the treasure from your garden and 
are fled." He went to the garden and opening the pots found only grass 
in them. And by reason of his lost treasure great sorrow fell upon him. 
Going to the city he wandered about murmuring, " Grass, grass," and no 
one could assuage his grief. Thought the Bodhisatta, "The king is in 

78 The Jataka. Book IV. 

great trouble. He wanders to and fro, idly chattering. Except myself, 
no one has the power to drive away his sorrow. I will free him from his 
trouble." So one day while seated quietly with him, when the king began 
to chatter, he repeated the first stanza : 

" Grass " is still thy constant cry ; 

Who did take thy grass away ? 
What thy need of it, or why 

Dost thou this word only say? 

Tlie king, on hearing what he said, replied in a second stanza : 

Chatta, holy man of fame. 
As it happened this way came: 
Him alone to blame I hold, 
Substituting grass for gold. 

[118] The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, uttered a third stanza : 

Canny folk their rule should make, 
" Little give and mickle take." 
What he took was all his own, 
What he left was grass alone. 

On hearing this the king uttered the fourth stanza : 

Virtue follows no such rules. 
These are morals fit for fools. 
Doubtful morals they must be. 
Learning too is vanity. 

While he thus blamed Chatta, the king by these words of the Bodhi- 
satta was freed from his sorrow and ruled his kingdom righteously. 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : " At that time 
the knavish Brother was the great Chatta, and I myself was the wise minister." 

No. 337. 


'■^Alasl we offered thee," etc. — This story the Master told while living at Jeta- 
vana, about a certain Brother. He came, it was said, from the country to 
Jetavana, and, after putting away his bowl and robe, he saluted the Master and 
inquired of the young novices, saying, " Sirs, who look after the stranger 
Brethren that come to Savatthi?" [119] "The Treasurer Anathapindika," they 
said, "and the great and holy lay sister Visakha look after the order of the 
Brethren, and stand in the place of father and mother to them." " Very good," 

No. 337. 79 

he said, and next day quite early, before a single brother had entered the house, 
he came to Anathapindika's door. From his having come at an unseasonable 
hour there was no one to attend to him. Without getting anything there he 
went off to the door of Visakha's house. There also from having come too early, 
he got nothing. After wandering hither and thither he came back, and finding 
the rice-gruel was all finished, he went off. Again he wandered about hither 
and thither, and on his return, finding the rice all finished, he went back to the 
monastery, and said, " The brethren here speak of these two families as faithful 
believers, but both of them really are without faith and unbelievers." Thus did 
he go about abusing these families. So one day they started a discussion in the 
Hall of Truth, how that a certain Brother from the country came to the door of 
certain households too early, and failing to obtain alms went about reviling 
those families. When the Master came and inquired what was the topic the 
Brethren were sitting to discuss, on hearing what it was, he called the Brother 
and asked him if it were true. When the Brother said, " Yes, your Reverence, it 
is true," the Master asked, "Why are you angry, Brother? Of old, before 
Buddha arose upon the world, even ascetics when they visited a household and 
received no alms, showed no anger." And with this he told a story of the olden 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family, and when he was of age he 
studied all the arts at Takkasila, and subsequently adopted the religious 
life of an ascetic. After sojourning a long time in the Himalayas he went 
to Benares to procure salt and vinegar, and, taking up his abode in a 
garden, on the next day he entered the city for alms. There was at this 
time a merchant at Benai-es, who was a faithful believer. The Bodhisatta 
asked which was a believing household, and on hearing of the merchant's 
family, he went to the door of his house. At that moment the merchant 
had gone to pay his respects to the king, and neither did any of his people 
happen to see him. So he turned back and came away. 

Then the merchant who was returning from the palace saw him, [120] 
and saluting him took liis alms-bowl and led him to his house. There he 
oflfered him a seat and comforted him with the washing and anointing of 
his feet, and with rice, cakes and other food, and in the course of his meal 
he asked him one thing and another, and after he had finished eating, he 
saluted him and sitting respectfully on one side, he said, " Reverend Sir, 
strangers who have come to our doors, whether beggars or holy priests or 
brahmins, have never before gone away without receiving marks of honour 
and respect, but to-day owing to your not being seen by our retainers, you 
have gone away without being ofiered a seat, or water to drink, and with- 
out having your feet washed, or rice and gruel given you to eat. This is 
our fault. You must forgive us in this." And with these words he uttered 
the first stanza : 

Alas ! we offered thee no seat. 
No water brought, nor anything to eat : 

We here confess our sinfulness. 
And pardon humbly. Holy Sir, entreat. 

80 The Jataha. Book IV. 

The Bodhisatta on hearing this repeated the second stanza : 

Nought have I to condone, 

No anger do I feel, 
The thought just once I own 
Across my mind did steal, 
" Habits of people here 
Are just a trifle queer." 

The merchant hearing this responded in two more stanzas : 

The custom of our family — 'twas so 
Received by us from ages long ago — 
Is to provide the stranger with a seat, 
Supply his needs, bring water for his feet 
And every guest as kinsman dear to treat. 

[121] And the Bodhisatta, after sojourning there a few days, and 
teaching the merchant of Benares his duty, went straight back to the 
Himalayas, where he developed all the Faculties and Attainments. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the Brother attained fruition of the 
First Path : — "At that time Ananda was the merchant of Benares, and I myself 
was the ascetic." 

No. 338. 


" With sense so nice," etc. — This story was told by the Master while living in 
the Bamboo Grove, of prince Ajatasattu. At the time of his conception there 
arose in his mother, the daughter of the king of Kosala, a chronic longing to 
drink blood from the right knee of king Bimbisara^ (her husband). Being 
questioned by her attendant ladies, she told them how it was with her. The king 
too hearing of it called his astrologers and said, " The queen is possessed of such 
and such a longing. What will be the issue of it ?" The astrologers said, " The 
child conceived in the womb of the queen will kill you and seize your kingdom." 
" If my son," said the king, " should kill me and seize my kingdom, what is the 
harm of it ? " And then he had his right knee opened with a sword and letting 
the blood fall into a golden dish gave it to the queen to drink. She thought, " If 
the son that is born of me should kill his father, what care I for him ? " and en- 
deavoured to bring about a miscarriage. [122] The king hearing of it called her 
to him and said, " My dear, it is said, my son will slay me and seize my kingdom. 

1 Compare Tibetan Tales vi. Prince Jivaka. 

No. 338. 81 

But I am not exempt from old age and death : suflfer me to behold the face of 
my child. Henceforth act not after this manner." But she still went to the 
garden and acted as before. The king on hearing of it forbade her visits to the 
garden, and when she had gone her full time she gave birth to a son. On his 
naming-day, because he had been his father's enemy, while still unborn, they 
called him prince Ajatasattu. As he grew up with his princely surroundings, 
one day the Master accompanied by five hundred Brethren came to the king's 
palace and sat down. The assembly of the Brethren with Buddha at their head 
was entertained by the king with choice food, both hard and soft. And after 
saluting the Master the king sat down to listen to the law. At this moment 
they dressed up the young i^rince and brought him to the king. The king 
welcomed the child with a strong show of affection and placed him on his 
lap, and fondling the boy with the natural love of a father for his child, he did 
not listen to the law. The Master observing his inattention said, " Great king, 
formerly kings when suspicious of their sons had them kept in a secret place, 
and gave orders that at their death they were to be brought forth and set 
upon the throne." And at the request of the king he told him a legend of the 
olden time. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was a far-famed teacher at Takkasila and trained many young 
princes and sons of brahmins in the arts. Now the son of the king of 
Benares, when he was sixteen years old, came to him and after he had 
acquired the three Vedas and all the liberal arts and was perfect in them, 
he took leave of his master. The teacher regarding him by his gift of 
prognostication thought, "There is danger coming to this man through his 
son. By my magic power I will deliver him from it." And composing 
four stanzas he gave them to the young prince and spoke as follows : " My 
son, after you are seated on the throne, when your son is sixteen years old, 
utter the first stanza while eating your rice ; repeat the second stanza at 
the time of the great levee ; the third, as you are ascending to the palace 
roof, standing at the head of the stairs, and the fourth, [123] when entering 
the royal chamber, as you stand on the threshold." 

The prince readily assented to this and saluting his teacher went away. 
And after acting as viceroy, on his father's death he ascended the throne. 
His son, when he was sixteen years of age, on the king's going forth to 
take his pleasure in the garden, observing his father's majesty and power 
was filled with a desire to kill him and seize upon his kingdom, and spoke 
to his attendants about it. They said, " True, Sir, what is the good of 
obtaining power, when one is old 1 You must by some means or other 
kill the king and possess yourself of his kingdom." The prince said, " I 
will kill him by putting poison in his food." So he took some poison and 
sat down to eat his evening meal with his father. The king, when the rice 
was just served in the bowl, spoke the first stanza : 

With sense so nice, the husks from rice 

Rats keen are to discriminate : 
They cared not much the husks to touch, 

But grain by grain the rice they ate. 

J. III. 6 

82 TJie Jataka. Book IV. 

" I am discovered," thought the prince, and not daring to administer 
the poison in the bowl of rice, he rose up and bowing to the king went 
away. He told the story to his attendants and said, "To-day I am found 
out. How now shall I kill him?" From this day forth they lay concealed 
in the garden, and consulting together in whispers said, "There is still one 
expedient. When it is time to attend the great levee, gird on your sword, 
and taking your stand amongst the councillors, when you see the king off 
his guard, you must strike him a blow with your sword and kill him." 
Thus they aiTanged it. The prince readily agreed, and at the time of the 
great levee, he girt on his sword [124] and moving about from place to 
place looked out for an opportunity to strike the king. At this moment 
the king uttered the second stanza : 

The secret counsel taken in the wood 

By me is understood : 
The village plot soft whispered in the ear 

That too I hear. 

Thought the prince, " My father knows that I am his enemy," and ran 
away and told his attendants. After the lapse of seven or eight days they 
said, " Prince, your father is ignorant of your feeling towards him. You 
only fancy this in your own mind. Put him to death." So one day he 
took his sword and stood at the top of the stairs in the royal closet. The 
king standing at the head of the staircase spoke the third stanza : 

A monkey once did cruel measures take 
His tender offspring imi^otent to make. 

Thought the pi-ince, "My father wants to seize me," and in his terror 
he fled away and told his attendants he had been threatened by his father. 
After the lapse of a fortnight they said, " Prince, if the king knew this, he 
would not have put up with it so long a time. Your imagination suggests 
this to you. [125] Put him to death." So one day he took his sword and 
entering the royal chamber on the upper floor of the palace he lay down 
beneath the couch, intending to slay the king, as soon as he came. At 
the close of the evening meal, the king sent his retiniie away, wishing to 
lie down, and entering the royal chamber, as he stood on the threshold, he 
uttered the fourth stanza : 

Thy cautious creeping ways 
Like one-eyed goat in mustard field that strays. 
And who thou art that ku"kest here below, 

This too I know. 

Thought the prince, " My father has found me out. Now he will put 
me to death." And seized with fear he came out fi'om beneath the couch, 
and throwing down his sword at the king's feet and saying, " Pardon me, 
my lord," he lay grovelling before him. The king said, " You thought, no 

No. 338. 83 

one knows what I am about." And after rebuking him he ordered him to 
be bound iu chains and put into the prison house, and set a guard over 
him. Then the king meditated on the virtues of the Bodhisatta. And by 
and bye he died. When they had celebrated his funeral rites, they took 
the young prince out of prison and set him on the throne. 

The Master here ended his lesson and said, "Thus, Sire, kings of old 
suspected in cases in which suspicion was justified," and related this incident, 
[12(5] but the king gave no heed to his words. The Master thus identified the 
Birth : " At that time the far-famed teacher at Takkasila was I myself" 

No. 339. 


^^ Before the crested peacocJc,^^ etc. — This story was told by the Master when at 
Jetavana, of certain heretics who lost their former gains and glory. For the 
heretics who before the Birth of Buddha received gain and honour, lost the same 
at his Birth, becoming like fireflies at sunrise. Their fate was discussed in the 
Hall of Truth. When the Master came and inquired what was the topic the 
Brethren were discussing in their assembly, on being told what it was, he said, 
"Brethren, not now only, but formerly too, before the appearance of those 
endowed with virtue, such as were without virtue attained to the highest 
gain and glory, but when those who were endowed with virtue appeared, 
such as were devoid of it lost their gain and glory." And with this he told 
a legend of bygone days. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a young peacock. And when he was fully 
grown, he was exceedingly beautiful and lived in a forest. At that 
time some merchants came to the kingdom of Baveru, bringing on board 
ship with them a foreign crow. At this time, it is said, there were no 
birds in Baveru, The natives who from time to time came and saw this 
bird perched on the top of the mast, said, " Mark the colour of this bird's 
skin. Look at its beaked mouth at the end of its throat, and its eyes like 
jewel-balls." Thus singing the praises of this crow they said to these 
merchants, " Sirs, give us this bird. We have need of it, and you can get 
another in your own country." 

" Then take it," they said, " at a price." 


84 The Jdtaka. Booh IV. 

" Give it us foi' a single piece of money," they said. 

" We will not sell it for that," said the merchants. 

[127] Gradually increasing their offer the people said, "Give it us for 
a hundred pieces of money." 

"It is very useful," they replied, "to us, but let there be friendship 
between us and you." And they sold it for one hundred pieces. 

The natives took it and put it in a golden cage and fed it with various 
kinds of fish and meat and wild fruits. In a place where no other birds 
existed, a crow endowed with ten evil qualities attained the highest gain 
and glory. The next time these merchants came to the kingdom of 
Baveru, they brought a royal peacock which they had trained to scream 
at the snapping of the fingers and to dance at the clapping of the hands. 
When a crowd had gathered together, the bird stood in the fore part of 
the vessel, and flapping its wings uttered a sweet sound and danced. 

The people that saw it were highly delighted and said, " This king 
of birds is very beautiful and well-trained. Give it to us." 

The merchants said, "We fii'st brought a crow. You took that. Now 
we have brought this royal peacock and you beg for this too. It will be 
impossible to come and even mention the name of any bird in your 

"Be content, Sirs," they said, "give this bird to us and get another in 
your own land." 

And raising the price offered they at last bought it for a thousand 
pieces. Then they put it in a cage ornamented with the seven jewels and 
fed it on fish, flesh and wild fruits, as well as with honey, fried corn, sugar- 
water and the like. Thus did the royal peacock receive the highest gain 
and glory. From the day of his coming, the gain and honour paid to the 
ci-ow fell off. And no one wanted even to look at it. The crow no longer 
getting food either hard or soft, with a cry of " Caw, caw," went and 
settled on a dunghill. 

The Master, making the connexion between the two stories, in his Perfect 
Wisdom repeated these stanzas : 

[128] Before the crested peacock had appeared. 

Crows were with gifts of fruit and meat revered : 

The sweet- voiced peacock to Baveru came, 

The crow at once was stripped of gifts and fame. 

So man to divers priests due honour paid, 

Till Buddha the full light of Truth displayed : 

But when the sweet-voiced Buddha preached the law, 

From heretics their gifts and praise all men withdraw. 

After uttering these four stanzas, he thus identified the Birth: "At that 
time the Jain Nathaputta was the crow, and I myself was the royal peacock." 

No. 340. 85 

No. 340. 


'■^ Of old, Visayha" etc. — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
of Anathapindika. The incident that gave rise to the story has been already 
told in full in the Khadirangara Birth '^. On this occasion the Master addressing 
Anathapindika said, " Wise men of old, my lay bi'othei', gave alms, rejecting the 
counsel of Sakka, king of heaven, when he stood in mid-air and tried to prevent 
them, saying, "Give not alms." And at his request the Master told a story 
of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became a great merchant, named Visayha, worth eighty crores. 
[129] And being endowed with the Five Virtues, he was liberal and fond 
of almsgiving. He had alms-halls built at the four city gates, in the heart 
of the city, and at the door of his own house. At these six points he set 
on foot almsgiving, and every day six hundred thousand men went forth 
to beg, and the food of the Bodhisatta and that of the beggars was exactly 
the same. 

And as he thus stirred up the people of all India by his gifts, the 
abode of Sakka was shaken by the extraordinary efficacy of his charity, 
and the yellow marble throne of the king of heaven showed signs of heat. 
Sakka exclaimed, " Who, I wonder, would make me fall from my seat in 
heaven 1" And looking about him he espied the great merchant and 
thought to himself, " This Visayha gives alms and by scattering his gifts 
everywhere is stirring up all India. By means of his almsgiving, methinks, 
he will dethrone me and himself become Sakka. I will destroy his wealth 
and make him a poor man, and so bring it about that he shall no longer 
give alms." So Sakka caused his oil, honey, molasses, and the like, even 
all his treasure of grain to vanish, as well as his slaves and work people. 
Those who were deprived of his gifts came and said, " My lord, the alms- 
hall has disappeared. We do not find anything in the various places set 
up by you." " Take money hence," he said. " Do not cut off the giving of 
alms." And calling his wife, he bade her keep up her charity. She 
searched the whole house, and not finding a single piece of money, she 
said, " My lord, except the clothes we wear, I see nothing. The whole 
house is empty." Opening the seven jewel treasuries they found nothing, 
and save the merchant and his wife no one else was seen, neither slaves 

^ See Jatakamfild, no. 5, " The Story of Avishahya." 
2 No. 40, Vol. i. 

86 Tlie Jataka. Book IV. 

nor hirelings. The Bodhisatta again addressing his wife said, " My dear, 
we cannot possibly cut off our charities. Search the whole house till you 
find something." 

At that moment a certain grass-mower threw down his sickle and pole 
and the rope for binding the grass in the doorway, and ran away. The 
merchant's wife found them and said, "My lord, this is all I see," [130] 
and brought and gave them to hira. Said the Bodhisatta, " My dear, all 
these years I have never mown grass before, but to-day I will mow grass 
and take and sell it, and by this means dispense the fitting alms." So 
through fear of having to cut off his charities, he took the sickle and the 
pole and the rope, and going forth from the city came to a place of much 
grass, and mowing it tied it up in two bundles, saying, "One shall belong 
to us, and with the other I will give alms." And hanging the grass on 
the pole he took it and went and sold it at the city gate, and receiving 
two small coins he gave half the money to the beggars. Now there were 
many beggars, and as they repeatedly cried out, " Give to us also," he gave 
the other half of the money also, and passed the day with his wife fast- 
ing. In this way six days passed, and on the seventh day, while he was 
gathering the grass, as he was naturally delicate and had been fasting 
for seven days, no sooner did the heat of the sun strike upon his forehead, 
than his eyes began to swim in his head, and he became unconscious and 
fell down, scattering the grass. Sakka was moving about, observing what 
Visayha did. And at that instant the god came, and standing in the air 
uttered the first stanza : 

Of old, Visayha, thou didst alms bestow 
And to almsgiving loss of wealth dost owe. 
Henceforth show self-restraint, refuse to give. 
And thou midst lasting joys for aye shalt live. 

[131] The Bodhisatta on hearing his words asked, "Who art thou?" 

"I am Sakka," he said. The Bodhisatta replied, "Sakka himself by 

giving alms and taking upon him the moral duties, and keeping fast days 

and fulfilling the seven vows attained the ofiice of Sakka. But now thou 

forbiddest the almsgiving that brought about thy own greatness. Truly 

thou art guilty of an unworthy deed." And so saying, he repeated three 

stanzas : 

It is not right, men say, that deed of shame 

Should stain the honour of a noble name. 

O thou that dost a thousand eyes possess 

Guard us from this, e'en in our sore distress. 

Let not our wealth iu faithless wise be spent 

On our own pleasure or aggrandisement, 

But as of old our stores with increase bless. 

By that same road a former chariot went 

A second may well go. So will we give 

As long as we have wherewithal to live. 

Nor at the worst each generous thought repress. 

No. 340. 87 

[132] Sakka being unable to stop him from his purpose asked him 
why he gave alms. "Desiring," he said, "neither Sakkahood nor Bi'ah- 
maship, but seeking omniscience do I give." Sakka in token of his 
delight on hearing these words patted him on the back with his hands. 
At the very instant the Bodhisatta enjoyed this favour, his whole frame 
was filled with joy. By the supernatural power of Sakka all manner 
of prosperity was restored to him. " Great merchant," said Sakka, 
"henceforth do thou every day give alms, distributing twelve hundred 
thousand portions." And creating countless wealth in his house, Sakka 
took leave of him and returned straight to his own place of abode. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, thus identified the Birth: "At that 
time the mother of Rahula was the merchant's wife, and I myself was Visayha." 

No. 341. 


The story of this Birth will be set forth in full in the Kunala Birth K 

No. 342. 


[133] "ffave I from water" etc. — This story was told by the Master, when 
dwelling in the Bamboo Grove, concerning the going about of Devadatta to kill 
the Buddha. The incident that led to the story has been already given in 

1 No. 523, Vol. V. 

2 See no. 208, Vol. ii. 

88 The Jataka. Book IV. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life as a young monkey in the Himalaya region. And 
when fully grown he lived on the banks of the Ganges. Now a certain 
female crocodile in the Ganges conceived a longing for the flesh of the 
Bodhisatta's heart, and told it to her husband. He thought, " I will kill 
the Bodhisatta by plunging him in the water and will take his heart's 
flesh and give it to my wife." So he said to the Bodhisatta, " Come, my 
friend, we will go and eat wild fruits on a certain island." 

" How shall I get there 1 " he said. 

" I will put you on my back and bring you there," answered the 

Innocent of the crocodile's purpose he jumped on his back and sat 
there. The crocodile after swimming a little way began to dive. Then 
the monkey said, " Why, Sir, do you plunge me into the water 1 " 

"I am going to kill you," said the crocodile, "and give your heart's 
flesh to my wife." 

" Foolish fellow," said he, " do you suppose my heart is inside me? " 

*' Then where have you put it 1 " 

" Do you not see it hanging there on yonder fig-tree 1 " 

" I see it," said the crocodile. " But will you give it meV 

" Yes, I will," said the monkey. 

Then the crocodile — so foolish was he — took him and swam to the foot 
of the fig-tree on the river bank. The Bodhisatta springing from the 
crocodile's back perched on the fig-tree and repeated these stanzas : 

Have I from water, fish, to dry land passed 
Only to fall into thy power at last? 
Of bread fruit and rose apples I am sick, 
And rather figs than yonder mangoes pick. 
He that to great occasion fails to rise 
'Neath foeman's feet in sorrow prostrate lies : 
[134] One prompt a crisis in his fate to know 

Needs never dread oppression from his foe. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta in these four stanzas tell how to succeed in 
worldly affairs, and forthwith disappeared in the thicket of trees. 

The Master, having brought his lesson to an end, identified the Birth : "At 
that time Devadatta was the crocodile, and I myself was the monkey." 

No. 343. 89 

No. 343. 


"Long I held" etc. — This .story was told by the Master at Jetavana, concerning 
a heron that lived in the house of the king of Kosala. She carried messages, 
they say, for the king, and had two young ones. The king sent this bird with a 
letter to some other king. When she was gone away, the boys in the royal 
family squeezed the young birds to death in their hands. The mother bird came 
back and missing her young ones, asked who had killed her ofl'spring. They 
said, " So and So." And at thi,s time there was a fierce and savage tiger kept in 
the palace, fastened by a strong chain. Now these boys came to see the tiger 
and the heron went with them, thinking, " Even as my young ones were killed 
by them, just so will I deal with these boys," and she took hold of them and 
threw them down at the foot of the tiger. The tiger with a growl crunched 
them up. The bird said, " Now is the wish of my heart fulfilled," and flying up into 
the air made straight for the Himalayas. On hearing what had happened they 
started a discussion in the Hall of Truth, saying, [135] "Sirs, a heron, it is said, 
in the king's palace threw down before a tiger the boys who killed her young ones, 
and when she had thus brought about their death, she made off"." The Master 
came and inquired what it was the Brethren were discussing and said, "Not now 
only. Brethren, but formerly also did she bring about the death of those who 
killed her young ones." And herewith he related a legend of the past. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta at Benares ruled his kingdom with, 
justice and equity. A certain heron in his house carried messages for 
him. And so on just as before. But the special point here is that in this 
case the bird, having let the tiger kill the boys, thought, " I can no longer 
remain here. I will take my departure, but though I am going away 
I will not leave without telling the king, but as soon as I have told him I 
will be off." And so she drew nigh and saluted the king, and standing a 
little way off said, " My lord, it was through your carelessness that the 
boys killed my young ones, and under the influence of passion I in revenge 
caused their death. Now I can no longer live here." And uttering the first 
stanza she said : 

Long I held this house as mine, 

Honour great I did receive. 
It is due to act of thine 

I am now compelled to leave. 

The king on hearing this repeated the second stanza : 

Should one to retaliate, 

Wrong with equal wrong repay. 
Then his anger should abate ; 

So, good heron, prithee stay. 

90 The Jataha. Booh IV. 

[136] Hearing this the bird spoke the thii'd stanza : 

Wronged can with wrong-doer ne'er 

As of old "be made at one : 
Novight, king, can keep me here, 

Lo ! from henceforth I am gone. 

The king, on hearing this, spoke the foui-th stanza : 

Should they wise, not foohsh be, 

With the wronged wrong-doer may 
Live in peace and harmony: 

So, good heron, prithee, stay. 

The bird said, " As things are, I cannot stay, my lord," and saluting 
the king she flew up into the air and made straight for the Himalayas. 

The ]\Iaster, his lesson ended, thus identified the Birth : " The heron in the 
former tale was the heron in this, but the king of Benares was myself." 

No. 344. 


[137] " She that did thy mangoes eat," etc. — This story was told by the ^Master 
while at Jetavana, concerning an elder who kept watch over mango fruit. When 
he was old, they say, he became an ascetic and built him a hut of leaves in 
a mango orchard on the outskirts of Jetavana, and not only himself continually 
ate the ripe fruit that fell from the mango trees, but also gave some to his 
kinsfolk. When he had set out on his round of alms-begging, some thieves 
knocked down his mangoes, and ate some and went off with others. At this 
moment the four daughters of a rich merchant, after bathing in the river 
Aciravati, in wandering about strayed into the mango orchard. When the 
old man returned and found them there, he charged them with having eaten 
his mangoes. 

" Sir," they said, " we have but just come ; we have not eaten your mangoes." 

"Then take an oath," he said. 

" We will, Sir," they said, and took an oath. The old man having thus put 
them to shame, by making them take an oath, let them go. 

The Brethren, hearing of his action, raised a discussion in the Hall of Truth, 
how that an old man exacted an oath from the daughters of a merchant, who 
entered the mango orchard where he himself lived, and after putting them to 
shame by administering an oath to them, let them go. When the Master came 
and on inquiring what was the topic they sat in council to discuss, heard what it 
was, he said, " Not now only, Brethren, but formerly also this old man, when he 
kept watch over mangoes, made certain daughters of a rich merchant take an 
oath, and after thus putting them to shame let them go." And so saying he 
told a story of the past. 

No. 344. 91 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Beuares, the 
Bodhisatta became Sakka. At that time a knavish ascetic built a 
hermitage of leaves in a mango orchard on a river bank near Benares, and 
keeping watch over the mangoes, ate the ripe fruit that fell from the 
mango trees and also gave some to his kinsfolk, and dwelt there gaining 
his livelihood by various false practices. 

At this time Sakka, king of heaven, thought " Who, I wonder, in this 
world of men support their parents, pay honour to the aged members of 
their family, give alms, keep the moi'al law and observe fast days ] Which 
of them after adopting the religious life, continually devote themselves to 
the duties befitting priests, and which of them again are guilty of mis- 
conduct? " And exploring the world he spied this wicked ascetic keeping 
watch over his mangoes [138] and said, "This false ascetic, abandoning his 
duties as a priest, such as the process by which religious ecstasy may be 
induced and the like, is continually watching a mango orchard. I will 
frighten him soundly." So when he was gone into the village for alms, 
Sakka by his supernatural power knocked down the mangoes, and made as 
if they had been plundered by thieves. At this moment four daughters of 
a merchant of Benares entered the orchard, and the false ascetic on 
seeing them stopped them and said, "You have eaten my mangoes." 

They said, "Sir, we have but just come. We have not eaten them." 

"Then take an oath," he said. 

"But in that case may we go?" they asked. "Certainly, you may." 

"Very well. Sir," they said, and the eldest of them sware an oath, 
uttering the first stanza : 

She that did thy mangoes eat, 

As her lord shall own some churl, 
That with dye grey hairs would cheat 

And his locks with tongs would curl. 

The ascetic said, "Stand thou on one side," and he made the second 
daughter of the mei'chant take an oath, and she repeated the second 
stanza : 

Let the maid that robbed thy tree 

Vainly for a husband sigh, 
Past her teens though she may be 

And on thirty verging nigh. 

And after she had taken an oath and stood on one side, the third 
maiden uttered the third stanza : 

[139] She that thy ripe mangoes ate 
Weary path shall tread alone, 
And at trysting place too late 
Grieve to find her lover G;one. 

92 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

When she had taken an oath and stood aside, the fourth maiden 
uttered the fourth stanza : 

She that did thy tree despoil 

Gaily dressed, with wreath on head. 
And bedewed with sandal oil 

Still shall seek a virgin bed. 

The ascetic said, "This is a solemn oath you have taken; others must 
have eaten the mangoes. Do ye therefore now be gone." And so saying, 
he sent them away. Sakka then presented himself in a terrible form, and 
drove away the false ascetic from the place. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : "At that time this 
false ascetic was the old man who watched mangoes. The four merchant's 
daughters played the same part then as now. But Sakka was myself." 

No. 345. 


"Should a Jiame sioeep" etc. — This story was told by the Master at Jetavana, 
concerning a slothful Brother. He was, it was said, of gentle birth and lived at 
Savatthi. And after giving a hearty assent to the doctrine and taking orders, he 
became slothful, and as regards rehearsal of the Law, catechizing, enlightened 
devotion and the round of priestly duties, he did not fully enter into them, being 
overcome by his besetting sins, and was always to be found at public lounging- 
places. The Brethren discussed his sloth in the Hall of Truth, saying, "Such 
an one, Sirs, after taking orders in so excellent a faith that leads to Salvation, 
is continually slothful and indolent, and overcome by his besetting sins." 
[140] When the Master came and inquired what the Brethren were assembled 
to discuss, on being told what it was, he said, "Not now only, Brethren, but 
formerly too was he slothful." And so saying he told an old-world tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became his valued minister. The king of Benares was of a 
slothful disposition, and the Bodhisatta went about considering some 
means to rouse the king. Now one day the king went to his garden, 
accompanied by his minister, and while wandering about there he espied a 
slothful tortoise. Lazy creatures like these, they say, though they are in 
motion a whole day, move only just an inch or two. 

No. 345. 93 

The king on seeing it asked, saying, " Friend, what is its namel" 
The Bodhisatta answered, "The creature is called a tortoise, great king; 
and is so lazy that though it is in motion all day, it only moves just an 
inch or two." And addressing it he said, "Ho ! Sir Tortoise, yours is a 
slow motion. Supposing a conflagration arose in the forest, what would 
you do?" And herewith he spoke the first stanza: 

Should a flame sweep through the grove, 

Leaving blackened path behind, 
How, Sir Waddler, slow to move. 

Way of safety couldst thou find ? 

The tortoise on hearing this repeated the second stanza : 

Holes on every side abound, 

Chinks there be in every tree, 
Here a refuge will be found 

Or an end of us 'twill be. 

[141] On hearing this the Bodhisatta gave utterance to two stanzas : 

Whoso doth hurry when he ought to rest, 
And tarries long when utmost speed is best. 
Destroys the slender fabric of his weal, 
As withered leaf is crushed beneath the heel. 
But they who wait betimes nor haste too soon, 
Fulfil their piu-pose, as her orb the moon. 

The king, hearing the words of the Bodhisatta, thenceforth was no 
longer indolent. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth: "At that time 
the slothful Brother was the tortoise, and I myself was the wise councillor." 

No. 346. 


" Thou that of late," etc. — This story the Master while at Jetavana told con- 
cerning the Feast of Friendship. 

In the house of Anathapindika, they say, five hundred Brethren were con- 
stantly fed. [142] The house was continually like a place of refreshment for the 
assembly of the Brethren, bright with the sheen of their yellow robes and blown 
upon with saintly odours. So one day the king in making a solemn procession 

94 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

round the city caught sight of the assembly of the Brethren in the Treasurer's 
house, and thinking, "I too will grant a perpetual alms to the assembly of 
saints," he went to the monastery and after greeting the Master he instituted 
perpetual alms for five hundred Brethren. Thenceforth there is a perpetual 
giving of alms in the king's house, even choice food of rice with the perfume of the 
rain upon it, but there are none to give it with their own hands, with marks of 
affection and love, but the king's ministers dispense the food, and the Brethren 
do not care to sit down and eat it, but taking the various dainty foods, they go 
each to the house of his own retainers, and giving them the food, themselves eat 
whatever is set before them, whether coarse or dainty. 

Now one day much wild fruit was brought to the king. The king said, "Give 
it to the Order of the Brethren." 

They went to the refectory and came and told the king, "There is not a 
single Brother there." 

"What, is it not time yet?" said the king. 

"Yes it is time," they said, "but the Brethren take the food in your house, 
and then go to the abode of their trusty servitors, and give the food to theiu, 
and themselves eat whatsoever is served up to them, whether it be coarse or 

The king said, "Om- food is dainty. Why in the world do they abstain from 
ours and eat some other food ? " And thinking, "I will inquire of the Master," he 
went to the monastery and asked him. 

The Master said, "The best food is that which is given in love. Owing to 
the absence of those who by giving in love establish friendly feeling, the Brethren 
take the food and eat it in some friendly place of their own. There is no flavour, 
Sire, equal to that of love. That which is given without love, though it be 
composed of the four sweet things, is not worth so much as wild rice given with 
love. Wise men of old, when sickness arose amongst them, though the king 
with his five families of leeches provided remedies, if the sickness were not 
thus assuaged, repaired to their intimate friends and by eating broth of wild rice 
and millet, without salt, or even leaves without salt, sprinkled with water only, 
were healed of their sickness." And with these words at their request he told 
them a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family in the kingdom of Kasi, [143] 
and they called him young Kappa. When he came of age, he acquired all 
the arts at Takkasila and afterwai-ds adopted the religious life. At this time 
an ascetic named Kesava attended by five hundred other ascetics became the 
teacher of a band of disciples and abode in the Himalayas. The Bodhisatta 
came to him and becoming the senior of the five hundred pupils, dwelt 
there and shewed a friendly feeling and affection for Kesava. And they 
became very intimate one with another. 

By and bye Kesava accompanied by these ascetics went to Benares to 
procure salt and vinegar and lodged in the king's garden. Next day he 
went into the city and came to the palace door. When the king saw the 
band of holy men, he invited them in and fed them in his own house, and 
exacting the usual promise from them, he lodged them in his garden. So 
when the rainy season was over, Kesava took leave of the king. The king 
said, " Holy Sir, you are an old man. Do you now dwell near us, and send 

No. 346. 95 

the young ascetics to the Himalayas." He agreed and sent them with the 
head disciple to the Himalayas and himself was left quite alone. Kafipa 
went to the Himalayas and dwelt there with the ascetics. Kesava was 
unhappy at being deprived of the society of Kappa, and in his desire to 
see him got no sleep, and in consequence of losing his sleep, his food was 
not properly digested. A bloody flux set in, followed by severe pains. 
The king with his five families of leeches watched over the ascetic, but his 
sickness abated not. 

The ascetic asked the king, "Do you, Sire, wish for me to die or to 
recover 1 " 

" To recover, Sir," he answered. 

"Then send me to the Himalayas," he said. 

" Agreed," said the king, and sent to a minister named Narada, and 
bade him go with some foresters and take the holy man to the Himalayas. 
Narada took him there and returned home. But by the mere sight of 
Kappa, Kesava's mental disorder ceased and his unhappiness subsided. 
[144] So Kappa gave him broth made of millet and wild rice together with 
leaves sprinkled with water, without salt and spices, and at that very 
instant tbe dysentery was assuaged. The king again sent Narada saying, 
" Go and learn tidings of the ascetic Kesava." He came and finding him 
recovered said, "Reverend Sii-, the king of Benares treating you with his 
five families of leeches could not heal your sickness. How did Kappa 
treat you? " And herewith he uttered the first stanza: 

Thou that of late with lord of men didst dwell, 
A king prepared to grant thy heart's desire. 

What is the charm of Kappa's hermit cell 
That blessed Kesava should here retire I 

Kesava on hearing this repeated the second stanza : 

All here is charming : e'en the very trees 

Narada, my fancy take. 
And Kappa's words that never fail to please 

A grateful echo in my heart awake. 

After these words he said : " Kappa by way of pleasing me gave me to 
drink broth made of millet and wild rice mixed with leaves sprinkled with 
water, and without salt and spices, and therewith was my bodily sickness 
stayed and I was healed." 

Narada, hearing this, repeated the third stanza : 

Thou that but now the purest rice didst eat 
Boiled with a dainty flavouring of meat. 
How canst thou relish such insipid fare 
And millet and wild rice with hermits share ? 

96 The Jataka. Book IV. 

[145] On hearing this Kesava uttered the fourth stanza ; 

The food may coarse or dainty prove, 

May scanty be or much abound, 
Yet if the meal is blest with love, 

Love the best sauce by far is found. 

Narada on hearing his words returned to the king and told him, 
"Kesava says thus and thus." 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : "At that time the 
king was Auanda, Narada was Sariputta, Kesava was Bakabrahma^, Kappa was 

No. 347. 


" Why in mid air," etc. — This story the Master, while dwelling at Jetavana, 
told concerning the duty of doing good to men. The incident that led to the 
story will be set forth in the Mahakanha Birth ^. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as the son of his chief queeu. And when he was of 
age, he was instructed in all the arts and on the death of his father was 
established in his kingdom and governed it righteously. 

At that time men were devoted to the worship of the gods [146] and 
made religious offerings to them by the slaughter of many goats, rams and 
the like. The Bodhisatta proclaimed by beat of drum, "No living creature 
is to be put to death." The Yakkhas were enraged against the Bodhisatta 
at losing their offerings, and calling together an assembly of their kind in 
the Himalayas, they sent forth a certain savage Yakkha to slay the 
Bodhisatta. He took a huge blazing mass of iron as big as the dome of a 

1 See no. 405. 

^ See R. Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 336. 

3 No. 469, Vol. iv. 

No. 347. 97 

house, and thinking to strike a deadly blow, immediately after the mid 
watch, came and stood at the bed's head of the Bodhisatta. At that instant 
the throne of Sakka manifested signs of heat. After considering the 
matter the god discovered the cause, and grasping his thunderbolt in his 
hand he came and stood over the Yakkha. The Bodhisatta on seeing the 
Yakkha thought, "Why in the world is he standing here? Is it to 
protect me, or from a desire to slay me?" And as he talked with him he 
repeated the first stanza : 

Why in mid air, O Yakklia, dost thou stand 
With yon huge bolt of iron in thy hand ? 
Art thou to guard me from all harm intent. 
Or here to-day for my destruction sent ? 

Now the Bodhisatta saw only the Yakkha. He did not see Sakka. 
The Yakkha through fear of Sakka durst not strike the Bodhisatta. On 
hearing the words of the Bodhisatta the Yakkha said, "Great king, I am 
not stationed here to guard you ; I came minded to smite you with this 
blazing mass of iron, but through fear of Sakka I dare not strike you." And 
to explain his meaning he uttered the second stanza : 

As messenger of Rakkhasas, lo ! here 
To compass thy destruction I appear. 
But all in vain the fiery bolt I wield 
Against the head that Indra's self would shield. 

On hearing this the Bodhisatta repeated two more stanzas : 

If Indra, Suja's lord, in heaven that reigns. 
Great king of gods, my cause to champion deigns, 
[147] With hideous howl though goblins rend the sky, 
No demon brood has power to terrify. 
Let mud-sprite devils gibber as they may. 
They are not equal to so stern a fray. 

Thus did Sakka put the Yakkha to flight. And exhorting the Great 
Being, he said, " Great king, fear not. Henceforth we will protect you. 
Be not afraid." And so saying he returned straight to his own place of 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth: "At that time 
Anuruddha was Sakka, and I myself was the king of Benares." 

J. III. 

98 The Jataka. Book IV. 

No. 348. 


" This do2ibt, my father" etc. — This story the Master told when dwelling at 
Jetavana, concerning the seduction of a youth by a certain coarse girl. The 
incident that led up to the story will be set forth in the CuUanaradakassapa 
Birth 1. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin household. And when he grew up and 
was learned in all the arts at Takkasila, his wife died and he adopted the 
religious life and went with his son to dwell in the Himalayas. There 
leaving his son in a hermitage, he went forth to gather all kinds of fruit. 
At that time as some brigands were harrying a border village, and were 
going off with their jDrisoners, a certain damsel fled for refuge to this 
hermitage [148] and by her seductions corrupted the virtue of the youth. 
She said to him, "Oome, let us begone." 

"Let my father first return," he said, "and after I have seen him, I 
will go with you." 

"Well, when you have seen him, come to me," she said. And going 
out she sat herself down in the middle of the road. The young ascetic, 
when his fetlier had come, spoke the first stanza : 

This doubt, my father, solve for me, I pray; 
If to some village from this wood I stray. 
Men of what school of morals, or what sect 
Shall I most wisely for my friends affect ? 

Then his father, by way of warning him, repeated three stanzas : 

One that can gain thy confidence and love, 

Can trust thy word, and with thee patient prove. 

In thought and word and deed will ne'er oflfend — 

Take to thy heart and cling to him as friend. 

To men capricious as the monkey-kind 

And found unstable, be not thou inclined. 

Though to some desert lone thy lot should be confined. 

[149] On hearing this the young ascetic said, "Dear father, how shall I 
find a man possessed of these virtues 1 I will not go. With you only will 
T live." And so saying he turned back. Then his father taught him the 

1 No. 477, Vol. iv. 

No. 348. 99 

preparatory rites to induce mystic meditation. And both father and son, 
without falling away from religious ecstasy, became destined to birth in 
the Brahma-world. 

The Master, his lesson ended, thus identified the Birth: "At that time the 
youth and the maiden were the same as in the later story. The ascetic was 

No. 349. 


'■'■Nought in common" etc. — This story the Master, dwelling at Jetavana, told 
concerning the moral precept on slander. 

Ouce upon a time the Master hearing that the Six"^ Priests collect slanderous 
tales, called them to him and asked, "Is it true, Brothers, that you collect 
slanderous tales of such of your brethren as are inclined to quarrelling and 
strife and dispiitation, and that quarrels therefore, that would not otherwise 
arise, spring up and when they so arise have a tendency to grow 1 " " It is true," 
they said. Then he reproved those brethren and said, "Brothers, backbiting 
speech is like to a blow with a sharp sword. A fii-m friendship is quickly broken 
up by slander and people that listen thereto become liable to be estranged from 
their fi-iends, as was the case with the lion and the bull." And so saying he told 
an old legend of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as his son, and after acquiring all the arts at Takkasila, 
on his father's death, he ruled his kingdom righteously. 

At that time a certain neatherd, who was tending cattle in their sheds 
in the forest, came home and inadvertently left behind him a cow that was 
in calf. Between this cow and a lioness sprang up a firm friendship. The 

^ See no. 361 infra, Tibetan Tales, xxxiii. p. 325, ' The Jackal as Calumniator,' 
and Benfey's Introduction to the Panchatantra. 
- See Vol. i. no. 28, p. 71. 


100 The Jdtaka. Book IV. 

two animals became fast friends and went about together. So after a time 
the cow brought forth a calf and the lioness a cub. These two young 
creatures also by the force of family ties became fast friends and wandered 
about together. [150J Then a certain forester, after observing their affec- 
tion, took such wares as are produced in the forest and went to Benares 
and presented them to the king. And when the king asked him, " Friend, 
have you seen any unusual marvel in the forest?" he made answer, "I saw 
nothing else that was wonderful, my lord, but I did see a lion and a bull 
wandering about together, very friendly one towards another." 

"Should a third animal appear," said the king, "there will certainly 
be mischief Come and tell me, if you see the pair joined by a third 

" Certainly, my lord," he answered. 

Now when the forester had left for Benares, a jackal ministered to the 
lion and the bull. When he returned to the forest and saw this he said, 
" I will tell the king that a third animal has appeared," and departed for 
the city. Now the jackal thought, " There is no meat that I have not 
eaten except the flesh of lions and bulls. By setting these two at variance, 
I will get theii" flesh to eat." And he said, " This is the way he speaks of 
you," and thus dividing them one from another, he soon brought about a 
quarrel and reduced them to a dying condition. 

But the forester came and told the king, " My lord, a third animal has 
turned up." "What is it?" said the king. "A jackal, my lord." Said 
the king, "He will cause them to quarrel, and will bring about their death. 
We shall find them dead when we arrive." And so saying, he mounted 
upon his chariot and travelling on the road pointed out by the forester, he 
arrived just as the two animals had by their quarrel destroyed one anothei*. 
The jackal highly delighted was eating, now the flesh of the lion, and now 
that of the bull. The king when he saw that they were both dead, stood 
just as he was upon his chariot, and addressing his charioteer gave utterance 
to these verses : 

[151] Nought in common had this pair. 
Neither wives nor food did share ; 
Yet behold how slanderous word, 
Keen as any two-edged sword. 
Did devise with cunning art 
Friends of old to keep apart. 
Thus did bull and lion fall 
Prey to meanest beast of all : 
So will all bed-fellows be 
With this pair in misery, 
If they lend a willing ear 
To the slanderer's whispered sneer. 
But they thrive exceeding well, 
E'en as those in heaven that dwell. 
Who to slander ne'er attend — 
Slander parting friend from friend. 

No. 349. 101 

[152] The king spoke these verses, and bidding them gather together 
the mane, skin, claws, and teeth of the lion, returned straight to his own 

The Master, having ended his lesson, thus identified the Birth : "At that 
time I myself was the king." 

No. 350. 


This Question will be found in the Ummagga Jataka. 

No. 351. 


[153] "Stript of all thejoi/s of life," etc. — This .story the Master, while dwelling 
at Jetavana, told concerning a councillor who was guilty of misconduct in the 
harem of the king of Kosala. The incident that gave rise to the story has been 
given in fvxll before i. 

Here too the Bodhisatta became king in Benares. The wicked councillor 
called in the king of Kosala and got Mm to seize upon the kingdom of 
Kasi, and to throw the Bodhisatta into prison. The king of Benares 
developed ecstatic meditation and sat cross-legged in the air. A fierce 
heat sprang up in the body of the marauding king, and he drew nigh to the 
king of Benares and repeated the first stanza : 

Stript of all the joys of life. 

Jewelled earrings, horse and car, 
Robbed of child and loving wife. 

Nought thy pleasure seems to mar. 

[154] On hearing him the Bodhisatta recited these verses : — 

Pleasures soon make haste to leave us. 

Pleasures soon must all forego. 
Sorrow has no power to grieve us, 

Joy itself soon turns to woe. 
Moons with new-born orb appearing 

Wax awhile, to wane and die, 
Suns with warmth all nature cheering. 

Haste to set in yonder sky. 
Change is this world's law I .see, 
Sorrow has no pangs for me. 

' See no. 282, Vol. ii. and no. 303 supra. 

No. 351. 103 

Thus now did the Great Being expound the Truth to the usurper 
king, and bringing his conduct to the test, repeated these stanzas' : — 

The idle sensual layman I detest, 
The false ascetic is a rogue confest. 

A bad king will a case unheard decide; 
Wrath in the sage can ne'er be justified. 

The warrior prince a well-weighed verdict gives, 
Of righteous judge the fame for ever lives. 

[155] The king of Kosala having thus gained the forgiveness of the 
Bodhisatta and given him back his kingdom, departed to his own country. 

The Master, having ended his discourse, thus identified the Bii'th : "At that 
time Ananda was the king of Kosala, and I myself was the king of Benares." 

No. 352. 


" 1F% haste to bring," etc. — This story the Master, while dwelling at Jetavana, 
told concerning a landowner who had lost his father. On the death of his father, 
they say, he went about lamenting, quite unable to shake off his grief. The 
Master perceived in the man a capacity to attain to the Fruit of Salvation, and 
when he went his rounds in Savatthi for alms, accompanied by an attendant 
priest, he came to his house and sitting down on the seat prepared for him he 
bowed to his host, who was also seated, and said, "Lay Brother, art thou 
grieving?" and on his replying, "Yes, Reverend Sir, I am," he said, "Friend, 
sages of old hearkened to the words of Wisdom, and when they lost a father, 
they did not grieve." And at the request of his host he told a story of the olden 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life in the house of a landowner. And they called 
him young Sujata. When he was grown up, his grandsire died. Then 
his father from the day of the old man's death was filled with sorrow, and 
taking his bones from the place of cremation he ei-ected an earth-mound in 
his pleasui'e-garden, and depositing the remains there, whenever he visited 

1 These stanzas occur also in no. 332 supnt. 

104 The Jdtaka. Booh V. 

the place, adorned the tope with flowers and studiously lamented, neither 
bathing nor anointing himself nor eating. Neither did he attend to his 
business. The Bodhisatta, on observing this, thought, " My father ever 
since the death of my grandfather goes about overwhelmed with grief. 
And no one, I am sure, except myself has power to console him. I will 
find a way to deliver him from his sorrow." 

[156] So seeing a dead ox lying outside the city, he brought grass and 
water and placing them before it said, "Eat and drink, eat and drink." 
All that passed by on seeing this said, "Friend Sujata, are you mad? Do 
you ofier grass and water to a dead ox?" But he answered not a word. 

So they went to his father and said, " Your son has become mad. He 
is giving grass and water to a dead ox." On hearing this the landowner 
ceased to grieve for his father, and began to grieve for his son. And he 
went in haste and cried, "My dear Sujata, are you not in your sober 
senses? Why do you offer grass and water to the carcase of an ox?" 
And hereupon he spoke two stanzas : — 

Why haste to bring thy new-mown grass so sweet. 
And cry to lifeless beast, 'Arise and eat'? 

No food may raise to life an ox that's dead, 
Thy words are idle and of folly bred. 

Then the Bodhisatta uttered two stanzas : — 

Methinks this beast may come to life again, 
Both head and tail and its four feet remain. 

But of my grandsire head and limbs are gone : 
No fool weeps o'er his grave, but thou alone. 

[157] On hearing this the father of tlie Bodhisatta thought: "My son 
is wise. He knows the right thing to be done both for this world and for 
the next. He did this to console me." And he said, "My dear and wise 
son Sujata, it is known to me that all existing things are impermanent. 
Henceforth I will not grieve. Such a son as this must be every one that 
would remove a father's grief." And singing the praises of his son he 
said : — 

As ghee-fed flame that blazes out amain 

Is quenched with water, so he quenched my pain. 

With sorrow's shaft my heart was wounded sore. 

He healed the wound and did my life restore. 

The barb extracted, full of peace and joy, 

I cease to grieve and hearken to my boy. 

Thus kindly souls wean mortals from their grief, 

As wise Sujata brought his sire relief. 

The IMaster having ended his discourse revealed the Truths and identified 
the Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the landowner attained fruition of 
the First Path : — "At that time I myself was Sujata." 

No. 353. 105 

No. 353. 


'''•'Though thoio art noio" etc. — This story the Master, while living in the 
Bhesakala grove near Sumsumaragiri (Mount Crocodile) in the country of the 
Bhaggas, told concerning young prince Bodhi. This prince was the son of 
Udena, and at this time dwelt in Suriisumaragiri. Now he summoned a very 
skilful artisan, and got him to build him a palace called Kokanada, and to make 
it unlike that of any other king. [158] And afterwards he thought, "This 
artisan may build a similai' palace for some othei' king." And from a feeling of 
envy he plucked out his eyes. This circumstance became known in the assembly 
of the Brethren. Then they raised a discussion in the Hall of Truth, saying, 
"Sirs, young prince Bodhi had the eyes of such and such an artisan put out. 
Surely he is a harsh, cruel, and violent man." The Master came and asked what 
was the topic the Brethren were debating as they sat together, and hearing what 
it was he said, "Not now only, but formerly too such was his nature, and of old 
in like manner he put out the eyes of a thousand warriors and, after slaying 
them, he offered up their flesh as a religious sacrifice." And so saying he told 
them a story of past times. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became a world-renowned teacher at Takkasila, and youths of 
the warrior and brahmin castes came from all India, to be taught the arts 
by him. The son of the king of Benares too, prince Brahmadatta, was 
taught the three Vedas by him. Now he was by nature harsh, cruel, 
and violent. The Bodhisatta, by his power of divination knowing his 
character, said, " My friend, you are harsh, cruel, and violent, and verily 
power that is attained by a man of violence is shortlived : when his power 
is gone from him, he is like a ship that is wrecked at sea. He reaches 
no sure haven. Therefore be not of such a character." And by way of 
admonition he repeated two stanzas : — 

Though thou art now with peace and plenty blest. 
Such happy fate may shoi't-lived prove to be: 

Should riches perish, be not sore distrest. 

Like storm-tost sailor wrecked far out at sea. 

Each one shall fare according to his deed, 
And reap the harvest as he sows the seed, 
Whether of goodly herb, or maybe noxious weed. 

[159] Then he bade his teacher farewell and returned to Benares, and 
after exhibiting his proficiency in the arts to his father, he was established 
in the viceroy alty and on his father's death he succeeded to the kingdom. 
His family priest, Pingiya by name, was a harsh and cruel man. Being- 
greedy of fame, he thought, " What if I were to cause all the rulers of 

106 The Jdtaka. Book V. 

India to be seized by this king, and if he should thus become sole 
monarch and I become sole priest?" And he got the king to hearken to 
his words. 

And the king marched forth with a great army and invested the city 
of a certain king and took him prisoner. And by similar means he gained 
the sovereignty of all India, and with a thousand kings in his train, he 
went to seize upon the kingdom of Takkasila. The Bodhisatta repaired 
the walls of the city and made it imjjregnable to its enemies. And the 
king of Benares had a canopy set up over him and a curtain thrown round 
about him, at the foot of a big banyan tree on the banks of the Ganges. 
And having a couch spread for him, he took up his quarters there. 
Fighting in the plains of India he had taken captive a thousand kings, but 
failing in his attack on Takkasila, he asked his priest, " Master, though we 
have come hither with a host of captive kings, we cannot take Takkasila. 
What now are we to do ? " 

" Great king," he answered, " put out the eyes of the thousand kings 
[160] and ripping open their bellies let us take their flesh and the five 
sweet substances and make an offering to the guardian deity of this 
banyan. And surrounding the tree with a rimmed circumference let us 
fill it with blood five inches deep. And so shall the victory soon be 

The king readily assented and concealing mighty wrestlers behind the 
curtain, he summoned each king separately, and when the wrestlers had 
squeezed them in their arms till they had reduced them to a state of 
insensibility, he had their eyes put out, and after they were dead, he took 
the flesh and caused the carcases to be carried away by the Ganges. Then 
he made the ofiering, as described above, and had the drum beaten and 
went forth to battle. Then came a certain Yakkha fi-om his watch-tower 
and tore out the right eye of the king. Severe pain set in, and maddened 
by the agony he sufiered, he went and lay down at full length upon the 
couch prepared for him at the foot of the banyan tree. At this moment a 
vulture took a sharp-pointed bone, and perched on the top of the tree, in 
eating the flesh it let drop the bone, and the sharp point falling as with 
iron spikes on the king's left eye, destroyed that eye too. At this 
moment he recalled the words of the Bodhisatta and said, " Our teacher 
when he said ' These mortals experience results corresponding to their 
deeds, even as fruit corresponds with the seed,' spoke, I suppose, with all 
this before his mind's eye." And in his lamentation he addressed Piiagiya 
in two stanzas : — 

Ah ! now at last I recognize the truth 

The Master taught me in my heedless youth : 

'Sin not,' he cried, 'or else the evil deed 

To thine own punishment may one day lead.' 

No. 353. 107 

Beneath this tree's trim boughs and quivering shade 

Libation due of sandal oil was made. 

'Twas here I slew a thousand kings, and lo ! 

The pangs they suft'ered then, I now must undergo. 

[161] Thus lamenting, he called to mind his queen-consort, and repeated 
this stanza : — 

O Ubbari, my queen of swarthy hue. 

Lithe as a shoot of fair moringa tree. 
That dost thy limbs with sandal oil bedew. 

How should I live, bereft of sight o1 thee ? 

Yea death itself than this less grievous far would be! 

While he was still murmuring these words, he died and was born 
again in hell. The priest so ambitious of power could not save him, nor 
could he save himself by his own power, and as soon as he died, his army 
broke up and fled. 

The Master, having ended his lesson, thus identified the Birth: "At tliat 
time the young prince Bodhi was the marauding king, Devadatta was Pingiya, 
and I myself was the world-famed teacher." 

No. 354. 


[162] '■'■Mail quits his mortal frame," etc. This story the Master, while dwelling 
at Jetavana, told concerning a landowner whose son had died. The iutrodiictory 
story is just the same as that of the man who lost both his wife and father. 
Here too the Master in the same way went to the man's house, and after saluting 
him as he was seated, asked him sayiug, "Pray, Sir, are you grieving?" And on 
his replying, "Yes, Reverend Sir, ever since my son's death I grieve," he said, 
"Sir, verily that which is subject to dissolution is dissolved, and that which is 
subject to destruction is destroyed i, and this happens not to one man only, nor 
in one village merely, but in coimtless spheres, and in the three modes of ex- 
istence, there is no creature that is not subject to death, nor is there any existing 
thing that is capable of abiding in the same condition. All beings are subject to 

1 Compare the story of Epictetus as given by Bacon, Advancement of Learning, i. 8. 
The philosopher one day saw a woman weeping for a broken pitcher, and next day saw 
another woman weeping over her dead son. Whereupon he said, " Heri vidi fragilem 
frangi, hodie ridi mortalem niori.'^ 

108 The Jataka. Booh V. 

death, and all compounds are subject to dissolution. But sages of old, when 
they lost a son, said, 'That which is subject to destruction is destroyed,' and 
grieved not." And hereupon at the man's request he related a story of the 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin household, in a village outside the gates 
of Benares, and rearing a family he supported them by field labour. He 
had two children, a son and a daughter. When the son was grown up, 
the father brought a wife home for him from a family of equal rank with 
his own. Thus with a female slave they composed a household of six : 
the Bodhisatta and his wife, the son and daughter, the daughter-in-law and 
the female slave. They lived happily and affectionately together. The 
Bodhisatta thus admonished the other five ; "According as ye have 
received, give alms, observe holy days, keep the moral law, dwell on the 
thought of death, be mindful of your mortal state. For in the case of 
beings like ourselves, death is certain, life uncertain : all existing things 
are transitory and subject to decay. Therefore take heed to your ways 
day and night." They readily accepted his teaching and dwelt earnestly 
on the thought of death. 

Now one day the Bodhisatta went with his son to plough his field. 
[163] The son gathered together the rubbish and set fire to it. Not 
far from where he was, lived a snake in an anthill. The smoke hurt the 
snake's eyes. Coming out from his hole in a rage, it thought, "This is all 
due to that fellow," and fastening upon him with its four teeth it bit him. 
The youth fell down dead. The Bodhisatta on seeing him fall, left his 
oxen and came to him, and finding that he was dead, he took him up and 
laid him at the foot of a certain tree, and covering him up with a cloak, 
he neither wept nor lamented. He said, " That which is subject to dis- 
solution is dissolved, and that which is subject to death is dead. All 
compound existences are transitory and liable to death." And recognizing 
the transitory nature of things he went on with his ploughing. Seeing a 
neighbour pass close by the field, he asked, "Friend, are you going home?" 
And on his answering "Yes," he said, "Please then to go to our house and 
say to the mistress, 'You are not to-day as formerly to bring food for two, 
but to bring it for one only. And hitherto the female slave alone has 
brought the food, but to-day all four of you are to put on clean garments, 
and to come with perfumes and flowers in your hands.' " 

"All right," he said, and went and spoke these very words to the 
brahmin's wife. 

She asked, "By whom. Sir, was this message givenl" 

"By the brahmin, lady," he replied. 

No. 354. 109 

Then she understood that her son was dead. But she did not so much 
as tremble. Thus showing perfect self-control, and wearing white gar- 
ments and with perfumes and flowers in her hand, she bade them bring 
food, and accompanied the other members of the family to the field. But 
no one of them all either shed a tear or made lamentation. The Bodhisatta, 
still sitting in the shade where the youth lay, ate his food. And when his 
meal was finished, they all took up fire-wood and lifting the body on to 
the funeral pile, tliey made ofieriugs of perfumes and flowers, and then 
set fire to it. But not a single tear was shed by any one. All were 
dwelling on the thought of death. Such was the efficacy of their virtue 
that the throne of Sakka manifested signs of heat. [164] Sakka said, 
"Who, I wonder, is anxious to bring me down from my throne?" And on 
reflection he discovered that the heat was due to the force of virtue existing 
in these people, and being highly pleased he said, "I must go to them and 
utter a loud cry of exultation like the roaring of a lion, and immediately 
afterwards fill their dwelling place with the seven treasures." And going 
there in haste he stood by the side of the funeral pyre and said, "What are 
you doing?" 

"We are burning the body of a man, my lord." 

"It is no man that you are burning," he said. "Methinks you are 
roasting the flesh of some beast that you have slain." 

"Not so, my lord," they said. "It is merely the body of a man that 
we are burning." 

Then he said, "It must have been some enemy." 

The Bodhisatta said, "It is our own true son, and no enemy," 

"Then he could not have been dear as a son to you." 

"He was vexy dear, my lord." 

" Then why do you not weep?" 

Then the Bodhisatta, to explain the reason why he did not weep, 
uttered the first stanza: — 

Man quits his mortal frame, when joy in life is past, 
E'en as a snake is wont its worn out slough to cast. 
No friend's lament can touch the ashes of the dead: 
Why should I grieve? He fares the way he had to tread. 

[165] Sakka on hearing the words of the Bodhisatta, asked the 
brahmin's wife, "How, lady, did the dead man stand to you?" 

"I sheltered him ten months in my womb, and suckled him at my 
breast, and directed the movements of his hands and feet, and he was my 
grown up son, my lord." 

"Granted, lady, that a father from the nature of a man may not weep, 
a mothei-'s heart surely is tender. Why then do you not weep?" 

And to explain why she did not weep, she uttered a couple of 
stanzas : — 

no The Jcitaka. Book V. 

Uncalled he hither came, unbidden soon to go; 

E'en as he came, he went. What canse is here for woe? 

No friend's lament can touch the ashes of the dead : 
Why should I grieve ? He fares the way he had to tread. 

On hearing the words of the brahmin's wife, Sakka asked the sister: 
"Lady, what was the dead man to you?" 

"He was my bi'other, my lord." 

"Lady, sisters surely are loving towards their brothers. Why do yon 
not weep?" 

But she to explain the reason why she did not weep, repeated a couple 
of stanzas : — 

Though I should fast and weep, how would it profit me? 
My kith and kin alas! would more unhappy be. 

[166] No friend's lament can touch the ashes of the dead : 

Why should I grieve? He fares the way he had to tread. 

Sakka on hearing the words of the sister, asked his wife: "Lady, what 
was he to you?" 

"He was my husband, my lord." 

"Women surely, when a husband dies, as widows are helpless. Why 
do you not weep?" 

But she to explain the reason why she did not weep, uttered two 
stanzas : — 

As children cry in vain to grasp the moon above. 
So mortals idly mourn the loss of those they love. 

No friend's lament can touch the ashes of the dead: 
Why should I grieve? He fares the way he had to tread. 

[167] Sakka on hearing the words of the wife, asked the handmaid, 
saying, "Woman, what was he to you?" 

"He was my master, my lord." 

"No doubt you must have been abused and beaten and oppressed by 
him and therefore, thinking he is happily dead, you weep not." 

"Speak not so, my lord. This does not suit his case. My young 
master was full of long-suffering and love and pity for me, and was as a 
foster child to me." 

"Then why do you not weep?" 

And she to exjjlain why she did not weep, uttered a couple of 
stanzas : — 

A broken pot of earth, ah ! who can piece again \ 
So too to mourn the dead is nought but labour vain. 

No friend's lament can touch the ashes of the dead: 
Why should I grieve ? He fares the way he had to tread. 

No. 354. Ill 

Sakka after hearing what they all had to say, was greatly pleased and 
said, "Ye have carefully dwelt on the thought of death. Henceforth ye 
are not to labour with your own hands. I am Sakka, king of heaven. 
I will create the seven treasures in countless abundance in your house. 
[168] Ye are to give alms, to keep the moral law, to observe holy days, 
and to take heed to your ways." And thus admonishing them, he filled 
their house with countless wealth, and so parted from them. 

The Master having finished his exposition of the Law, declared the Truths 
and identified the Birth : — At the conclusion of the Trutlis the landowner 
attained the fruit of the First Path : — "At that time Khujjuttara was the female 
slave, Uppalavanna the daughter, Rilhula the son, Khema the uiotliei-, and I 
myself was the brahmin." 

No. 355. 


" While others weep" etc. — This story the Master, dwelling at Jetavana, told 
concerning a minister of the king of Kosala. The introductory story is identical 
with one already given. But in this case the king after bestowing great honour 
on a minister who served him well, gave ear to ceitain mischief-makers and had 
him seized and thrown into prison. While he was lying there, he entered upon 
the First Path. The king, becoming aware of his great merit, released him. 
He took a scented garland and coming into the presence of the Master, saluted 
him and sat down. Then the Master asked if some evil had not befallen him. 
"Yes, Eeverend Sii'," he answered, "but through evil good has come to me. I 
have entered on the First Path." "Verily,'' said the Master, "not you only, but 
sages of old got good out of evil." And herewith at his request he told a story 
of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benai-es, the 
Bodhisatta was born to him as the son of his queen-consort. And they 
called him prince Ghata. He afterwards acquired a knowledge of the arts 
at Takkasila and ruled his kingdom righteously. 

Now a certain minister misconducted himself in the royal harem. The 
king, after witnessing the offence with his own eyes, banished him from 

112 The Jataka. Book V. 

his kingdom. At that time a king named Yanka ruled in Savatthi. 
The minister went to him and entering his service, just as in the former 
story ^, gained the king's ear and got him to seize on the kingdom of 
Benares. After gaining possession of the kingdom, he had the Bodhisatta 
bound in chains and threw him into prison. The Bodhisatta entered on an 
ecstatic meditation [169] and sat cross-legged in the air. A burning heat 
sprang np in the body of Yanka. He came and beheld the countenance 
of the Bodhisatta radiant with the beauty of a full-blown lotus, like to a 
golden mirror, and in the form of a question repeated the first stanza : — 

While others weep and wail, their cheeks with tears bestained. 
Why still with smiling face, has Ghata ne'er complained? 

Then the Bodhisatta, to explain why he did not grieve, recited the 
remaining stanzas : — 

To change the past all sorrow is but vain, 

It has no blessing for a future state : 
Why should I, Yanka, of my woes complain? 

Grief is no helpmeet fit with us to mate. 

One that is sick with sorrow pines away, 

His food insipid and distasteful grows. 
Pierced as with arrows, to his grief a prey. 

He sinks a laughing-stock to all his foes. 

Whether my home be on dry land or sea, 

Be it in village, or some forest drear. 
No sorrow ever shall come nigh to me, 

A soul converted can have nought to fear. 

But he that lacks completion in himself 
And is with lust of things of sense a-fire. 

Not the whole world, with all its sordid pelf, 
Can e'er suffice for such a man's desire. 

[170] Yaiika therefore, after hearing these four stanzas, asked for- 
giveness of the Bodhisatta, and restored him to his kingdom and went his 
way. But the Bodhisatta handed over the kingdom to his ministers, and 
retreating to the Himalayas became an ascetic, and without any break in 
his ecstatic meditation was destined to birth in the world of Brahma, 

The Master, having ended his lesson, identified the Birth : "At that time 
Ananda was king Yanka, and I myself was king Ghata." 

Compare No. 303 supra. 

No. 356. 113 

No. 356. 


" Whi/ in forest," etc. — This was a story told by the Master while dwelling at 
Jetavana, concerning the Captain of the Faith (Sariimtta). That elder, they say, 
when wicked folk came to him, such as hunters, fishermen and the like, laid 
down the moral law to them, and any others that he might see from time to 
time, saying, "Receive ye the law." Through respect for the elder, they could 
not disobey his words and accepted the law, but failed to keep it, and still 
followed each after his own business. The elder took counsel with his fellow- 
priests and said, "Sirs, these men receive the law from me, but keep it not." 
[171] They answered, "Holy Sir, you preach the law to them against their 
wishes, and as they dare not disobey what you tell them, they accept it. Hence- 
forth lay not down the law to such as these." The elder was offended. On 
hearing of the incident they started a discussion in the Hall of Truth, how that 
the elder Sariputta preached the law to any that he happened to see. The 
Master came and inquired what was the topic that the Brethren were debating 
in their assembly, and on hearing what it was, he said, "Not now only. Brethren, 
but formerly also he preached the law to any men he might chance to see, even 
though they did not ask for it." And herewith he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, the Bodhisatta 
was born and grew up in a brahmin household, and became the chief piipil 
of a world-famed teacher at Takkasila. At that time this teacher preached 
the moi"al law to any one that he might see, fishermen and the like, even if 
they did not want it, repeatedly bidding them receive the law. But 
though they received it, they kept it not. The teacher spoke of it to his 
disciples. His disciples said, "Holy Sir, you preach to them against their 
wishes, and therefore they break the law. Henceforth preach only to 
those who wish to hear you, and not to those who do not wish." The 
teacher was filled with regret, but even so he still laid down the law to all 
whom he happened to see. 

Now one day some people came from a certain village and invited the 
teacher to partake of the cakes offered to bi-ahmins. He summoned his 
disciple named Karandiya and said, "My dear son, I am not going, but you 
are to go there with these five hundred disciples, and receive the cakes, and 
bring the portion that falls to my share." So he sent him. The disciple 
went, and as he was returning, he spied on the road a cave, and the thought 
struck him, "Our master lays down the law, without being asked, to all that 
he sees. Henceforth I will cause him to preach only to those that wish to 
hear him." [172] And while the other disciples were comfortably seated, 
J. III. 8 

114 The Jataka. Book V. 

he arose and picking up a huge stone, flung it into the cave, and again and 
again repeated the action. Then the disciples stood up and said, "Sir, 
what are you doing?" Karandiya said not a word. And they went in 
haste and told their master. The master came and in conversing with 
Karandiya repeated the first stanza : — 

Why in forest all alone 
Seizing oft a mighty stone, 
Didst thou hurl it with a will. 
Mountain cave as 'twere to fill? 

On heai'ing his words, Karandiya to rouse his master uttered the 
second stanza: — 

I would make this sea-girt land 
Smooth as palm of human hand: 
Thus I level knoll and hill 
And with stones each hollow fill. 

The brahmin, on hearing this, repeated the third stanza: — 

Ne'er a one of mortal birth 
Has the power to level earth. 
Scarce Karandiya can hope 
With a single cave to cope. 

[173] The disciple, on heai'ing this, spoke the fourth stanza: — 

If a man of mortal birth 
Has no power to level earth, 
Heretics may well refuse. 
Brahmin, to adopt thy views. 

On hearing this the teacher made an appropriate reply. For he now 
recognized that other men might differ from him, and thinking, " I will no 
longer act thus," he uttered the fifth stanza : — 

Friend Karandiya, in short 
For my good thou dost exhort: 
Earth can never levelled be. 
Neither can all men agree. 

Thus did the teacher sing the praises of his disciple. And he, after he 
had thus admonished his teacher, conducted him home. 

[174] The Master, having ended this lesson, identified the Birth: "At that 
time Sariputta was the brahmin, and I myself was the disciple Karandiya." 

No. 357. 115 

No. 357. 


" Elephant of sixty years,^^ etc. — This was a story told by the Master while 
dwelling in the Bamboo Grove, concerning Devadatta. One day they raised a 
discussion in the Hall of Truth, saying, "Sirs, Devadatta is harsh, cruel, and 
violent. He has not an atom of pity for mortals." AVhen the Master came, he 
inquired what was the topic the Brethren were assembled to discuss, and on 
hearing what it was, he said, " Brethren, not now only, but formerly also he was 
pitiless." And herewith he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was I'eigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a young elephant, and growing up a fine comely 
beast, he became the leader of the herd, with a following of eighty thousand 
elephants, and dwelt in the Himalayas. At that time a quail laid her 
eggs in the feeding-ground of the elephants. When the eggs were ready 
to be hatched, the young birds broke the shells and came out. Before their 
wings had grown, and when they were still unable to fly, the Great Being 
with his following of eighty thousand elephants, in ranging about for food, 
came to this spot. On seeing them the quail thought, "This royal elephant 
will trample on my young ones and kill them. Lo ! I will implore his 
righteous protection for the defence of my brood." Then she raised her 
two wings and standing before him repeated the first stanza : — 

Elephant of sixty years. 
Forest lord amongst thy peers, 
I am but a puny bird. 
Thou a leader of the herd ; 
With my wings I homage pay, 
Spare my little ones, I pray. 

[175] The Great Being said, "O quail, be not troubled. I will protect 
thy ofispring." And standing over the young birds, while the eighty 
thousand elephants passed by, he thus addressed the quail : " Behind us 
comes a solitary rogue elephant. He will not do our bidding. When he 
comes, do thou entreat him too, and so insure the safety of thy offspring." 
And with these words he made off". And the quail went forth to meet the 
other elephant, and with both wings uplifted, making respectful salutation, 
she spoke the second stanza : — 

^ For this story see Benfey's Introduction to the Pancliatantra. 


116 The Jataha. Book V. 

Roaming over hill and dale 

Cherishing thy lonely way, 
Thee, O forest king, I hail. 

And with wings my homage pay. 
I am but a wretched quail. 

Spare my tender brood to slay. 

On. hearing her words, the elephant spoke the third stanza : — 

I will slay thy young ones, quail; 
What can thy poor help avail? 
My left foot can crush with ease 
Many thousand birds like these. 

[176] And so saying, with his foot he crushed the young bii'ds to 
atoms, and staling over them washed them away in a flood of water, and 
went off loudly trumpeting. The quail sat down on the bough of a tree 
and said, " Then be off with you and trumpet away. You shall very soon 
see what I will do. You little know what a difference there is between 
strength of body and strength of mind. Well! I will teach you this 
lesson." And thus threatening him she repeated the fourth stanza : — 

Power abused is not all gain. 
Power is often folly's bane. 
Beast that didst my young ones kill, 
I will work thee mischief still. 

And so saying, shortly afterwards she did a good tui'n to a crow, and 
when the crow, who was highly pleased, asked, "What can I do for you?" 
the quail said, " There is nothing else. Sir, to be done, but I shall expect 
you to strike with your beak and to peck out the eyes of this rogue 
elephant." The crow readily assented, and the quail then did a service to 
a blue fly, and when the fly asked, " What can I do for you 1 " she said, 
" When the eyes of this rogue elephant have been put out by the crow, 
then I want you to let fall a nit upon them." The fly agreed, and then 
the quail did a kindness to a frog, and when the frog asked what it was to 
do, she said, " When this rogue elephant becomes blind, and shall be 
searching for water to drink, then take your stand and utter a croak on 
the top of a mountain, and when he has climbed to the top, come down 
and croak again at the bottom of the pi'ecipice. This much I shall look 
for at your bands." After hearing what the quail said, the frog readily 
assented, [l'^^] So one day the crow with its beak pecked out both the 
eyes of the elephant, and the fly dropped its eggs upon them, and the 
elephant being eaten up with maggots was maddened by the pain, and 
overcome with thirst wandered about seeking for water to drink. At this 
moment the frog standing on the top of a mountain uttered a croak. 
Thought the elephant, " There must be water there," and climbed up 
the mountain. Then the frog descended, and standing at the bottom 
croaked again. The elephant thovight, " There will be water there," and 

No. 357. , 117 

moved forward towards the precipice, and rolling over fell to the bottom of 
the mountain and was killed. When the quail knew that the elephant 
was dead, she said, " I have seen the back of mine enemy," and in a high 
state of delight strutted over his body, and passed away to fare according 
to her deeds. 

The Master said, " Brethren, one ought not to incur the hostility of anyone. 
These four creatures, by combining together, brought about the destruction of 
this elephant, strong as he was. 

A quail with crow, blue fly and frog allied 

Once proved the issue of a deadly feud. 
Through them king elephant untimely died : 

Therefore all quarrelling should be eschewed." 

Uttering this stanza inspired by Perfect Wisdom, he thus identified the 
Birth : "At that time Devadatta was the rogue elephant, and I myself was the 
leader of the herd of elephants." 

No. 358. 


'■'■MahdpatdpaJs vrretched queen^' eic— This story the Master, when dwelling in 
the Bamboo Grove, told concerning the going about of Devadatta to slay the 
Bodhisatta. In all other Births Devadatta failed to excite so much as an atom 
of fear in the Bodhisatta, [178] but in the Culladhammapala Birth, when the 
Bodhisatta was only seven months old, he had his hands and feet and head cut 
off and his body encircled with sword cuts, as it were with a garland. In the 
Daddara^ Birth he killed him by twisting his neck, and roasted his flesh in an 
oven and ate it. In the Khantivadi •^ Birth he had him scourged with two 
thousand strokes of a whip, and ordered his hands and feet and ears and nose to 
be cut oft', and then had him seized by the hair of his head and dragged along, 
and when he was stretched at full length on his back, he kicked him in the belly 
and made off", and that very day the Bodhisatta died. But both in the Culla- 
nandaka and the Vevatiyakapi^ Births he merely had him put to death. Thus 
did Devadatta for a long time go about to slay him, and continued to do so, even 
after he became a Buddha. !So one day they raised a discussion in the Hall of 

1 This does not occur in either of the two Daddara-jatakas, no. 172, vol. ii. and 
no. 304 supra. 

^ No. 313 supra. 

3 These two jatakas do not seem to have been identified. 

118 The Jataha. Book V. 

Truth, saying, " Sirs, Devadatta is continually forming plots to slay the Buddhas. 
Being minded to kill the Supreme Buddha, he suborned archers to shoot him, he 
threw down a rock ui:)on him, and let loose the elephant Nalagiri on him." When 
the Master came and inquired what subject the Brethren were assembled to 
discuss, on hearing what it was he said, " Brethren, not now only, but formerly 
too he went about to kill me, but now he fails to excite a particle of fear in me, 
though formerly when I was prince Dhammapala he brought about my death, 
though I was his own son, by encircling my body with sword cuts, as it were 
with a garland." And so saying, he related a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Mahapatapa was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as the son of his queen-consort Oanda and they 
named him Dhammapala. When he was seven months old, his mother 
had him bathed in scented water and richly dressed and sat playing with 
him. The king came to the place of her abode. And as she was playing 
with the boy, being filled with a mother's love for her child, she omitted 
to rise up on seeing the king. He thought, "Even now this woman is 
filled with pride on account of her boy, and does not value me a straw, but 
as the boy grows up, she will think, 'I have a man for my son,' and will 
take no notice of me. I will have him put to death at once." So he 
returned home, and sitting on his throne summoned the executioner into 
his presence, with all the instruments of his ofiice. [179] The man put on 
his yellow robe and wearing a crimson wreath laid his axe upon his 
shoulder, and carrying a block and a bowl in his hands, came and 
stood before the king, and saluting him said, "What is your pleasure, 
Sire 1 " 

" Go to the royal closet of the queen, and bring hither Dhammapala," 
said the king. 

But the queen knew that the king had left her in a rage, and laid the 
Bodhisatta on her bosom and sat weeping. The executioner came and 
giving her a blow in the back snatched the boy out of her arms and took 
him to the king and said, "What is your pleasure. Sire?" The king had 
a board brought and put down before him, and said, " Lay him down on 
it." The man did so. But queen Oanda came and stood just behind her 
son, weeping. Again the executioner said, " What is your pleasure, 
Sire?" " Cut ofi" Dhammapala's hands," said the king. Queen Oanda said, 
" Great king, my boy is only a child, seven months old. He knows 
nothing. The fault is not his. If there be any fault, it is mine. There- 
foi'e bid my hands to be cut ofi"." And to make her meaning clear, she 
uttered the first stanza: — 

Mahapatapa's wretched queen, 
'Tis I alone to blame have been. 
Bid Dhammapala, Sire, go free. 
And off with hands of luckless me. 

No. 358. 119 

The king looked at the executioner. " What is your pleasure, Sire ? " 
" Without further delay, off with his hands," said the king. At this 
moment the executioner took a sharp axe, and lopped off the boy's two 
hands, as if they had been young bamboo shoots. [180] The boy, when 
his hands were cut off, neither wept nor lamented, but moved by patience 
and charity bore it with resignation. But the queen Cauda put the tips 
of his fingers in her lap and stained with blood went about lamenting. 
Again the executioner asked, " What is your pleasure, Sire ? " " Off 
with his feet," said the king. On hearing this, Cauda uttered the second 
stanza : — 

Mahapatapa's wretched queen, 
'Tis I alone to blame have been. 
Bid Dhammapala, Sire, go free. 
And off with feet of luckless me. 

But the king gave a sign to the executioner, and he cut off both his 
feet. Queen Canda put his feet also in her lap, and stained with blood, 
lamented and said, "My lord Mahapatapa, his feet and hands are cut off. 
A mother is bound to support her children. I will work for wages and 
support my son. Give him to me." The executioner said, "Sire, is the 
king's pleasure fulfilled^ Is my service finished'?" "Not yet," said the 
king. "What then is your pleasure, Sire?" "Off with his head," said the 
king. Then Canda repeated the third stanza: — 

Mahapatapa's wretched queen, 
'Tis I alone to blame have been. 
Bid Dhammapala, Sire, go free. 
And off with head of luckless me. 

And with these words she offered her own head. Again the execu- 
tioner asked, "What is your pleasure. Sire?" "Off with his head," said 
the king. So he cut off his head and asked, "Is the king's pleasure 
fulfilled?" "Not yet," said the king. "What further am I to do, Sire?" 
"Catching him with the edge of the sword," said the king, "encircle him 
with sword cuts as it were with a garland." Then he threw the body of 
the boy up into the air, and catching it with the edge of his sword, en- 
circled him with sword cuts, as it were with a garland, and scattered the 
bits on the dais. Canda placed the flesh of the Bodhisatta in her lap, and 
as she sat on the dais lamenting, she repeated these stanzas : — 

[181] No friendly councillors advise the king, 

'Slay not the heir that from thy loins did spring': 
No loving kinsmen vu-ge the tender plea, 
'Slay not the boy that owes his life to thee.' 

Moreover after speaking these two stanzas queen Cauda, pressing both 
her hands upon her heart, repeated the third stanza ; — 

120 The Jataka. Booh V. 

Thou, Dhammapala, wert by right of birth 

The lord of earth : 
Thy arms, once bathed in oil of sandal wood, 

Lie steeped in blood. 
My fitful breath alas ! is choked with sighs 

And broken cries. 

While she was thus lamenting, her heart broke, as a bamboo snaps, 
when the grove is on fire, and she fell dead on the spot. The king too 
being unable to remain on his throne fell down on the dais. An abyss was 
cleft asunder in the ground, and straightway he fell into it. Then the 
solid earth, though many myriads more than two hundred thousand leagues 
in thickness, being unable to bear with his wickedness, clave asunder and 
opened a chasm. A flame arose out of the Avici hell, and seizing upon 
him, wrapped him about, as with a royal woollen garment, [182] and 
plunged him into Avici. His ministers performed the funeral rites of 
Canda and the Bodhisatta. 

The Master, having brought this discourse to an end, identified the Birth : 
"At that time Devadatta was the king, Mahapajapati was Canda, and I myself 
was prince Dhammapala." 

No. 359. 


"0 Golden-foot," This was a story told by the Master while in residence at 
Jetavana, about a maiden of gentle birth in Savatthi. She was, they say, the 
daughter in the household of a servitor of the two chief disciples at Savatthi, 
and was a faithful believer, fondly attached to Buddha, the Law, and the Church, 
abounding in good works, wise unto salvation, and devoted to almsgiving and such 
like deeds of piety. Another family in Savatthi of equal rank but of heretical 
views chose her in marriage. Then her parents said, "Our daughter is a faithful 
believer, devoted to the Three Treasures, given to alms and other good works, but 
you hold heretical views. And as you will not allow her to give alms, or to hear 
the Truth, or to visit the monastery, or to keep the moral law, or to observe 
holy days, as she pleases, we will not give her to you in marriage. Choose ye 
a maiden from a family of heretical views like yourselves." When their offer was 
rejected, they said, "Let your daughter when she comes to our house do every- 
thing of this kind, as she pleases. We will not prevent her. Only grant us 
this boon." "Take her then," they answered. So they celebrated the marriage 

^ Compare Tibetan Tales, xli : The Gazelle and the Hunter. 

No. 359. 121 

festivity at an auspicious season and led her home. She i^roved faithful in the 
discharge of her duties, and a devoted wife, and rendered due service to her 
father-in-law and mother-in-law. One day she said to her husband, "I wish, 
my lord, to give alms to our family priests." "Very well, my dear, give them 
just what you please." So one day she invited these priests, and making a great 
entertainment, she fed them with choice food, and taking a seat apart from 
them she said, " Holy Sirs, this family is heretical and unbelieving. They are 
ignorant of the value of the Three Treasures. Well then, Sirs, until this family 
understands the value of the Three Treasures, do you continue to receive yom* 
food here." The priests assented and continually ate their meals there. Again 
she addressed her husband, [18.3] "Sir, the priests constantly come here. Why 
do you not see them ? " On hearing this he said, " Very well, I will see them." 
On the morrow she told him when the priests had finished their meal. He 
came and sat respectfully on one side, conversing affably with the priests. Then 
the Captain of the Faith preached the Law to him. He was so charmed with 
the exposition of the faith, and the deportment of the priests, that from that 
day forward he prepared mats for the elders to sit on, and strained water for 
them, and during the meal listened to the exposition of the faith. By and bye 
his heretical views gave way. So one day the elder in expounding the faith 
declared the Truths to the man and his wife, and when the sermon was ended, 
they were both established in the fruition of the First Path. Thenceforth all of 
them, from his parents down to the hired servants, gave uy> their heretical views, 
and became devoted to the Buddha, his Law, and the Church. So one day this 
young girl said to her husband, "What, Sir, have I to do with the household 
life? I wish to adopt the religious life." "Very well, my dear," he said, "I too 
will become an ascetic." And he conducted her with great pomp to a sisterhood, 
and had her admitted as a novice, and himself too went to the Master and 
begged to be ordained. The Master admitted him first to deacon's and after- 
wards to priest's orders. They both received clear spiritual vision, and shortly 
attained to Sainthood. One day they raised a discussion in the Hall of Truth, 
saying, "Sirs, a certain woman by reason of her own faith and that of her 
husband became a novice. And both of them having adopted the religious life, 
and gained clear spiritual vision, attained to Sainthood." The Master, when he 
came, inquired what was the topic the Brethren were sitting in council to 
discuss, and on heai-ing what it was, he said, "Brethren, not now only, did she set 
her husband free from the bonds of passion. Formerly too she freed even sages 
of old from the bonds of death." And with these words he held his peace, but 
being pressed by them he related a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a young stag, and grew up a beautiful and 
graceful creature, of the colour of gold. His fore and hind feet were 
covered, as it were, with a preparation of lac. [184] His horns were like 
a silver wreath, his eyes resembled round jewels, and his mouth was like 
a ball of crimson wool. The doe that was his mate was also a handsome 
creatui-e, and they lived happily and harmoniously together. Eight 
myriads of dappled deer followed in the train of the Bodhisatta. While 
they wex'e thus living there, a certain hunter set a snare in the deer drives. 
So one day the Bodhisatta, while leading his herd, entangled his foot in the 
snare, and thinking to break the noose he tugged at it and cut the skin of 
his foot. Again he tugged it, and hurt the flesh, and a third time and 
injured the tendon. And the noose penetrated to the very bone. Not 

122 The Jataka. Book V. 

being able to break the snare, the stag was so alarmed with the fear of 
death that he uttered a succession of cries. On hearing it the herd of 
deer fled in a panic. But the doe, as she fled, lookiug amongst the deer, 
missed the Bodhisatta, and thought, " This panic must cei'tainly have 
something to do with my lord," and flying in haste to him, with many 
tears and lamentations she said, "My lord, you are very strong. Why can 
you not get the better of the snare 1 Put forth your strength and break 
it." And thus stirring him up to make an efibrt, she uttered the first 
stanza : — 

Golden-foot, no eflfort spare 

To loose thyself from thonged snare. 
How could I joy, bereft of thee. 
To range amidst the woodland free? 

[185] The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, responded in a second stanza: — 

1 spare no eflfort, but in vain. 
My liberty I cannot gain. 

The more I struggle to get loose. 
The sharper bites the thonged noose. 

Then the doe said: "My lord, fear not. By my own power will I 
entreat the hunter, and by giving up my own life I will gain yours in 
exchange." And thus comfoi'ting the Great Being, she continued to 
embrace the blood-stained Bodhisatta. But the hunter approached, with 
sword and spear in hand, like to the destroying flame at the beginning of 
a cycle. On seeing him, the doe said, "My lord, the hunter is coming. 
By my own power I will rescue you. Be not afraid." And thus com- 
forting the stag, she went to meet the hunter, and standing at a respectful 
distance, she saluted him and said, "My lord, my husband is of the 
colour of gold, and endued with all the virtues, the king of eight myriads 
of deer." And thus singing the praises of the Bodhisatta, she begged for 
her own death, if only the king of the herd might remain intact, and she 
repeated the third stanza : — 

Let on the earth a leafy bed. 
Hunter, where we may fall, be spread : 
And drawing from its sheath thy sword. 
Slay me and afterwards my lord. 

The hunter, on hearing this, was struck with amazement and said, 
"Even human beings give not up their lives for their king; much less the 
beasts. What can this mean? This creature speaks with a sweet voice in 
the language of men. [186] This day will I grant life to her and to her 
mate." And greatly charmed with her, the hunter uttered the fourth 
stanza : — 

A beast that speaks with voice of men, 

Ne'er came before within my ken. 

Rest thou in peace, my gentle deer, 

And cease, O Golden-foot, to fear. 

No. 359. 123 

The doe seeing the Bodhisatta set at his ease, was highly delighted and 
returning thanks to the hunter, repeated the fifth stanza : — 

As I to-day rejoice to see 

This mighty beast at liberty, 

So, hunter, that didst loose the gin, 

Eejoice with all thy kith and kin. 

And the Bodhisatta thought, " This hunter has granted life to me and 
this doe, and to eight myriads of deer. He has been my refuge, and I 
ought to be a refuge to him." [187] And in his character of one 
supremely virtuous he thought, "One ought to make a proper return to 
one's benefactor," and he gave the hunter a magic jewel which he had 
found in their feeding ground and said : " Friend, henceforth take not the 
life of any creature, but with this jewel set up a household and maintain a 
wife and children, and give alms and do other good works." And thus 
admonishing him, the stag disappeared in the forest. 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : "At that time 
Channa^ was the hunter, this female novice was the doe, and I myself was the 
royal stag." 

No. 360. 


^^ I scent the fragrance" etc. — This story the Master, while living at Jetavana, 
told concerning a backsliding Brother. The Master asked if it were true that 
he longed for the world, and what he had seen to make him regret having taken 
orders. The Brother answered, "It was all owing to the charms of a woman." 
The Master said, "Verily, Brother, there is no possibility of being on one's 
guard against womenfolk. Sages of old, though they took the precaution to 
dwell in the abode of the Garudas, failed to be on their guard against them." 
And being lu'ged by him, the Master related a story of the past. 

^ A Brother who was suspended for siding with heretics. 
2 Compare No. 327 suiora. 

124 The Jataka. Book V. 

Once upon a time king Tamba reigned in Benares, and his queen- 
consort named Sussondl was a woman of surpassing beauty. At that time 
the Bodhisatta came to life as a young Garuda. Now the Naga island was 
then known as Seruma island, and the Bodhisatta lived on this island in 
the abode of the Garudas. And he went to Benares, disguised as a youth, 
and played at dice with king Tamba. Remarking his beauty they said to 
Sussondl, "Such and such a youth plays at dice with our king." She 
longed to see him, and one day she adorned herself and repaired to the 
dice-chamber. [188] There taking her stand amongst the attendants, she 
fixed her gaze on the youth. He too gazed on the queen, and the pair fell 
in love with one another. The Garuda king by an act of supernatural 
power stirred up a storm m the city. The people, through fear of the 
house falling, fled out of the palace. By his power he caused it to be 
dark, and carrying off the queen with him in the air, he made his way to 
his own abode in Naga island. But no one knew of the coming or going 
of Sussondl. The Garuda took his pleasure with her, and still came to 
play at dice with the king. Now the king had a minstrel named Sagga, 
and not knowing where the queen had gone, the king addressed the 
minstrel and said, " Go now and explore every land and sea, and discover 
what has become of the queen." And so saying he bade him begone. 

He took what was necessary for his journey, and beginning the search 
from the city gate, at last came to Bharukaccha. At that time certain 
merchants of Bharukaccha were setting sail for the Golden Land. He 
approached them and said, *' I am a minstrel. If you remit my passage 
money, I will act as your minstrel. Take me with you." They agreed to 
do so, and putting him on board weighed anchor. When the ship was 
fairly off, they called him and bade him make music for them. He said, 
" I would make music, but if 1 do, the fish will be so excited that your 
vessel will be wrecked." "If a mere mortal," they said, "make music, 
there will be no excitement on the part of the fish. Play to us." "Then 
do not be angry with me," he said, and tuning his lute and keeping 
perfect harmony between the words of his song and the accompaniment of 
the lute string, he made music for them. The fish were maddened at the 
sound and splashed about. And a certain sea monster leaping up fell 
upon the ship and broke it in two. Sagga lying on a plank was carried 
along by the wind till he reached a banyan tree in the Naga island, where 
the Garuda king lived. Now queen Sussondl, whenever the Garuda king 
went to play at dice, came down from her place of abode, [189] and as she 
was wandering on the edge of the shore, she saw and recognized the 
minstrel Sagga, and asked him how he got there. He told her the whole 
story. And she comforted him and said, "Do not be afraid," and 
embracing him in her arms, she carried him to her abode and laid him on 
a couch. And when he was greatly revived, she fed him with heavenly 

No. 360. 125 

food, bathed him in heavenly scented-water, arrayed him in heavenly 
raiment, and adorned him with flowers of heavenly perfume, and made 
him recline upon a heavenly couch. Thus did she watch over him, and 
whenever the Garuda king returned, she hid her lover, and so soon as the 
king was gone, under the influence of passion she took her pleasure with 
him. At the end of a month and a half from that time some merchants, 
who dwelt at Benares, landed at the foot of the banyan tree in this island, 
to get fire-wood and water. The minstrel went on board ship with them, 
and on reaching Benares, as soon as he saw the king, while he was playing 
at dice, Sagga took his lute, and making music recited the first stanza : — 

I scent the fragrance of the timira grove, 

I hear the moaning of the weary sea: 
Tamba, I am tormented with my love, 

For fair Sussondl dwells afar from me. 

On hearing this the Garuda king uttered the second stanza : — 

How didst thou cross the stormy main, 
And Seruma in safety gain? 
How didst thou, Sagga, tell me, pray, 
To fair Sussondl win thy way? 

[190] Then Sagga repeated three stanzas: — 

With trading-folk from Bharukaccha land 

My ship was wrecked by monsters of the sea; 

I on a plank did safely gain the strand. 

When an anointed queen with gentle hand 
Upbore me tenderly upon her knee. 
As though to her a true son I might be. 

She food and raiment brought, and as I lay 

With love-lorn eyes hung o'er my couch all day. 

Know, Tamba, well; this word is sooth I say. 

The Garuda, while the minstrel thus spake, was filled with regrets and 
said : "Though I dwelt in the abode of the Garudas, I failed to guard her 
safely. What is this wicked woman to me?" So he brought her back 
and presented her to the king and departed. And thenceforth he came 
not there any more. 

The Master, his lesson ended, declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
At the conclusion of the Truths the worldly-minded Brother attained fruition 
of the First Path : — "At that time Auauda was the king of Benares, and I myself 
was the Garuda king." 

126 The Jdtaka. Book V. 

No. 361. 


[191] "/s it thus, Sudatha," e^c— This story the Master, while dwelling at 
Jetavana, told concerning the two chief disciples. On a certain occasion the two 
chief elders resolved during the rainy season to devote themselves to solitude. 
So they bade the Master farewell and leaving the company of the Brethren they 
went forth from Jetavana, carrying their bowl and robes with their own hands, 
and lived in a forest near a border village. And a certain man, who waited on 
the elders and lived upon their broken victuals, dwelt apart in the same place. 
On seeing how happily these elders lived together, he thought : "I wonder if it is 
possible to set them at variance." So he drew nigh to Sariputta and said, "Can 
it be. Reverend Sir, that there is some quarrel between you and the venerable 
chief elder Moggallaua?" "Why so, Sir?" he asked. "He ever. Holy Sir, speaks 
in your dispraise and says, 'When I am gone, what is Sariputta worth compared 
with me in caste, lineage, family and country, or in the power of attainments 
in the sacred volumes?' " The elder smiled and said, "Be off, sirrah !" Another 
day he drew nigh to the chief elder Moggallana, and said the same thing. He 
too smiled and said, " Be oft', sirrah !" Moggallana went to Sariputta and asked, 
"Has this fellow, who lives on our leavings, said aught to you?" "Yes, friend, 
he has." "And he said exactly the same thing to me. We must drive him 
away." "Very well, friend, drive him away." The elder said, "You are not to 
come here," and snapping his fingers at him, he drove him away. The two 
elders lived happily together, and returning to the Master, made obeisance to 
him and sat down. The Master spoke kindly to them and asked if they had 
kept their Retreat pleasantly. They said, "A certain beggar wished to set us at 
variance, but failing in the attempt he ran away." The Master said, "Verily, 
Sariputta, not now only, but formerly also, he thought to set you at variance, 
but failing in the attempt he ran away." And hereupon at his request he 
related a story of bygone days. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a tree-god in a forest. [192] At that time a lion and a 
tiwer lived in a mountain-cave in that forest. A jackal was in attendance 
on them, and living on their broken meats began to wax gross of body. 
And one day he was struck with the thought, "I have never yet eaten 
the flesh of a lion or a tiger. I must set these two animals by the ears, 
and when in consequence of their quan'el they have come by their death, 
I will eat their flesh." So he drew nigh to the lion and said, "Is there 
any quarrel. Sir, between you and the tiger?" "Why so, Sir?" "Your 
Reverence," he said, "he ever speaks in your dispraise and says, 'When I 

^ Compare no. 349 supra, Tibetan Tales, xxxiii: The Jackal as Caluvmiator, and 
Benfey's Introduction to the Panchata)itra. 

No, 361. 127 

am gone, this lion will never attain to the sixteenth part of ray personal 
beauty, nor of my stature and girth, nor of my natural strength and 
power.' " Then the lion said to him, " Off with you. He will never 
speak thus of me." Then the jackal drew nigh to the tiger also, and 
spoke after the same manner. On hearing him, the tiger hastened to the 
lion, and asked, "Friend, is it true, that you said so and so of me?" And 
he spoke the first stanza : — 

Is it thus ^Sudatha speaks of me? 
"In grace of form and pedigree, 
In might and prowess in the field, 
^Subahu still to me must yield." 

On hearing this Sudatha repeated the four remaining stanzas : — 

Is it thus Subahu speaks of me? 
"In grace of form and pedigree. 
In might and prowess in the field, 
Sudatha still to me must yield." 
If such iujm-ious words are thine, 
No more shalt thou be friend of mine. 
The man that lends a ready ear 
To any gossip he may hear, 
Soon picks a quarrel with a friend, 
And love in bitter hate will end. 
No friend suspects without a cause. 
Or carefully looks out for flaws ; 
[193] But on his friend in trust will rest 
As child uj^on its mother's breast, 
And ne'er will by a stranger's word 
Be parted from his bosom's lord. 

When the qualities of a friend had been thus set forth in these four 
stanzas, the tiger said, "The fault is mine," and begged pardon of the lion. 
And they continued to live happily together in the same place. But the 
jackal departed and fled elsewhere. 

The Master, having brought his lesson to an end, identified the Birth : "At 
that time the jackal was the beggar who lived on broken meats, the lion was 
Sariputta, the tiger Moggallilna, and the deity that dwelt in that forest and saw 
the whole thing with his own eyes was I myself" 

1 Sudatha (strong-tooth) is the lion, Subahu (strong-arm) the tiger. 

128 The Jataha. Booh V. 

No. 362. 


" Virhie and learning" etc. — This story the Master, while residing at Jetavana, 
told concerning a brahmin who would test the power of virtue. The king, they 
say, owing to his reputation for virtue, regarded him with special honour, beyond 
what was paid to other brahmins. He thought, " Can it be that the king regards 
me with special honour, because I am endowed with virtue, or as one devoted to 
the acquisition of learning ? I will just test the comparative importance of virtue 
and learning." 

So one day he abstracted a coin from the royal treasury board. The treasurer, 
such was his respect for him, did not say a word It occurred a second time, and 
the treasurer said nothing. But on the third occasion he had him arrested as one 
who lived by robbery, and brought him before the king. And when the king 
asked what his oflFence was, he charged him with stealing the king's property. 

[194] " Is this true, brahmin ? " said the king. 

" I am not in the habit of stealing your property, Sire," he said, " but I had 
my doubts as to the relative importance of virtue and learning, and in testing 
which was the greater of the two, I thrice abstracted a coin, and then I was 
given into custody and brought before you. Now that I know the greater efficacy 
of virtue compared with learning, I no longer wish to live a layman's life. I will 
become an ascetic." 

On obtaining leave to do so, without so much as looking back on his house 
door, he went straight to Jetavana and begged the Master to ordain him. The 
Master granted him both deacon's and priest's orders. And he had been no long 
time in orders, before he attained to spiritual insight and reached the highest 
fruition. The incident was discussed in the Hall of Truth, how that a certain 
brahmin, after proving the power of virtue, took orders and obtaining spiritual 
insight reached Sainthood. When the Master came and inquired of the Brethren 
what was the nature of the topic they were sitting to discuss, on hearing what it 
was, he said, " Not this man now only, but sages of old also put virtue to the 
proof, and by becoming ascetics worked out their own salvation." And herewith 
he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family. And when he came of age, he 
acquired every liberal art at Takkasila, and on his return to Benares he 
went to see the king. The king offei-ed him the post of family priest, and 
as he kept the five moral precepts, the king looked upon him with respect 
as a virtuous man. " Can it be," he thought, " that the king regards me 
with respect as a virtuous man, or as one devoted to the acquisition of 
learning 1 " And the whole story corresponds exactly with the modern 
instance, but in this case the brahmin said, " Now I know the great im- 

1 Compare nos. 86, vol. i., 290, vol. ii., 305, 330, vol. iii., and L. Feer, Journal 
Asiat., 1875. 

No. 362. 129 

portance of virtue compared with learning." And hereupon he spoke 
these five stanzas : 

Virtue and learning I was fain to test ; 
Henceforth I doubt not virtue is the best. 
Virtue excels vain gifts of form and birtli, 
Apart from virtue learning has no worth. 
A prince or peasant, if to sin enslaved, 
In neither world from misery is saved. 
Men of liigh caste with those of base degree, 
If virtuous here, in heaven will equal be. 
[195] Not birth, nor lore, nor friendship aught avails, 
Pure virtue only future bliss entails. 

Thus did the Great Being sing the praises of virtue, and having gained 
the consent of the king, that very day he betook himself to the Himalaya 
region, and adopting the religious life of an ascetic he developed the 
Faculties and Attainments, and became destined to birth in the Brahma- 

The Master here ended this lesson and identified the Birth : " At that time it 
was I myself that put virtue to the test and adopted the religious life of an 

No. 363. 


[196] " Who spite of honour" etc. — This story the Master, when dwelling at 
Jetavana, told concerning a rich merchant, a friend of Anathapindika, who lived 
in a border province. Both the introductory story and the story of the past are 
related in full in the concluding Birth of the ninth division of the first booki, but 
in this version when the merchant of Benares was told that the followers of the 
foreign merchant were mulcted of all their propei'ty and, after losing everything 
they possessed, had to take to flight, he said, " Because they failed to do what 
they ought for the strangers who came to them, they find no one ready to do 
them a good turn." And so saying he repeated these verses : 

Who spite of honour, while he plays the part 
Of humble servant, loathes thee in his heart, 
Poor in good works and rich in words alone — 
Ah ! such a friend thou surely wouldst not own. 

1 No. 90, vol. i. 

J. III. 9 

130 The Jdtaha. Book V. 

Be thou in deed to every i:)roinise true, 

Refuse to promise what thou canst not do ; 

Wise men on empty braggarts look askew. 

No friend suspects a quarrel without cause, 

For ever watching to discover flaws : 

But he that trustful on a friend can rest, 

As little child upon its mother's breast. 

Will ne'er by any stranger's deed or word, 

Be separated from his bosom's lord. 

Who draws the yoke of human friendship well, 

Of bliss increased and honoured life can tell : 

But one that tastes the joys of calm rejjose, 

Drinking sweet draughts of Truth — he only knows 

Escape from bonds of sin and all his woes. 

[197] Thus did the Great Being, disgusted by coming into contact with evil 
associates, through the power of solitude, bring his teaching to a climax and lead 
men to the eternal Nirvana. 

The Master, his lesson ended, thus identified the Birth: "At that time I 
myself was the merchant of Benares." 

No. 364. 


This Question about a fii-e-fly will be set forth in full in the Mahaummagga. 

No. 365. 


"Zo.' here we lie" etc. — This story the Master, whilst living at Jetavaua, told 
concerning an aged priest. The story has been already related in full in the 
Salaka Birth i. In this version also the old man after ordaining a village lad 
abuses and strikes him. The lad escaped and returned to the world. [198] The 
old man once more admitted him to orders, and acted j ust as before. The youth, 
after he had for the third time returned to the world, on being again solicited to 
come back, would not so much as look the old man in the face. The matter was 
talked over in the Hall of Ti'uth, how that a certain elder could live neither with 
his novice nor without him, while the boy after seeing the old man's fault of 
temper, being a sensitive youth, would not even look at him. The Master came 

1 See No. 2-19, vol. ii. 

No. 365. • 131 

and asked what was the subject of discussion. When they told him, he said, 
"Not now only, Brethren, hut formerly also this same youth was a sensitive 
novice, who after observing the elder's faults would not so much as look at him." 
And so saying he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a corn-factor's family. And when he was grown 
up, he got his living by selling corn. 

Now a certain snake-charmer caught a monkey and trained him to play 
with a snake. And when a festival was proclaimed at Benares, he left the 
monkey with the corn-merchant and roamed about for seven days, making 
sport with the snake. The merchant meanwhile fed the monkey with 
food both hard and soft. On the seventh day the snake-charmer got drunk 
at the festival merry-making, and came back and struck the monkey three 
times with a piece of bamboo, and then taking him with him to a garden, 
he tied him np and fell asleep. The monkey got loose from his chain, and 
climbing up a mango tree, sat there eating the fruit. The snake-charmer 
on waking up saw the monkey perched on the tree and thought, "I must 
catch him by wheedling him." And in talking with him he repeated the 
first stanza : 

Lo ! here we lie, my pretty one, 
Like gambler by the dice undone. 
Let fall some mangoes : well we know, 
Our living to thy tricks we owe. 

The monkey, on hearing this, uttered the remaining verses : 

Thy praises, friend, unmeaning sound ; 
A pretty monkey ne'er was found. 
[199] Who in the stores, when drunk, I pray. 
Did starve and beat me sore to-day? 
When I, snake-charmer, call to mind 
The bed of pain where I reclined. 
Though I should some day be a king. 
No prayer from me this boon should wring. 
Thy cruelty remembering. 
But if a man is known to live 
Content at home, is apt to give. 
And springs of gentle race, the wise 
With such should form the closest ties. 

With these words the monkey was lost in a crowd of fellow-monkeys'. 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth: "At that time the 
old man was the snake-charmer, the novice was the monkey, and I myself was 
the corn-merchant." 

1 Another reading gives, "was lost iu a thicket of trees". 


132 The Jataka. Booh V. 

No. 366. 


[200] '^Poison like honey," etc. — This story was told by the Master while 
dwelling at Jetavana, about a Brother who regretted taking orders. The Master 
asked him if it were true that he regretted it. "It is true, Holy Sir," he said. 
"What have you seen to cause this feeling?" asked the Master. When the 
Brother replied, " It was owing to the charms of a woman," the Master said, "These 
five qualities of desire are like the honey sprinkled over with deadly poison, 
and left in the road by one CTumbika." And hereupon at the request of the 
Brother he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life in a merchant's household. And when he was 
grown up, he set out from Benares with merchandise on five hundred carts 
for trading purposes. On reaching the high road, at the entrance of a 
forest, he called together all the members of his caravan and said, "Lo! on 
this road are leaves, flowers, fruit and the like, that ai'e poisonous. In 
eating see that you take no strange food, without first asking me about it: 
for demons set in the road baskets of fresh rice and various sweet wild 
fruits, and sprinkle poison over them. Be sure not to eat of them without 
my consent." And after uttering this warning, he proceeded on his 

Then a certain Yakkha, named Gumbiya, strewed leaves on a spot in 
the middle of the forest, and dropping some pieces of honey, covered them 
with deadly poison, and himself wandered all about the road, pretending 
to tap the trees, as if he were looking for honey. In their ignorance men 
thought, "This honey must have been left here as a meritorious act," and 
then through eating it, they met their death. And the demons came and 
devoured their flesh. The men also belonging to the Bodhisatta's caravan, 
some of them being naturally greedy, at the sight of these dainties, could 
not restrain themselves, and partook of them. But those that were wise 
said, "We will consult the Bodhisatta before we eat," and stood holding it 
in their hands. And when he saw what they had in their hands, he 
made them throw it away. And those that had already eaten the whole of 
it died. But to those who had eaten only half of it, he administered an 
emetic, and after they had vomited, [201] he gave them the four sweet 
things, and so by his supernatural power they recovered. The Bodhisatta 

^ Compare No. 85, vol. i. 

No. 366. 133 

arrived in safety at the place he wished to reach, and after disposing of his 
wares, he returned to his own house. 

Poison like honey in look, taste, and smell, 
Was laid by Gumbiya with purpose fell : 
All who as honey ate the noxious food. 
Through their own greed did perish in the wood. 
But they who wisely from the bait abstained, 
Were free from torture and at peace remained. 
So lust, like poison-bait, for man is laid ; 
His heart's desire has oft to death betrayed. 
But who, though frail, besetting sins forego, 
Escape from bonds of suffering and woe. 

The Master, after delivering these verses inspired by Perfect Wisdom, re- 
vealed the Truths and identified the Birth : — [202] At the conclusion of the 
Truths the backsliding Brother attained the fruit of the First Path: — "At that 
time I myself was that merchant." 

No. 367. 


" Wlw got his friend" etc. — This was a story told by the Master, whilst living 
in the Bamboo Grove, in reference to a saying that Devadatta could not even 
inspire alarm. 

When Brahraadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born 
in the family of a village householder, and when he was young he played 
with other boys at the foot of a banyan tree, at the entrance of the village. 
A poor old doctor at that time wlio had no practice strayed out of the 
village to this spot, and saw a snake asleep in the fork of a tx-ee, with its 
head tucked in. He thought, " There is nothing to be got in the village. 
I will cajole these boys and make the snake bite them, and then I shall get 
somewhat for curing them." So he said to the Bodhisatta, "If you were 
to see a young hedgehog, would you seize it?" "Yes, I would," said he. 

[203] " See, here is one lying iu the fork of this tree," said the old man. 

The Bodhisatta, not knowing it was a snake, climbed up the tree and 
seized it by the neck, but when he found it was a snake, he did not allow 

134 The Jataka. Book V. 

it to turn upon him, but getting a good grip of it, he hastily flung it from 
him. It fell on the neck of the old doctor, and coiling round him, it bit 
him so severely ' that its teeth met in his flesh and the old man fell down 
dead on the spot, and the snake made its escape. People gathered together 
about him, and the Great Being, in expounding the Law to the assembled 
multitude, repeated these verses : 

Who got his friend to seize 
A deadly snake, as hedgehog, if you please, 

By the snake's bite was killed 
As one that evil to his neighbour willed. 

He that to strike is fain 
The man that never striketh back again. 

Is struck and lieth low, 
E'en as this knave sore hurt by deadly blow. 

So dust that should be thrown 
Against the wind, back in one's face is blown ; 

And ill designed to one 
That holy is, and has no evil done, 

On the fool's pate at last 
Kecoils, like dust when thrown against the blast. 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : " At that time 
the poor old doctor was Devadatta, the wise youth was myself." 

No. 368. 


[204] " Fallen into hand of foes" etc. — This story the Master, whilst dwelling 
at Jetavana, told concerning the Perfection of Wisdom. It was then the Master 
said, " Not now only, Bz'ethren, but formerly also the Tathagata proved himself 
wise and full of resources." And herewith he related an old legend of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in the household of a village proprietor. The whole 
story runs on exactly like that of the previous birth. But in this version 
when the doctor was dead, his village neighbours said, " These youths have 

1 ReailiiiK harakard nikhdditvd, cf. the Sanskrit katakatd. 

No. 368. 135 

caused the man's death. We will bring thein before the king." And 
they bound them in fetters and led theni to Benares. The Bodhisatta in 
the course of his journey admonished the other lads and said to them : 
" Do not be afraid. Even when you are brought into the presence of the 
king, show yourselves fearless and happy in your mind. The king will 
first of all talk with us, and afterwards I shall know what to do." They 
readily acquiesced in what he said, and acted accordingly. When the king 
found them calm and happy, he said, "These poor wretches have been 
bound in chains and brought here as murderers, and although they have 
come to such misery, they are without fear and even happy. I will ask 
them the reason why they are not troubled." 
And he repeated the first stanza : 

Fallen into hand of foes 

And with bamboo fetters bound, 
How can ye conceal your woes, 

And with smiling face be found ? 

On hearing this the Bodhisatta uttered the I'emaining verses : 

There is no good however slight, 
That man from groans and mourning e'er will gain ; 

His adversaries feel delight. 
When they behold a foe o'ercome with pain. 
[205] But enemies with grief are filled 

When with bold front he goes to meet his fate, 

And blenches not, as one well-skilled 
All things with judgment to discriminate. 

Be it by muttered spell or charm. 
By lavish gifts, or help of powerful kin. 

That he may best escape from harm, 
A man should strive some vantage ground to win. 

But should he fail to reach success, 
With others' aid or by himself alone. 

He should not grieve but acquiesce; 
Fate is too strong, his utmost he has done. 

[206] The king on hearing the Bodhisatta's exposition of the law, 
investigated the matter, and discovering the innocence of the boys, he had 
their fetters removed, and bestowed much honour on the Great Being, and 
made him his temporal and spiritual adviser and his valued minister. He 
also conferred honour on the other youths and appointed them to various 

When the Master had brought this lesson to an end, he identified the Birth : 
"At that time Ananda was the king of Benares, the inferior clergy were the 
other youths, and I myself was the wise youth." 

136 The Jataha. Book V. 

No. 369. 


" What loas the evil" etc. — This story the Master whilst living at Jetavana told 
concerning an unruly Brother. The incident that led to the story will be found 
in the Mahamittavinda Birth. 

Now this Mittavindaka, when cast into the sea, showed himself very 
covetous, and going on to still greater excess came to the place of torment 
inhabited by beings doomed to hell. And he made his way into the 
Ussada hell, taking it to be a city, and there he got a wheel as sharp as a 
razor fixed upon his head. Then the Bodhisatta in the shape of a god 
went on a mission to Ussada. On seeing him, Mittavindaka repeated the 
first stanza in the form of a question : — 

What was the evil wrought by me, 

Thus to provoke the curse of heaven, 
That my poor head should ever be 

With circling wheel of torture riven ? 

[207] The Bodhisatta, on hearing this, uttei'ed the second stanza : 

Forsaking homes of joy and bliss. 
That decked with pearls, with crystal this, 
And halls of gold and silver sheen, 
What brought thee to this gloomy scene? 

Then Mittavindaka replied in a third stanza : 

"Far fuller joys I there shall gain 

Thau any these poor worlds can show." 

This was the thought that proved my bane 

And brought me to this scene of woe. 

The Bodhisatta then repeated the remaining stanzas : 

From four to eight, to sixteen thence, and so 
To thirty-two insatiate greed doth grow. 
Thus on and on thou, greedy soul, wert led 
Till doomed to wear this wheel upon thy head. 
So all, pursuing covetous desire. 
Insatiate still, yet more and more require : 
The broadening path of appetite they tread. 
And, like thee, bear this wheel upon their head. 

' See Nos. 41, 82, 104, vol. i., and Divyuvaddna, p. 603. 

No. 369. 137 

But while Mittavindaka was still speaking, the wheel fell upon him 
and crushed him, so that he could say no more. But the divine being 
returned straight to his celestial abode. 

[208] The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : " At that time the 
unruly Brother was Mittavindaka, and I myself was the divine being." 

No. 370. 


" The goose said to the Judas tree," etc. — This was a story told by the Master, 
whilst residing at Jetavana, concerning the rebuke of sin. The incident that led 
to the story will be set forth in the Paiiiia Birth. But on this occasion the 
Master addressing the Brethren said, "Brothers, sin ought to be regai'ded with 
suspicion. Though it be as small as a banyan shoot, it may i)rove fatal. Sages 
of old too suspected whatever was open to suspicion." And with this he related 
a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a golden gosling, and when he came to be a full- 
grown goose, he lived in a golden cave, in the Cittakuta mountain in the 
Himalaya region, and used to go constantly and eat the wild paddy that 
grew on a natural lake. On the way by which he went to and fro was a 
big Judas tree. Both in going and returning, he would always stop and 
rest there. So a friendship sprang up between him and the divinity that 
dwelt in that tree. By and bye a certain fowl, after eating the ripe fruit 
of a banyan, came and perched on the Judas tree, and dropi)ed its excre- 
ment into the fork of it. Thence there sprang up a young banyan, which 
grew to the height of four inches and was bright with red shoots and 
greenery. The royal goose, on seeing this, addressed the guardian deity of 
the ti-ee and said, "My good friend, every tree on which a banyan shoot 
springs up is destroyed by its growth. Do not suffer this to grow, or it 
will destroy your place of abode. Go back at once, and root it up and 
throw it away. One ought to suspect that which justifies suspicion." And 
thus conversing with tlie tree-sprite the goose uttered the first stanza : 

138 The Jcitaka. Book V. 

[209] The goose said to the Judas tree, 

' A banyan shoot is threatening thee : 
What thou dost in thy bosom rear 
Will rend thee limb from limb, I fear.' 

On hearing this the tree-god, not heeding his words, repeated the 
second stanza : 

Well ! let it grow, and should I be 
A refuge to the banyan tree, 
And tend it with a parent's love. 
It will to me a blessing prove. 

Then the goose uttered the third stanza : 

It is a cursed shoot, I fear. 
Thou dost within thy bosom rear. 
I say goodbye and off I flee, 
This growth alas ! misliketh me. 

With these words the royal goose spread out his wings and made 
straight for mount Cittakuta. Thenceforth he came not back any more. 
By and bye the banyan shoot grew up. This tree also had its guardian 
deity. And in its growth, it broke down the Judas tree, and with a 
branch the abode of the tree-god also fell. At this moment reflecting on 
the words of the royal goose, the tree-god thought, [210] "The king of 
the geese foresaw this danger in the future and warned me of it, but I did 
not hearken unto his words." And thus lamenting, he uttered the fourth 
stanza : 

A spectre grim like Meru's height 
Has brought me to a fearful plight; 
Scorning the words friend goosey said, 
I now am overwhelmed with dread. 

Thus did the banyan, as it grew up, break down all the Judas tree and 
reduce it to a mere stump, and the dwelling place of the tree-god wholly 

Wise men abhor the parasitic thing 
That chokes the form to which it loves to cling. 
The wise, suspecting danger fi'om the weed. 
Destroy the root before it comes to seed. 

This was the fifth stanza, inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

The Master here, his lesson ended, revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth:— At the uunclusion of the Truths five hundred Brethren attained Saint- 
hood : — "At that time I myself was the golden goose." 

No. 371. 139 

No. 371. 


[211] " Thoio art within m9/ poioer," e^c— This story the Master, whilst dwelling 
at Jetavana, told concerning some quarrelsome folk from Kosambi. When they 
came to Jetavana, the Master addressed them at the time of their reconciliation 
and said, "Brethren, ye are my lawful sons in tlie faith, begotten by the words 
of my mouth. Children ought not to trample under foot the counsel given 
them by their father, but ye follow not my admonition. Sages of old, when the 
men who had slain their parents and seized upon their kingdom fell into their 
hands in the forest, did not put them to death, though they were confirmed 
rebels, but they said, 'We will not trample on the counsel given us by our 
parents'." And hereupon he related a story of the past. In this Birth both the 
incident that led up to the story and the story itself will be fully set forth in the 
Saiighabhedaka Birth. 

Now prince Dighavu, having found the king of Benares lying on his 
side in the foi'est, seized him by his top-knot and said, "Now will I cut 
into fourteen pieces the marauder who slew my father and mother." And 
at the very moment when he was brandishing his sword, he recalled the 
advice given him by his parents and he thought, "Though I should 
sacrifice my own life, I will not trample under foot their counsel. I will 
content myself with frightening him." And he uttered the first stanza : 

Thou art within my power, king. 

As prone thou liest here : 
What stratagem hast thou to bring 

Deliverance from thy fear '. 

Then the king uttered the second stanza: 

Within thy power, my friend, I lie 

All helpless on the ground, 
Nor know I any means whereby 

Deliverance may be found. 

[212] Then the Bodhisatta repeated the remaining verses : 

Good deeds and words alone, not wealth, O king, 

In hour of death can any comfort bring. 

^ " This man abused me, that struck me a blow, 

A third o'ercame and I'obbed me long ago." 

All such as harbour feelings of this kind, 

To mitigate their wrath are ne'er inclined. 

" He did abuse and buffet me of yore, 

He overcame me and oppressed me sore." 

1 Compare No. 428 infra, Dhnmmapada, Comment., p. lOi, and Mahdvagga, x. 2. 
- Dliammapada v. 3 — 5. 

140 The Jdtaka. Book V. 

They who such thoughts refuse to entertain, 
Appease their wrath and live at one again. 
Not hate, but love alone makes hate to cease: 
This is the everlasting law of peace. 

After these words the Bodhisatta said, "I will not do thee a wrong, 
Sire. But do thou slay me." And he placed his sword in the king's hand. 
The king too said, "Neither will I wrong thee." And he sware an oath, 
and went with him to the city, and presented him to his councillors and 
said, "This, Sirs, is prince Dighavu, the son of the king of Kosala. He 
has spared my life. [213] I may not do him any harm." And so saying 
he gave him his daughter in marriage, and established him in the kingdom 
that had belonged to his father. Thenceforth the two kings reigned 
happily and harmoniously together. 

The Master here ended his lesson and identitied the Birth: "The father and 
mother of those days are now members of the royal household, and prince 
Dighavu was myself." 

No. 372. 


"To sorrow for the dead" etc. — This story the Master, whilst dwelling at 
Jetavana, told about a certain elder. It is said that he admitted a youth to 
orders, and that this novice, after ministering to him zealously, by and bye fell 
sick and died. The old man overcome with grief at the youth's death went 
about loudly lamenting. The Brethren, failing to console him, raised a discussion 
in the Hall of Truth, saying, "A certain old man on the death of his novice goes 
about lamenting. By dwelling on the thought of death, he will surely become a 
castaway." When the Master came, he inquired of the Brethren what was the 
subject they had met to discuss, and on hearing what it was he said, "Not now 
only, but foi'uierly also, the old man went about lamenting, when this youth 
died." And with this he related a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in the form of Sakka. At that time a man, who 
lived in the kingdom of Kasi, came into the Himalaya region, and 

No. 2>72. 141 

adopting the life of an ascetic lived on wild fruits. One day he found in 
the forest a young deer that had lost its dam. He took it home to his 
hei'mitage, and fed and cherished it. The young deer grew up a hand- 
some and comely beast, and the ascetic took care of it and ti*eated it as his 
own child. One day the young deer died of indigestion from a surfeit of 
grass. The ascetic went about lamenting and said, "My child is dead." 
Then Sakka, king of heaven, exploring the world, saw that ascetic, [214] 
and thinking to alarm him, he came and took his stand in the air and 
uttered the first stanza : 

To sorrow for the dead doth ill become 
The lone ascetic, free from ties of home. 

The ascetic no sooner heard this than he uttered the second stanza : 

Should man with beast consort, Sakka, grief 
For a lost playmate finds in tears relief. 

Then Sakka repeated two stanzas : 

Such as to weep are fain may still lament the dead, 
Weep not, sage, 'tis vain to weep the wise have said. 

If by our tears we might prevail against the grave, 
Thus would we all unite our dearest ones to save. 

While Sakka was thus speaking, the ascetic recognising that it was 
useless to weep, and singing the praises of Sakka, repeated three stanzas' : 

[215] As ghee-fed flame that blazes out amain 

Is quenclied with water, so he quenched my pain. 

With sorrow's shaft my heart was wounded sore : 
He healed my wound and did my life restore. 

The barb extracted, full of joy and peace, 
At Sakka's words I from my sorrow cease. 

After thus admonishing the ascetic, Sakka departed to his own place of 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : — " At that time 
the old man was the ascetic, the novice was the deer, and I myself was Sakka." 

1 These stanzas are to be found in No. 352 supra, and in No. 410 infra. 

142 The Jataka. Booh V. 

No. 373. 


" People cry ' 'Where is she gone,' " etc. — This story the Master, whilst residing 
in the Bamboo Grove, told about Ajatasattu. The incident that led to the story 
has been already fully told in the Thusa Birth i. Here too the Master observed 
the king at the same moment playing with his boy and also listening to the Law. 
And knowing as he did that danger to the king will arise through his son, he 
said, " Sire, kings of old suspected what was open to suspicion, and kept their 
heirs in confinement, saying, ' Let them bear rule, after our bodies have been 
burned on the funeral pyre.' " And with this he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time iu the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family, and became a world-famed 
teachei-. The son of the king of Benares, prince Yava by name, after 
applying himself diligently to acquire all the liberal arts from him, being 
now anxious to depart, bade him good-bye. The teacher, knowing by his 
power of divination that danger would befall the prince through his son, 
considered how he might remove this danger from him, and began to look 
about him for an apt illustration. 

[216] Now he had at this time a horse, and a sore place appeared on its 
foot. And in order to give proper attention to the sore the horse was 
kept to the stable. Now close by was a well. And a mouse used to 
venture out of its hole and nibble the sore place on the horse's foot. 
The horse could not stop it, and one day being unable to bear the pain, 
when the mouse came to bite him, he struck it dead with his hoof and 
kicked it into the well. The grooms not seeing the mouse said, " On other 
days the mouse came and bit the sore place, but now it is not to be seen. 
What has become of it?" The Bodhisatta witnessed the whole thing 
and said, " Others from not knowing ask, ' Where is the moused' But I 
alone know that tlie mouse has been killed by the horse, and dropped into 
the well." And making this very fact an illustration, he composed the 
first stanza and gave it to the young prince. 

Looking about for another illustration, he saw that same horse, when 
the boil was healed, go out and make his way to a barley field to get some 
barley to eat, and thrust his head through a hole in the fence, and taking 
this as an illustration he composed a second stanza and gave it to the 

' No. 338 supra. 

No. 373. 143 

prince. But the third stanza he composed by his own mother-wit and 
gave this also to him. And he said, " My friend, when you are established 
in the kingdom, as you go in the evening to the bathing tank, walk as far 
as the front of the staircase, repeating the first stanza, and as you enter the 
palace in which you dwell, walk to the foot of the stairs, repeating the 
second stanza, and as you go thence to the top of the stairs, repeat the 
third stanza." And with these woi-ds he dismissed him. 

The young prince returned home and acted as viceroy, and on his 
father's death he became king. An only son was born to him, and when 
he was sixteen years old he was eager to be king. And being minded to 
kill his father, he said to his retainers, " My father is still young. When I 
come to look upon his funeral pyre I shall be a worn-out old man. What 
good will it be for me to come to the throne then'?" " My lord," they said, 
"it is out of the question for you to go to the frontier and play the I'ebel. 
You must find some way or other to slay your father, and to seize upon 
his kingdom." [217] He readily agreed, and went in the evening, and 
took his sword and stood in the king's palace near the bathing tank, pre- 
pai'ed to kill his father. The king in the evening sent a female slave called. 
Musika, saying, "Go and cleanse the surface of the tank. I shall take 
a bath." She went there and while she was cleaning the bath she caught 
sight of the prince. Fearing that what he was about might be revealed, 
he cut her in two with his sword and threw the body into the tank. 
The king came to bathe. Everybody said, " To-day the slave Musika does 
not return. Where and whither is she gone 1 " The king went to the 
edge of the tank, repeating the first stanza : 

People cry, 'Where is she gone? 

Musika, where hast thou fled 1 ' 
This is known to me alone : 

In the well she lieth dead. 

Thought the prince, " My father has found out what I have done." And 
being panic-stricken he tied and told eveiything to his attendants. After 
the lapse of seven or eight days, they again addressed him and said, " My 
lord, if the king knew he would not be silent. What he said must have 
been a mei'e guess. Put him to death." So one day he stood sword in 
hand at the foot of the stairs, and wlien the king came he was looking 
about for an opportunity to strike him. The king came repeating the 
second stanza : 

Like a beast of burden still 

Thou dost turn and turn about. 
Thou that Musika i didst kill. 

Fain wouldst Yava^ eat, I doubt. 

1 Musika means mouse, Yava barley. 

144 The Jataka. Book V. 

[218] Thought the pi-ince, "My father has seen me," and fled in terror. 
But at the end of a fortnight he thought, "I will kill the king by a blow 
from a shovel." So he took a spoon-shaped instrument with a long handle 
and stood poising it. The king climbed to the top of the stair, repeating 
the third stanza : 

Thou art but a weakling fool, 

Like a baby with its toy, 
Grasping this long spoon-like tool, 

I will slay thee, wretched boy. 

That day being unable to escape, he grovelled at the king's feet and 
said, "Sire, spare my life." The king after rating him had him bound in 
chains and cast into prison. And sitting on a magnificent royal seat 
shaded by a white parasol, he said, "Our teacher, a far-famed brahmin 
foresaw this danger to us, and gave us these three stanzas." And being 
highly delighted, in the intensity of his joy he gave forth the rest of the 
verses : 

I am not free by dwelling in the sky. 

Nor by some act of filial piety. 

Nay when my life was sought by this my sou. 

Escape from death through power of verse was won. 

Knowledge of every kind be apt to learn. 

And what it all may signify discern : 

Though thou shouldst use it not, the time will be 

When what thou hearest may advantage thee. 

[219] By and bye on the death of the king the young prince was 
established on the throne. 

The Master here brought his lesson to a close, and identified the Birth : "At 
that time the far-famed teacher was myself." 

No. 374. 


''Since thou hast gained," e^c— This story was told by the Master whilst 
living at Jetavana, about the temptation of a Brother by the wife of his un- 
regeuerate days. When the Brother confessed that it was owing to the wife 

1 See Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, ii. 371, and Tibetan Tales, xii., Susroni. Compai-e 
also No. •425 infra. 

No. 374. 145 

that he had left, that he regretted having taken orders, the Master said, "Not 
now only. Brother, did this woman do you a mischief. Formerly too it was 
owing to her that your head was cut off." And at the request of the Brethren 
he related a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was reborn as Sakka. At that time a certain young brahmin 
of Benares acquired all the liberal arts at Takkasila, and having attained 
to proficiency in archery, he was known as the clever Little Archer. Then 
his master thought, "This youth has acquired skill equal to my own," and 
he gave him his daughter to wife. He took her and wishing to return to 
Benares be set out on the road. Half way on his journey, an elephant 
laid waste a certain place, and no man dared to ascend to that spot. The 
clever Little Archer, though the people tried to stop him, [220] took his 
wife and climbed up to the entrance of the forest. Then when he was in 
the midst of the wood, the elephant rose up to attack him. The Archer 
wounded him in the forehead with an arrow, which piercing hiiii through 
and thi'ough came out at the back of his head, and the elephant fell down 
dead on the spot. The clever Archer after making this place secure, went 
on further to another wood. And there fifty robbers were infesting the 
road. Up to this spot too, though men tried to stop him, he climbed 
till he found the regular place, where the robbers killed the deer and 
roasted and ate the venison, close to the road. The robbers, seeing him 
approach with his gaily attired wife, made a great eflfort to capture him. 
The robber chief, being skilled in reading a man's character, just gave one 
look at him, and recognizing him as a distinguished hero, did not sufier 
them to rise up against him, though he was single-handed. The clever 
Archer sent his wife to these robbers, saying, "Go and bid them give us 
a spit of meat, and bring it to me." So she went and said, "Give me a 
spit of meat." The robber chief said, "He is a noble fellow," and bade 
them give it her. The robbers said, "What ! is he to eat our roast meat?" 
And they gave her a piece of raw meat. The Archer, having a good 
opinion of himself, was wroth with the robbers for offering him raw meat. 
The robbers said, "What! is he the only man, and are we merely women?" 
And thus threatening him, they rose up against him. The Archer wounded 
and struck to the ground fifty robbers save one with the same number of 
arrows. He had no arrow left to wound the robber chief. There had 
been full fifty arrows in his quiver. With one of them he had wounded 
the elephant, and with the rest the fifty robbers save one. So he knocked 
down the robber chief, and sitting on his chest bade his wife bring him his 
sword in her hand to cut off his head. At that very moment she con- 
ceived a passion for the robber chief [221] and placed the hilt of the 
J. III. 10 

146 The Jataha. Book V. 

sword in his hand and the sheath in that of her husband. The robber 
grasping the hilt drew out the sword, and cut off the head of the Archer. 
After slaying her husband he took the woman with him, and as they 
journeyed together he inquired of her origin. "I am the daughter," she 
said, "of a world-famed professor at Takkasila." 

" How did he get you for his wife? " he said. 

"My father," she said, "was so pleased at his having acquired from 
him an art equal to his own, that he gave me to him to wife. And 
because I fell in love with you, I let you kill my lawful husband." 

Thought the robber chief, "This woman now has killed her lawful 
husband. As soon as she sees some other man, she will treat me too after 
the same sort. I must get rid of her." 

And as he went on his way, he saw their path cut off by what was 
usually a poor little shallow stream, but which was now flooded, and he 
said, " My deax', there is a savage crocodile in this river. What are we 
to do ? " 

"My lord," she said, "take all the ornaments I wear, and make them 
into a bundle in your upper robe, and carry them to the further side of the 
river, and then come back and take me across." 

" Very well," he said, and took all her adornments, and going down to 
the stream, like one in great haste, he gained the other bank, and left her 
and fled. 

On seeing this she cried, " My lord, you go as if you were leaving me. 
Why do you do this? Come back and take me with you." And addressing 
him she uttered the first stanza : 

Since thou hast gained the other side. 
With all my goods in bundle tied. 
Return as quickly as may be 
And carry me across with thee. 

The robber, on hearing her, as he stood on the further bank, repeated 
the second stanza' : 

Thy fancy, lady, ever roves 
From well-tried faith to lighter loves, 
[222] Me too thou wouldst ere long betray, 
Should I not hence flee far away. 

But when the robber said, "I will go further hence: you stop where 
you are," she screamed aloud, and he fled with all her adornments. Such 
was the fate that overtook the poor fool through excess of passion. And 
being quite helpless she drew nigh to a clump of cassia plants and sat there 
weeping. At that moment Sakka, looking down upon the woi'ld, saw her 
smitten with desire and weeping for the loss of both husband and lover. 

1 This stanza occurs in No. 318 supra, with which this story may be compared. 

No. 374. 147 

And thinking he would go and rebuke her and put her to shame, he took 
with him Matali and Pancasikha', and went and stood on the bank of the 
river and said, " Matali, do you become a fish, Pailcasikha, you change into 
a bird, and I will become a jackal. And taking a piece of meat in my 
mouth, I will go and place myself in front of this woman, and when you 
see me thei'e, you, Matali, are to leap up out of the water, and fall before 
me, and when I shall drop the piece of meat I have taken in my mouth, 
and shall spring up to seize the fish, at that moment, you, Pailcasikha, are 
to pounce upon the piece of meat, and to fly up into the aii', and you, 
Matali, ai'e to fall into the water." 

Thus did Sakka instruct them. And they said, "Good, my lord." 
Matali was changed into a fish, Paiicasikha into a bird, and Sakka 
became a jackal. And taking a piece of meat in his mouth, he went and 
placed himself in front of the woman. The fish leaping up out of the 
water fell befoi^e the jackal. The jackal dropping the piece of meat he 
held in his mouth, sprang up to catch the fish. The fish jumped up and 
fell into the water, and the bird seized the piece of meat and flew up into 
the air. The jackal thus lost both fish and meat and sat sulkily looking 
towards the clump of cassia. The woman seeing this said, " Through 
being too covetous, he got neither flesh nor fish," [223] and, as if she saw 
the point of the trick, she laughed heartily. 

The jackal, on hearing this, uttered the third stanza: 

Who makes the cassia thicket ring 
With laughter, though none dance or sing. 
Or clap their hands, good time to keep ? 
Fair one, laugh not, when thou shouldst weep. 

On hearing this, she repeated the fourth stanza : 

O silly jackal, thou must wish 
Thou hadst not lost both flesh and fish. 
Poor fool ! well mayst thou grieve to see 
What comes of thy stupidity. 

Then the jackal repeated the fifth stanza : 

Another's faults are plainly seen, 
'Tis hard to see one's own, I ween. 
Methinks thou too must count the cost. 
When spouse and lover both are lost. 

[224] On hearing his words she spoke this stanza : 

King jackal, 'tis just as you say. 
So 1 will hie me far away. 
And seek another wedded love 
And strive a faithful wife to prove. 

1 His charioteer and a gandharva. 


148 The Jataka. Book V. 

Then Sakka, king of heaven, hearing the words of this vicious and 
unchaste woman, repeated the final stanza : 

He that would steal a pot of clay 
Would steal a brass one any day : 
So she who was her husband's bane 
Will be as bad or worse again. 

Thus did Sakka put her to shame and brought her to repent, and then 
returned to his own abode. 

The Master here ended his lesson and revealed the Truths, and identified the 
Birth : — A.t the conclusion of the Truths the backsliding Brother attained the 
fruit of the First Path : — " At that time the backsliding Brother was the Archer, 
the wife he had left was that woman, and I myself was Sakka, king of heaven." 

No. 375. 


" I feel quite well^^^ etc. — This story the Master, whilst dwelling at Jetavana, 
told concerning a greedy Brother. This story of the greedy Brother has already 
been fully told in divers ways. In this case the Master asked him if he were 
greedy and on his confessing that it was so, said, " Not now only, but formerly 
also. Brother, you were greedy, and through greed came by your death." And 
herewith he told a story of the past. 

[225] Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, 
the Bodhisatta came to life as a young pigeon and lived in a wicker cage, 
in the kitchen of a rich merchant of Benares. Now a crow hankering 
after fish and flesh made friends with this pigeon, and lived in the same 
place. One day he caught sight of a lot of fish and meat and thought, 
" I'll have this to eat," and lay loudly groaning in the cage. And when 
the pigeon said, " Come, my friend, let us sally out for our food," he 
refused to go, saying, "I am laid up with a fit of indigestion. Do you go." 
And when the pigeon was gone, he said, " My troublesome enemy is ofi*. 

^ Compare No. 42, vol. i., No. 274, vol. ii. 

No. 375. 149 

I will now eat fish and meat to my heart's content." And so thinking, he 
repeated the first stanza : 

I feel quite well and at my ease, 

Since Mr Pigeon off is gone. 
My cravings I will now appease : 

Potherbs aud meat should strengthen one. 

So when the cook who was roasting the fish and meat came out of 
the kitchen, wiping away streams of sweat from his person, the crow 
hopped out of his basket and hid himself in a basin of spices. The basin 
gave forth a 'click' sound, and the cook came in haste, and seizing the 
crow pulled out his feathers. And grinding some moist ginger and white 
mustard he pounded it with a rotten date, and smeared him all over with 
it, and rubbing it on with a potsherd [226] he wounded the bird. Then he 
fastened the potsherd on his neck with a string, and threw him back into 
the basket, and went off". 

When the pigeon came back and saw liim he said, "Who is this 
crane lying in my friend's basket? He is a hot-tempered fellow and will 
come and kill this stranger." And thus jesting, he spoke the second 
stanza : 

'Child of the Clouds,' ^ with tufted crest. 
Why didst thou steal my poor friend's nest? 
Come here, Sir Crane. My friend the crow 
Has a hot temper, you must know. 

The crow, on hearing this, uttered the third stanza : 

Well mayst thou laugh at such a sight. 
For I am in a sorry plight. 
The cook has plucked and basted me 
With rotten dates and spicery. 

The pigeon, still making sport of him, repeated the fourth stanza : 

Bathed and anointed well, I think. 
Thou hast thy fill of food and drink. 
Thy neck so bright with jewel sheen, 
Hast thou, friend, to Benares been 1 

Then the crow repeated the fifth stanza : 

Let not my friend or bitterest foe 
On visit to Benares go. 
They plucked me bare and as a jest 
Have tied a potsherd on my breast. 

[227] The pigeon hearing this repeated the final stanza : 

These evil habits to outgrow 
Is hard with such a nature, crow. 
Birds should be careful to avoid 
The food they see by man enjoyed. 

1 Cranes are conceived at the sound of thunder-clouds. Cf . Meghadtlta 9. 

150 The Jdtaka. Book V. 

After thus repi'oving him, the pigeon no longer dwelt there, but spread 
his wings and flew elsewhere. But the crow died then and there. 

The Master here ended his lesson and revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the greedy Brother attained fruition of 
the Second Path : — "At that time the crow was the greedy Brother, the pigeon 
was myself." 


No. 376. 


[228] "iVe'er be angry, etc." The Master told this tale while dwelling at 
Jetavana, about a ferryman. This man, they say, was foolish and ignorant : he 
knew not the qualities of the Three Jewels and of all excellent beings : he was 
hasty, rough and violent. A certain country Brother, wishing to wait on the 
Buddha, came one evening to the ferry on the AciravatI and said to the ferryman : 
"Lay-brother, I wish to cross, let me have your boat." "Sir, it is too late, stay 
here." "Lay-brother, I cannot stay here, take ixie across." The ferryman said 
angrily, "Come then. Sir Priest," and took him into the boat: but he steered 
badly and made the boat ship water, so that the Brother's robe was wet, and it 
was dark before he put him on the farther bank. When the Brother reached the 
monastery, he could not wait on the Buddha that day. Next day he went to the 
Master, saluted and sat on one side. The Master gave greeting and asked when 
he had come. "Yesterday." "Then wh}^ do you not wait on me till to-day?" 
When he heard his reason, the Master said, "Not now only, but of old also that 
man was rough : and he annoyed wise men of old, as he did you." And when 
asked he told an old-world tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family. When he grew up, he was 
educated in all the arts at Takkasila [229], and became an ascetic. After 
living long on wild fruits in the Himalaya, he came to Benares for salt and 
vinegar : he stayed in the royal gai'den and next day went into the city to 
beg. The king saw him in the palace-yard and being pleased with his 
deportment caused him to be brought in and fed : then he took a promise 
and made him dwell in the garden : and he came daily to pay respect. The 
Bodhisatta said to him, "O great king, a king should I'ule his kingdom 
with righteousness, eschewing the four evil courses, being zealous and full 

152 The Jataka. Booh VI. 

of patience and kindness and compassion," and with such daily exliortation 
he spoke two stanzas : 

Ne'er be angry, prince of warriors; ne'er be angry, lord of earth: 
Anger ne'er requite with anger: thus a king is worship-worth. 

In the village, in the forest, on the sea or on the shore. 
Ne'er be angry, prince of warriors : 'tis my counsel evermore. 

So the Bodhisatta spoke these stanzas to the king every day. The king 
was pleased with him and offered him a village whose revenixe was a 
hundred thousand pieces : but he refused. In this way the Bodhisatta lived 
for twelve years. Then he thought, " I have stayed too long, I will take a 
journey thi'ough the country and return here": so without telling the king 
and only saying to the gardener, "Friend, I weary, I will journey in the 
country and return, pray do you tell the king," [230] he went away 
and came to a ferry on the Ganges. There a foolish ferryman named 
Avariyapita lived: he understood neither the merits of good men nor his 
own gain and loss: when folk would cross the Ganges, he first took them 
across and then asked for his fare; when they gave him none, he quarrelled 
with them, getting much abuse and blows but little gain, so blind a fool 
was he. 

Concerning him, the Master in his Perfect Wisdom spoke the third 
stanza : 

The father of Avariya, 

His boat's on Ganges wave : 
He ferries first the folk across. 

And then his fare he'll crave: 
And that is why he earns but strife, 

A thriftless, luckless, knave ! 

The Bodhisatta came to this ferryman and said, "Friend, take me to 
the other bank." He said, "Priest, what fare will you pay meV "Friend, 
I will tell you how to increase your wealth, your welfare, and your 
virtue." The ferryman thought, "He will certainly give me some- 
thing," so he took him across and then said, "Pay me the fare." The 
Bodhisatta said, "Very well, friend," and so telling him first how to in- 
crease his wealth, he spoke this stanza: 

Ask your fare before the crossing, never on the further shore : 
Different minds have folk you ferry, different after and before. 

[231] The ferryman thought, "This will be only his admonition to me, 
now he will give me something else": but the Bodhisatta said, "Friend, 
you have there the way to increase wealth, now hear the way to increase 
welfare and virtue," so he spoke a stanza of admonition: 

In the village, in the forest, on the sea, and on the shore. 
Ne'er be angry, my good boatman; 'tis my counsel evermore. 

No. 376. 153 

So having told him the way to increase welfare and virtue, he said, 
"There you have the way to increase welfare, and the way to increase 
virtue." Then that stupid one, not reckoning his admonition as anything, 
said, "Priest, is that what you give me as my fare?" "Yes, friend." "I 
have no use for it, give me something else." "Friend, except that 1 have 
nothing else." "Then why did you go on my boati" he said, and threw 
the ascetic down on the bank, sitting on his chest and striking his mouth. 

The Master said: "So you see that when the ascetic gave this admoni- 
tion to the king he got the boon of a village, and when he gave the same 
admonition to a stupid ferryman he got a blow in the mouth: therefore 
when one gives this admonition it must be given to suitable people, not to 
unsuitable," and so in his Perfect Wisdom he then spoke a stanza : 

For counsel good the king bestowed the revenue of a town : 
The boatman for the same advice has knocked the giver down. 

As the man was striking the priest, his wife came with his rice, and 
seeing the ascetic, she said, "Husband, this is an ascetic of the king's 
court, do not strike him." He was angry, and saying, "You forbid me to 
strike this false priest!" he sprang up and struck her down. The plate of 
rice fell and broke, and the fruit of her womb miscarried. The people 
gathered round him and [232] crying, " Murdering rascal ! " they bound him 
and brought him to the king. The king tried him and caused him to be 

The Master in his Perfect Wisdom explaining the matter spoke the 
last stanza : 

The rice was spilt, his wife was struck, child killed before its birth. 
To him, like fine gold to a beast, counsel was nothing worth. 

When the Master had ended his lesson, he declared the Truths : — after the 
Truths the brother was established in the fruit of the first path : and identified 
the Birth : " At that time the ferryman was the ferryman of to-day, the king 
was Ananda, the ascetic was myself." 

No. 377. 


"Frie7id, be not angrij" etc. — The Master told this tale at Jetavana, ot a 
deceitful Brother. The occasion of the story will appear in the Uddala^ Birth. 

1 No. 487, vol. iv. 

154 21ie Jataka. Book VI. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a far-famed teacher and taught the sacred texts to five 
hundred pupils. The senior of them, Setaketu by name, was born of a 
brahmin family from the north, and was very proud on account of his caste. 
One day he went out of the town with other pupils, and when coming in 
again he saw a [233] candala. "Who are you]" he said. "I am a candala." 
He feared the wind after striking the candala's body might touch his own 
body, so he cried, "Curse you, you ill-omened caiidala, get to leeward," 
and went quickly to windwax'd, but the candala was too quick for him and 
stood to windward of him. Then he abused and reviled him the more, 
"Curse you, ill-omened one." The candala asked, "Who are you?" "I am 
a brahmin student." "Very well, if you are, you will be able to answer 
me a question." "Yes." "If you can't, I will put you between my 
feet." The brahmin, feeling confident, said, "Proceed." The candala, 
making the company understand the case, asked the question, "Young 
brahmin, what are the quarters'?" "The quarters are four, the East 
and the rest." The candala said, "I am not asking about that kind of 
quarter : and you, ignorant even of this, loathe the wind that has struck 
my body," so he took him by the shoulder and forcing him down put him 
between his feet. The other pupils told their teacher of the affair. He 
asked, "Young Setaketu, have you been put between a candala's feet?" 
"Yes, teacher: the son of a slave put me between his feet, saying, 'He 
doesn't know even the quarters'; but now I shall know what to do to 
him," and so he reviled the candala angrily. The teacher admonished 
him: "Young Setaketu, be not angiy with him, he is wise; he was asking 
about another kind of quarter, not this : what you have not seen, or heard, 
or understood is far more than what you have": and he spoke two stanzas 
by way of admonition: 

Friend, be not angry, anger is not good : 
Wisdom is more than you have seen or heard : 
[234] By 'quarter' parents may be understood. 
And teacher is denoted by the word. 

The hoitseholder who gives food, clothes and drink. 

Whose doors are open, he a ' quarter ' is : 
And 'quarter' in the highest sense, we think. 

Is that last state where misery shall be bliss i. 

[235] So the Bodhisatta explained the quarters to the young brahmin : 
but he thinking, "I was put between a candala's feet," left that place and 
going to Takkasila learned all the arts from a far-famed teacher. With 
that teacher's permission he left Takkasila, and wandered learning all 
practical arts. Coming to a frontier village he found five hundred ascetics 

1 This rests on fanciful pirns on the names of the four quarters. 

No. 377. 155 

dwelling near it and was ordained by them. All their arts, texts and 
practices he learnt, and they accompanied him to Benares. Next day he 
went to the palace-yard begging. The king, pleased with the ascetics' 
deportment, gave them food in the palace and lodging in his garden. One 
day he said, sending them food, "I will salute your reverences this evening 
in the garden." Setaketu went to the garden and collecting the ascetics, 
said, "Sirs, the king is coming to-day; now by once conciliating kings a 
man may live happily all the years of his life, so now some of you do the 
swinging penance, some lie on thorn-beds, some endui-e the five fires, some 
practise the mortification by squatting, some the act of diving, some repeat 
texts," and after these orders he set himself at the door of the hut on a 
chair with a head-rest, put a book with a brilliant-coloured wrapping on a 
painted stand, and explained texts as they wei-e inquired about by four or 
five intelligent pupils. At that moment the king arrived [236] and seeing 
them doing these false penances he was delighted : he came up to Setaketu, 
saluted him and sat on one side : then talking to his family priest he 
spoke the third stanza : 

With uucleansed teeth, and goatskin garb and hair 

All matted, muttering holy words in peace : 
Surely no human means to good they spare. 

They know the Truth, and they have won Release. 

The priest heard this and spoke the fourth stanza : 

A learned sage may do ill deeds, king : 

A learned sage may fail to follow right : 
A thousand Vedas will not safety bring, 

Failing just works, or save from evil plight. 

When the king heard this, he took away his favour from the ascetics. 
Setaketu thought : "This king took a liking to the ascetics, but this priest 
has destroyed it as if he had cut it with an axe: I must talk to him": 
so talking to him he spoke the fifth stanza : 

[237] " A learned sage may do ill deeds, king : 
A learned sage may fail to follow right" 
You say : then Vedas are a useless thing : 
Just works with self-restraint are requisite. 

The priest hearing this, spoke the sixth stanza : 

Nay, Vedas are not useless utterly : 

Though works with self-restraint true doctrine is : 

Study of Vedas lifts man's name on high, 
But 'tis by conduct that he reaches Bliss. 

So the priest refuted Setaketu's doctrine. He made them all laymen, 
gave them shields and weapons, and appointed them to be attendants on the 

156 The Jataka. Book VI. 

king as Superior Officers: and hence they say comes the race of Superior ^ 

After the lesson the Master identified the Birth : " At that time Setaketu was 
the cheating priest, the candala was Sariputta, and the King's priest was myself." 

No. 378. 


[238] ''Plecmires of sense," eic— This tale was told by the Master while 
dwelling in Jetavana, concerning the Great Renunciation. The incident that 
led to the story has been told before. 

Once upon a time the Magadha king reigned in Rajagaha. The 
Bodhisatta was born of his chief queen, and they called him prince 
Brahmadatta. On the day of his birth, the family priest also had a son : 
his face was very beautiful, so they called him Dar!mukha^ Both grew up 
in the king's court dear friends together, and in the sixteenth year they 
went to Takkasila and learned all the arts. Then, meaning to acquire 
all practical usages and understand country observances, they wandered 
through towns, villages and all the land. So they reached Benares, and 
staying in a temj)le they went into the city next day to beg. In one of the 
houses in the city the people of the house had cooked rice-porridge and 
prepared seats to feed brahmins and give them portions. These people seeing 
the two youths begging, thought, "The bi-ahmins have come," and making 
them come in laid a white cloth on the Bodhisatta's seat and a red rug on 
Darlmukha's. Darlmukha observed the omen and understood that his 
friend should be king in Benares and himself commander of the army. 
They ate and took their portions, and then with a blessing left and went 
to the king's garden. The Bodhisatta lay on the royal stone-seat. 
Darlmukha sat stroking his feet. The king of Benares had been dead 
seven days. The family priest had performed funeral rites and sent out the 

1 Cf. Hiouen-Thsang's Life, p. 257. 

2 "Cave-mouth": perhaps 'very beautiful' should be 'very wide.' 

No. 378. 157 

festal car for seven days as there was no heir to the throne. This ceremony 
of the car will be explained in the Mahajanaka Birth. This car left the 
city and reached the gate of the garden, [239] accompanied by an army of 
the four divisions and by the music of hundreds of instruments. Darimukha, 
hearing the music, thought, "This car is coming for my friend, he will be 
king to-day and give me the commander's place, but why should I be a 
layman? I will go away and become an ascetic"; so without a word to the 
Bodhisatta he went on one side and stood concealed. The priest stayed 
the car at the gate of the garden, and entering saw the Bodhisatta lying 
on the royal seat : observing the auspicioiis marks on his feet, he thought, 
"He has merit and is worthy to be king even of the four continents with 
two thousand islands around them, but what is his courage?" So he made 
all the instruments sound their loudest. The Bodhisatta woke and taking 
the cloth from his face he saw the multitude : then covering his face again 
he lay down for a little, and rising when the car stopped sat cross-legged on 
the seat. The priest resting on his knee said, "Lord, the kingdom falls to 
you." "Why, is there no heir?" "No, lord." "Then it is well," and so he 
accepted, and they anointed him there in the garden. In his great glory 
he forgot Darimukha. He mounted the car and drove amid the multitude 
in solemn form round the city : then stopping at the palace-gate he arranged 
the places of the courtiers and went up to the terrace. At that instant 
Darimukha seeing the garden now empty came and sat on the royal seat in 
the garden. A withered leaf fell before him. In it he came to see the 
principles of decay and death, grasped the three marks of things, and 
making the earth re-echo with joy he entered on paccekabodhi. At that 
instant the characters of a householder vanished from him, a miraculous 
bowl and frock fell from the sky and clave to his body, at once he had the 
eight requisites and the perfect deportment of a centenarian monk, [240] 
and by miracle he flew into the air and went to the cave Nandamula^ in 
the Himalaya. 

The Bodhisatta ruled his kingdom with righteousness, but the great- 
ness of his glory infatuated him and for forty years he forgot Darimukha. 
In the fortieth year he remembered him, and saying, "I have a friend 
named Darimukha; where is he now?" he longed to see him. Thence- 
forth even in the seraglio and in the assembly he would say, "Where is my 
friend Darimukha ? I will give great honour to the man who tells me of 
his abode." Another ten years passed while he remembered Darimukha 
from time to time. Darimukha, though now a paccekabuddha, after 
fifty years reflected and knew that his friend remembered him : and 
thinking, " He is now old and increased with sons and daughtei's, I will go 
and preach the law to him and ordain him," he went by miracle through 

1 This is specially the abode of paccekabuddhas. 

158 The Jataha. Book VI. 

the air, and lighting in the garden he sat like a golden image on the stone 
seat. The gardener seeing him came up and asked, " Sir, whence come 
youl" "From the cave Nan damulaka." "Who are you T' "Friend,! 
am Darlraukha the pacceka." "Sir, do you know our king'?" "Yes, he 
was my friend in my layman days." " Sir, the king longs to see you, I 
will tell him of your coming." " Go and do so." He went and told the 
king that Darlmukha was come and sitting on the stone-seat. The king 
said, "So my friend is come, I shall see him ": so he mounted his car and 
with a great retinue went to the garden and saluting the paccekabuddha 
with kindly greeting he sat on one side. The paccekabuddha said, 
"Brahmadatta, do you rule your kingdom with righteousness, never follow 
evil courses or oppress the people for money, and do good deeds with 
charity?" [241] and after kindly greeting, "Brahmadatta, you are old, 
it is time for you to renounce pleasures, and be ordained," so he preached 
the law and spoke the first stanza : 

Pleasures of sense are but morass and mire : 

The 'triply-rooted terror' them I call. 
Vapour and dust I liave proclaimed them, Sire : 

Become a Brother and forsake them all. 

[242] Hearing this, the king explaining that he was bound by desires 
spoke the second stanza : 

Infatuate, bound and deeply stained am T, 

Brahmin, with pleasures : fearful they may be, 

But I love life, and cannot them deny : 
Good works I undertake continually. 

[243] Then Darlmukha though the Bodhisatta said, " I cannot be 
ordained," did not reject him and exhorted him yet again : 

He who rejects the counsel of his friend, 
Who pities him, and would avert his doom, 

Thinking "this world is better," finds no end, 
Foolish, of long rebirths within the womb. 

That fearful place of punishment is his, 

Full of all filth, held evil by the good : 
The greedy their desires can ne'er dismiss. 

The flesh imprisons all the carnal brood. 

[244] So Darlmukha the paccekabuddha showing the misery rising from 
conception and quickening, to show next the misery of birth spoke a stauza 
and a half : 

Covered with blood and with gross foulness stained, 

All mortal beings issue from the birth : 
Whate'er they touch thereafter is ordained 

To bring them pain and sorrow on the earth. 

I speak what I have seen, not what I hear 
From others : I remember times of old. 

No. 378. 159 

[245] Now the Master in his Perfect Wisdom said, "So the pacceka- 
buddha helped the king with good words," and at the end spoke the 
remaining half-stanza : 

Darimukha did to Sumedha's^ ear 

Wisdom in many a stanza sweet unfold. 

The paccekabuddha, showing the misery of desires, making his words 
understood, said, " O king, be ordained or not, but anyhow I have told the 
wretchedness of desires and the blessings of ordination, be thou zealous," 
and so like a golden royal goose he rose in the air, and treading on clouds 
he reached the Nandamidaka cave. The Great Being made on his head 
the salutations resplendent with the ten finger-nails put together and 
bowing down stood till [246] Darimukha passed out of sight : then he sent 
for his eldest son and gave him the kingdom : and leaving desires, while a 
great multitude was weeping and lamenting, he went to the Himalaya 
and building a hut of leaves he was ordained as an ascetic : then in no 
long time he gained the Faculties and Attainments and at his life's end 
he went to Brahma's heaven. 

The lesson ended, the Master declared the truths : then many attained the 
First Path and the rest : — and he identified the Birth : " At that time the king 
was myself." 

No. 379. 


^^ Rave7is and croivs," etc. — The Master told this tale in Jetavana concerning 
a certain Brother. The story is that he got the forms of meditation from the 
Jklaster and then went to a frontier village. There the people, pleased with his 
deportment, fed him, built him a hut in the wood, and exacting a promise, 
made him live there, and gave him great honoiu-. But they forsook him for the 
teachers of the permanence of matter, afterwards forsaking those for the sect 
who deny immortality, and those again for the sect of naked ascetics : for 
teachers of all these sects came among them in turn. So he was unhappy 

1 If Sumedha is a proper name, this must be taken from another story: but it may 
mean merely ' wise.' 

160 TJie Jdtaha. Book VI. 

among those people who knew not good and evil, and after the rains and the 
pavaranai he went back to the Master, and at his request told him where he had 
stayed during the rains and that he had been unhappy among people who knew 
not good and evil. The Master said, "Sages of old, even when born as beasts, 
stayed not a day among those who knew not good and evil, why have you done 
so 1" and so he told the tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a golden goose. Along with his younger brother 
[247] he lived on the hill Cittakiita and fed on wild paddy in the Himalaya. 
One day in their flight back to Cittakiita they saw the golden mountain 
Neru and settled on its summit. Around the mountain dwell birds and 
beasts of various kinds for feeding ground : from the time of their coming 
to the mountain onwards they became golden of hue from its lustre. The 
Bodhisatta's brother saw this, bnt being ignorant of the cause said, "Now 
what is the cause here ? " and so talking to his brother he spoke two 
stanzas : 

Ravens and crows, and we the best of birds, 
When on this mountain, all appear the same. 

Mean jackals rival tigers and their lords, 
The lions : what can be the mountain's name ? 

The Bodhisatta hearing this spoke the third stanza: 

Noblest of Mountains, Neru is it hight. 
All animals are here made fair to sight. 

The younger one hearing this spoke the remaining three stanzas : 

Where'er the good find honour small or none. 
Or less than others, live not, but begone. 

Dull and clever, brave and coward, all are honoured equally : 
Undiscriminating Mountain, good men will not stay on thee! 

[248] Best, indifferent and meanest Neru does not separate, 

Undiscriminating Neru, we alas! must leave thee straight. 

With this they both flew up and went to Cittakiita. 

After the lesson, the Master proclaimed the Truths and identified the Birth : 
at the close of the Trutlis, that Brother was established in the fruition of the 
First Path : " At that time the yoiinger goose was Ananda, the elder was 

^ The festival at the end of the rains. 

No. 380. 161 

No. 380. 


"/?i heavenly garden" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling at 
Jetavana, concerning the temptation of a Brother by his former wife. The 
occasion will appear in the Indriyai Birth. The Master found that the brother 
was backsliding owing to thoughts of his wife, so he said, " Sir, this woman 
does you harm : formerly also for her sake yoii sacrificed an army of the four 
divisions and dwelt in the Himalaya three years in much misery" : so he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family at a village of that country. 
When he grew up, he learned the arts [249] at Takkasila, became an 
ascetic and reaching the Faculties and Attainments lived on roots and 
fruits in the Himalaya. At that time a being of perfect merit fell from 
the Heaven of the Thirty-three and was conceived as a girl inside a lotus 
in a pool: and when the other lotuses grew old and fell, that one grew 
great and stood. The ascetic coming to bathe saw it and thought, " The 
other lotuses fall, but this one is grown great and stands; why is this?" 
So he put on his bathing-dress and crossed to it, then opening the lotus 
he saw the girl. Feeling towards her as to a daughter he took her to 
his hut and tended her. When she came to sixteen years, she was 
beautiful, and in her beauty excelled the hue of man, but attained not 
the hue of gods. Sakka came to wait on the Bodhisatta. He saw the 
maiden, asked and was told the way in which she was found, and then 
asked, "What ought she to receive'?" "A dwelling-place and supply of 
raiment, ornament and food, O sir." He answered, "Very well, lord," 
and created a crystal palace for her dwelling, made for her a bed, raiment 
and ornament, food and drink divine. The palace descended and rested 
on the groiind when she was going up ; when she had gone up it ascended 
and stayed in the air. She did various services to the Bodhisatta as 
she lived in the palace. A forester saw this and asked, "What is this 
person to you, lordl" "My daughter." So he went to Benares and told 
the king, "O king, I have seen in the Himalaya a certain ascetic's daughter 
of such beauty." The king was caught by hearing this, and making the 
forester his guide he went with an army of the four divisions to that place, 
and pitching a camp he took the forester and his i-etinue of ministers 
and entered the hermitage. [250] He saluted the Bodhisatta and said, 
"Lord, women are a stain to the religious life; I will tend your daughter." 

1 No. 423, infra. 
J. III. 11 

162 The Jataka. Book VI. 

Now the Bodhisatta bad given the maiden the name Asanka because she 
was brought to him by his crossing the water owing to his doubt (asanka), 
"What is in this lotus?" He did not say to the king directly, "Take her 
and go," but said, "If you know this maiden's name, O great king, take her 
and go." "Lord, if you tell it, I shall know." "I shall not tell it, but 
when you know it take her and depart." The king agreed, and thence- 
forth considei-ed along with his ministers, "What may be her name?" He 
put forward all names hard to guess and talked with the Bodhisatta, saying, 
"Such and such will be her name": but the Bodhisatta said nay and 
refused him. So a year passed while the king was considering. Lions 
and other beasts seized his elephants and horses and men, there was danger 
from snakes, danger from flies, and many died worn out with cold. The 
king said to the Bodhisatta, "What need have I of her?" and took his way. 
The maiden Asanka stood at an open crystal window. The king seeing 
her said, " We cannot find your name, live here in the Himalaya, we will 
depart." " Great king, if you go you will never find a wife like me. In 
the Heaven of the Thirty-thi-ee, in the Cittalata garden, there is a creeper 
named Asavati : in its fruit a divine drink is born, and they who drink of 
it once are intoxicated for four months and lie on a divine couch : it bears 
fruit once in a thousand years and the sons of the gods, though given to 
strong drink, [251] bear with their thirst for that divine drink saying, 
"We shall reap fruit from this," and come constantly throughout the 
thousand years to watch the plant saying, " Is it well ? " But you grow 
discontented in one year : he who wins the fruit of his hope is happy, be 
not discontented yet," and so she spoke three stanzas : 

In heavenly garden grows Asavati; 
Once in a thousand years, no more, the tree 
Bears fruit : for it the gods wait patiently. 
Hope on, king, the fruit of hope is sweet : 
A bird hoped on and never own'd defeat. 
His wish, though far away, he won complete : 
Hope on, king : the fruit of hope is sweet. 

The king was caught by her words : he gathered his ministers again 
and guessed at the name, making ten guesses each time till another year 
was past. But her name was not among the ten, and so the Bodhisatta 
refused him. Again the king said, "What need have I of her?" and took 
his way. She showed herself at the window : and the king said, " You 
stay, we will depart." [252] "Why depart, great king?" "I cannot find 
your name." " Great king, why can you not find it ? Hope is not without 
success ; a crane staying on a hill-top won his wish : why can you not 
win it ? Endure, great king. A crane had its feeding-ground in a lotus-pool, 
but flying up lit on a hill-top : he stayed there that day and next day 
thought, ' I am happily settled on this hill-top : if without going down I 
stay hei-e finding food and drinking water and so dwell this day. Oh it 

No. 380. 163 

would be delightful.' That very day Sakka, King of Iieaveu, had crushed 
the Asuras and being now lord in the heaven of the ThLrty-three was 
thinking, ' My wishes have come to the pitch of fulfilment, is there any 
one in the forest whose wishes are unfulfilled 1 ' So considering, he saw 
that crane and thought, ' I will bring this bird's wishes to the pitch of 
fulfilment': not far from the crane's place of perch there is a stream, and 
Sakka sent the stream in full flood to the hill-top : so the crane without 
moving ate fish and drank water and dwelt there that day : then the 
water fell and went away : so, great king, the crane won fruition of that 
hope of his, and why will you not win it 1 Hope on," she said, with the 
rest of the verse. The king, hearing her tale, was caught by her beauty 
and attracted by her words : he could not go away, but gathering his 
ministers, and getting a hundred names [253] spent another year in 
guessing with these hundred names. At the end of three years he came 
to the Bodhisatta and asked, " Will that name be among the hundred, 
lord ? " " You do not know it, great king." He saluted the Bodhisatta, 
and saying, " We will go now," he took his way. The maiden Asaiika 
again stood by a crystal window. The king saw her and said, " You 
stay, we will depart." "Why, great king?" "You satisfy me with 
words, but not with love : caught by your sweet words I have spent here 
three years, now I will depart," and he uttered these stanzas ; 

You please me but with words and not in deed : 

The scentless flower, though fair, is but a weed. 

Promise fair without performance on his friends one throws away, 

Never giving, ever hoarding : such is friendship's sure decay. 

Men should speak when they will act, not promise what they cannot do: 

If they talk without performing, wise men see them through and through. 

My troops are wasted, all my stores are spent, 

I doubt my life is spoilt : 'tis time I went. 

[254] The maiden Asaiika hearing the king's words said, " Great king, 
you know my name, you have just said it; tell my father my name, take 
me and go," so talking with the king, she said : 

Prince, you have said the word that is my name : 
Come, king : my father will allow the claim. 

The king went to the Bodhisatta, saluted and said, " Lord, your 
daughter is named Asanka." " From the time you know her name, take 
her and go, great king." He saluted the Bodhisatta, and coming to the 
crystal palace he said, "Lady, your father has given you to me, come now." 
"Come, great king, I will get my father's leave," she said, and coming 
down from the palace she saluted the Bodhisatta, got his consent and 
came to the king. The king took her to Benares and lived happily with 
her, increased with sons and daughters. The Bodhisatta continued in 
unbroken meditation and was born in the Brahma world. 


164 The JdtaJca. Book VL 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
After the Truths, the Brother was established in the Fruition of the First 
Path : — "Asanka was the former wife, the king was the discontented Brother, 
the ascetic was myself." 

No. 381. 


[255] " Your ways, my son," etc. — The Master told this tale in Jetavana, of an 
unruly Brother. The Master asked the Brother, "Are you really unruly?" He 
said, "Yes, lord": and the Master saying, "You are not unruly for the first 
time ; formerly too through unruliness you did not the bidding of the wise and 
met your death by the Verambha^ winds," told an old-world tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born as a vulture by name Aparannagijjha, and dwelt among 
a retinue of vultures in Gijjhapabbata (Vulture Mountain). His son, 
Migalopa by name, was exceedingly strong and mighty ; he flew high 
above the reach of the other vultures. They told their king that his 
son flew very far. He called Migalopa, and saying, " Son, they say you 
fly too high: if you do, you will bring death on yourself," spoke three 
stanzas : 

Your ways, my son, to me unsafe appear, 
You soar too high, above our proper sphere. 

When earth is but a square field to your sight, 
Turn back, my son, and dare no higher flight. 

Other birds on soaring pinions lofty flight e'er now have tried, 
Struck by furious wind and tempest they have perished in their pride. 

[256] Migalopa through disobedience did not do his father's bidding, 
but rising and rising he passed the limit his father told him, clove even 
the Black Winds when he met them, and flew upwards till he met the 
Verambha winds in the face. They struck him, and at their mere stroke 
he fell into pieces and disappeared in the air. 

1 Cf. no. 427 infra. 

- A wind so called from a sea of the same name, see Divydvaduna, p. 105. 

No. 381. 165 

His aged father's wise commands disdained, 
Beyond the Black, Verambha Winds he gained. 

His wife, his children, all his household herd. 
All came to ruin through that froward bird. 

So they who heed not what their elders say, 
Like this proud vulture beyond bounds astray, 
Meet ruin, when right rules they disobey. 

After the lesson the Master identified the Birth: "At that time Migalopa 
was the unruly Brother, Aparanna was myself." 

No. 382. 


[257] " Who is this," etc.— The Master told this tale in Jetavana concerning 
Anathapindika. From the time when he was established in the fruition of the 
First Path he kept all the five first commandments unbroken ; so also did his 
wife, his sons and daughters, his hired servants and his workpeople. One day 
in the Hall of Truth they began to discuss whetlier Anathapindika was pure 
in his walk and his household also. The Master came and was told their 
subject: so he said, "Brethi'en, the wise men of old had pure households," and 
told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was a merchant, giving gifts, keeping the commands, and performing 
the fast day duties : and so his wife kept the five commands, and so also 
did his sons, his daughters and his servants and workpeople. So he was 
called the merchant Suciparivara (pure household). He thought, " If one 
of purer morals than I should come, it would not be proper to give him 
my couch to sit on or my bed to lie on, but to give him one pure and 
unused": so he had an unused couch and bed prepared on one side in 
his presence-chamber. At that time in the Heaven of the Four Kings^ 
Kalakannl, daughter of Virupakkha, and Sirl, daughter of Dhatarattha, 
both together took many perfumes and garlands and went on the lake 
Anotatta to play there. Now on that lake there are many bathing- 

1 These are Dhatarattha, King of the North, Viriilha of the South, Virupakkha of 
the West, and Vessavana of the East. 

166 The Jataka. Book VI. 

places : the Buddhas bathe at their own place, the paccekabuddhas at 
theirs, [258] the Brethi-en at theirs, the ascetics at theirs, the gods of the 
six Kama-heavens^ at theirs, and the goddesses at theirs. These two 
came thither and began to quai-rel as to which of them should bathe first. 
Kalakanni said, "I rule the world : it is proper that I bathe first." 
Siri said, "I preside over the course of conduct that gives lordship to 
mankiud : it is proper that I bathe first." Then both said, " The Four 
Kings will know which of us ought to bathe first": so they went to them 
and asked which of the two was worthy to bathe first in Anotatta. 
Dhatarattha and Virupakkha said, "We cannot decide," and laid the 
duty on Virulha and Vessavana, They too said, " We cannot decide, 
we will send it to our Lord's feet" : so they sent it to Sakka. He heard 
their tale and thought, "Those two are the daughters of my vassals; I 
cannot decide this case": so he said to them, "There is in Benares a 
merchant called Suciparivara ; in his house are prepared an unused 
couch and bed : she who can first sit or lie there is the proper one 
to bathe first." Kalakanni hearing this on the instant put on blue^ 
raiment and used blue ointment and decked herself with blue jewels : 
she descended from the heaven as on a stone from a catapult, and just 
after the mid-watch of night she stood in the air, diffusing a blue light, 
not far from the merchant who was lying on a couch in the presence- 
chamber of his mansion. The merchant [259] looked and saw her: but to 
his eyes she was ungracious and unlovely. Talking to her he spoke the 
first stanza : 

Who is this so dark of hue. 

So unlovely to the view 1 

Who are you, whose daughter, say, 

How are we to know you, pray ? 

Hearing him, Kalakanni spoke the second stanza : 

The great king Virupakkha is my sire: 

I am Misfortune, Kalakanni dire : 

Give me the house-room near you I desire. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke the third stanza: 

What the conduct, what the ways. 

Of the men with whom you dwell ? 
This is what my question prays : 

We will mark the answer well. 

Then she, explaining her own qualities, spoke the fourth stanza : 

The hypocrite, the wanton, the morose. 
The man of envy, greed and treachery : 

Such are the friends I love : and I dispose 
Their gains that they may perish utterly. 

* Of which the Heaven of the Four Kings is the first. 
- Bhie is the unlucky colour. 

No. 382. 167 

[260] She spoke also the fifth, sixth, and seventh stanzas : 

And dearer still are ire and hate to me, 
Slander and strife, libel and cruelty. 

The shiftless wight who knows not his own good, 
Resenting counsel, to his betters rude : 

The man whom folly drives, whom friends despise, 
He is my friend, in him my pleasure lies. 

[261] Then the Great Being, blaming her, spoke the eighth stanza: 

Kali, depart : there's naught to please you here : 
To other lands and cities disappear. 

KalakannT, hearing him, was sorrowful and spoke another stanza : 

I know you well : there's naught to please me here. 
Others are luckless, who amass much gear ; 
My brother-god and I will make it disappear. 

When she had gone, Siri the goddess, coming with raiment and oint- 
ment of golden hue and ornament of golden brightness to the door of the 
presence-chamber, diffusing yellow light, i-ested with even feet on level 
ground and stood respectful. The Bodhisatta seeing her repeated the fii'st 
stanza : 

Who is this, divine of hue. 
On the gi'ound so firm and true? 
Who are you, whose daughter, say. 
How are we to know you, pray 1 

[262] Sir!, hearing him, spoke the second stanza : 

The great king Dhatarattha is my sire : 

Fortune and Luck am I, and Wisdom men admire : 

Grant me the house-room with you I desire. 


What the conduct, what the ways 

Of the men with whom you dwell ? 
This is what my question prays; 

We will mark your answer well. 

He who in cold and heat, in wind and sun, 
Mid thirst and hunger, snake and poison-fly. 

His present duty night and day hath done ; 
With him I dwell and love him faithfully. 

Gentle and friendly, righteous, liberal, 

Guileless and honest, upright, winning, bland. 

Meek in high place : I tinge his fortunes all. 

Like waves their hue through ocean that expand i. 

^ Perhaps vannam is really for the Sanskrit vrmhan increasing. 

168 The Jdtaha. Book VI. 

To friend or unfriend, better, like or worse, 

Helper or foe, by dark or open day. 
Whoso is kind, [263] without harsh word or curse, 

I am his friend, living or dead, alway. 

But if a fool have won some love from me. 

And waxes proud and vain, 
His froward path of wantonness I flee. 

Like filthy stain. 

Each man's fortune and misfortune are his own work, not another's : 
Neither fortune nor misfortune can a man make for his brothers. 

Such was Sirl's answer when questioned by the mei'chant. 

[264] The Bodhisatta rejoiced at Siri's words, and said, "Here is the 
pure seat and bed, proper for you ; sit and lie down there." She stayed 
there and in the morning departed to the Heaven of the Four Great 
Kings and bathed first in lake Anotatta. The bed used by Sirl was called 
Sirisaya : hence is the origin of Sirisayana, and for this reason it is so 
called to this day. 

After the lesson the Master identified the Birth : " At that time the goddess 
Sir! was Uppalavanna, the merchant Suciparivara was myself." 

No. 383\ 


[265] ^^ Bird with wings" etc. — The Master told this tale in Jetavana, con- 
cerning a Brother who longed for the world. The Master asked him, "Why do 
you long for the world 1 " " Lord, through passion, for I saw a woman adorned." 
" Brother, women are like cats, deceiving and cajoling to bring to ruin one who 
has come into their power," so he told an old tale. 

Once iipon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a cock and lived in the forest with a retinue of 
many hundi-ed cocks. Not far away lived a she-cat : and she deceived 

^ See Morris in Folk-lore Journal, ii. p. 332 : and the illustration facing the title-page. 

No. 383. 169 

by devices the other cocks except the Bodhisatta and ate them : but the 
Bodhisatta did not fall into her power. She thought, " This cock is very 
crafty, but he knows not that I am crafty and skilful in device : it is 
good that I cajole him, saying, ' I will be your wife,' and so eat him when 
he comes into my power." She went to the root of the tree where he 
perched, and praying him in a speech preceded by praise of his beauty, she 
spoke the first stanza : 

Bird with wings that flash so gaily, crest that droops so gracefully, 
I will be your wife for nothing, leave the bough and come to me. 

The Bodhisatta hearing her thought, " She has eaten all my relatives ; 
now she wishes to cajole me and eat me: I will get I'id of her." So he 
spoke the second stanza : 

Lady fair and winning, you have four feet, I have only two : 
Beasts and birds should never marry : for some other husband sue. 

[266] Then she thought, "He is exceedingly crafty; by some device 
or other I will deceive him and eat him " ; so she spoke the third stanza : 

I will bring thee youth and beauty, pleasant speech and courtesy : 
Hououred wife or simple slave-girl, at thy pleasure deal with me. 

Then the Bodhisatta thought, " It is best to revile her and drive her 
away," so he spoke the fourth stanza : 

Thou hast drunk my kindred's blood, and robbed and slain them cruelly : 
"Honoured wife" ! thex-e is no honour in your heart when wooing me. 

She was driven away and did not endure to look at him again. 

So when they see a hero, women sly, 
(Compare the cat and cock,) to tempt him try. 

He that to great occasion fails to 
'Neath foeman's feet in sorrow prostrate lies. 

[267] One prompt a crisis in his fate to see. 
As cock from cat, escapes his enemy. 

These are stanzas inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

His lesson ended, the ]\Iaster declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
after the Truths, the backsliding Brother was established in the fruition of 
the First Path : — "At that time the cock was myself." 

170 The Jataka. Book VI. 

No. 384\ 


"Practise virhie," e<c.— The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavaua, 
of a deceitful Brother. He said, " Brethren, this man is not deceitful now for 
the first time " : so he told an old-world tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodlii- 
satta was born as a bird : when he grew up he lived amidst a retinue of 
birds on an island in the middle of the sea. Certain merchants of Kasi 
got a travelled crow and started on a voyage by sea. In the midst of the 
sea the ship was wrecked. The crow reached that island and thought, 
"Here is a great flock of birds, it is good that I use deceit on them and eat 
their eggs and young": so he descended in their midst and opening his 
mouth stood with one foot on the ground. "Who are you, master?" they 
asked. "I am a holy person." "Why do you stand on one foot?" "If 
I put down the other one, [268] the earth could not bear me." "Then 
why do you stand with your mouth open?" " We eat no other food, we 
only drink the wind;" and with this he called these birds and saying, "I 
will give you a sermon, you listen," he spoke the first stanza by way 
of a sermon : 

Practise \irtue, brethren, bless you! practise virtue, I repeat: 
Here and after virtuous people have their happiness complete. 

The birds, not knowing that he said this with deceit to eat their eggs, 
praised him and spoke the second stanza : 

Surely a righteous fowl, a blessed bird. 
He preaches on one leg the holy word. 

The birds, believing that wicked one, said, "Sir, you take no other 
food but feed on wind only : so pray watch our eggs and young," so they 
went to their feeding-ground. That sinner when they went away ate his 
bellyful of their eggs and young, and when they came again he stood 
calmly on one foot with his mouth open. The birds not seeing their 
children when they came made a great outcry, "Who can be eating 
them?" but saying, "This crow is a holy person," they do not even 
suspect him. Then one day the Bodhisatta thought, " There was nothing 

1 See Morris in Folk-lore Journal, ii. p. 304. 

No. 384. 171 

wrong here formerly, it only began since this one came, it is good to try 
him": so making as if he were going to feed with the other birds he 
turned back and stood in a secret place. [269] The crow, confident 
because the birds were gone, rose and went and ate the eggs and young, 
then coming back stood on one foot with his mouth open. When the 
birds came, their king assembled them all and said, " I examined to-day 
the danger to our children, and I saw this wicked crow eating them, we 
will seize him": so getting the birds together and surrounding the crow 
he said, " If he flees, let us seize him," and spoke the remaining stanzas : 

You know not his ways, when this bird you praise: 

You spoke with foolish tongue: 
"Virtue," he'll say, and "Virtue" aye. 

But he eats our eggs and young. 

The things he preaches with his voice 

His members never do : 
His Virtue is an empty noise. 

His righteousness untrue. 

At heart a hypocrite, his language charms, 

A black snake slinking to his hole is he : 
He cozens by his outward coat of arms 

The country-folk in their simplicity. 

Strike him down with beak and pinion. 

Tear him with your claws : 
Death to such a dastard minion, 

Traitor to our cause. 

[270] With these words the leader of the birds himself sprang up and 
struck the crow in the head with his beak, and the rest struck him with 
beaks and feet and wings : so he died. 

At the end of the lesson, the Master identified the Birth : "At that time the 
crow was the deceitful Brother, the king of the birds was myself." 

No. 385. 


" Will you go to the King's Park" etc. — The Master told this in Jetavana, of a 
Brother who supported his mother. He asked the Brother, " Is it true that you 
support lay folk?" "Yes, lord." "What are they?" "My father and mother. 

172 The Jataka. Book VI. 

lord." "Well done, well done, Brother: you keep up the rule of the wise men 
of old, for they too even when born as beasts gave their life for their parents," 
and so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when the Kosala king was reigning over the Kosalas 
in Saketa (Oudh), the Bodhisatta was born as a deer ; when he grew up 
he was named Nandiyamiga, and being excellent in character and conduct 
he supported his father and mother. The Kosala king was intent on the 
chase, and went every day to hunt with a great retinue, so that his people 
could not follow farming and their trades. The people gathered together 
and consulted, saying, " Sirs, this king of ours is destroying our trades, 
our home-life is perishing; what if we were to enclose the Aiijanavana park, 
providing a gate, digging a tank and sowing grass there, then go into the 
forest with sticks and clubs in our hands, beat the thickets, and so expelling 
the deer and driving them along force them into the park like cows into 
a pen ? then we would close the gate, send word to the king and go about 
our trades." " That is the way," they said, and so with one will they made 
the park ready, and then entering the wood enclosed a space [271] of a 
league each way. At the time Nandiya had taken his father and mother 
into a little thicket and was lying on the ground. The people with various 
shields and weapons in their hands encircled the thicket arm to arm ; and 
some entered it looking for deer. Nandiya saw them and thought, " It is 
good that I should abandon life to-day and give it for my parents," so rising 
and saluting his parents he said, " Father and mother, these men will see 
us three if they enter this thicket ; you can survive only in one way, and 
your life is best : I will give you the gift of your life, standing by the 
skirts of the thicket and going out as soon as they beat it: then they will 
think there can be only one deer in this little thicket and so will not 
enter : be heedful " : so he got their permission and stood ready to run. 
As soon as the thicket was beaten by the people standing at its skirts and 
shouting he came out, and they thinking there would be only one deer 
there did not enter. Nandiya went among the other deer, and the 
people drove them along into the park; then closing the gate they told the 
king and went to their own homes. From that time the king always went 
himself and shot a deer ; then he either took it and went away, or sent for 
it and had it fetched. The deer arranged their turns, and he to whom the 
turn came stood on one side: and they take him when shot. Nandiya 
drank water from the tank, and ate the grass, but his turn did not come 
yet. Then after many days his parents longing to see him thought, "Our 
son Nandiya, king of deer, was strong as an elephant and of perfect 
health: if he is alive he will certainly leap the fence and come to see 
us; we will send him [272] word": so they stood near the road and 

No. 385. 173 

seeing a brahmin they asked in human voice, " Sir, where are you 
going?" "To Saketa," he said; so sending a message to their son they 
spoke the first stanza : 

Will you go to the King's Park, brahmin, when Oudh you're travelling through? 

Find out our dear son Nandiya and tell him our message true, 

"Your father and mother are stricken in years and their hearts are fain for you." 

The brahmin, saying, " It is well," accepted, and going to Saketa next 
day entered the park, and asked " Which is Nandiya?" The deer came 
near him and said, "I." The brahmin told his message. Nandiya, 
hearing it, said, "I might go, brahmin; I might certainly leap the fence 
and go: but I have enjoyed regular food and drink from the king, and 
this stands to me as a debt : besides I have lived long among these deer, 
and it is improper for me to go away without doing good to this king and 
to them, or without showing my strength : but when my turn comes I will 
do good to them and come gladly " : and so explaining this, he spoke two 
stanzas : 

I owe the King my daily drink and food : 
I cannot go till I have made it good. 

To the King's arrows I'll expose my side: 
Then see my mother and be justified. 

[273] The brahmin hearing this went away. Afterwards on the day 
when his turn came, the king with a great i^etinue came into the park. 
The Bodhisatta stood on one side : and the king saying, " I will shoot the 
deer," fitted a sharp arrow to the string. The Bodhisatta did not run 
away as other animals do when scared by the fear of death, but fearless 
and making his charity his guide he stood firm, exposing his side with 
mighty ribs. The king owing to the efficacy of his love could not 
discharge the arrow. The Bodhisatta said, " Great king, why do you not 
shoot the arrow? shoot!" "King of deer, I cannot." "Then see the 
merit of the virtuous i, O great king." Then the king, pleased with the 
Bodhisatta, dropped his bow and said, "This senseless length of wood 
knows your merit: shall I who have sense and am a man not know it? 
forgive me ; I give you security." " Great king, you give me security, but 
what will this herd of deer in the park do 1" "I give it to them too." 
So the Bodhisatta, having gained security for all deer in the park, for 
birds in the air and fishes in the water, in the way described in the 
Nigrodha Birth, established the king in the five commands and said, 
"Great king, it is good for a king to rule a kingdom by forsaking the 
ways of wrongdoing, not offending against the ten kingly virtues and 
acting with just righteousness. 

1 There is a pun here on fiunam which means vierit or string. 

174 The Jataka. Book VI. 

[274] Alms, morals, charity, justice and penitence, 
Peace, mildness, mercy, meekness, patience: 

These virtues planted in my soul I feel, 

Thence springs up Love and perfect inward weal." 

With these words he showed forth the kingly virtues in the form of a 
stanza, and after staying some days with the king he sent a golden drum 
round the town, proclaiming the gift of security to all beings : and then 
saying, " O king, be watchful," he went to see his parents. 

Of old in Oudh a king of deer I hight. 
By name and nature, Nandiya, Delight. 

To kill me in his deer-park came the King, 
His bow was bent, his arrow on the string. 

To the King's arrow I exposed my side; 
Then saw my mother and was justified. 

These were the stanzas inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

At the end, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth: — At 
the end of the Truths, the Brother who supported his mother was established in 
the First Path: — "At that time the father and mother were members of the 
royal family, the brahmin was Sariputta, the king Ananda, the deer myself." 

No. 386. 


[275] '■^ Goats are stupid" etc. — The Master told this tale in Jetavana, con- 
cerning temptation of a Brother by his former wife. When the Brother confessed 
that he was longing for the woi"ld, the Master said, " Brother, this woman does 
you harm : formerly also you came into the fire through her and were saved 
from death by sages," so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when a king named Senaka was reigning in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was Sakka. The king Senaka was friendly with a certain 
naga-king. This naga-king, they say, left the naga-world and ranged the 

^ For variants on this story see Benfey in Orient and Occident, vol. ii. pp. 133 ff., 
and the second story in the Arabian Nights. 

No. 386. 175 

earth seeking food. The village boys seeing him said, " This is a snake," 
and struck him with clods and other things. The king, going to amuse 
himself in his garden, saw them, and being told they were beating a 
snake, said, "Don't let them beat him, drive them away"; and this was 
done. So the naga-king got his life, and when he went back to the naga- 
world, he took many jewels, and coming at midnight to the king's bed- 
chamber he gave them to him, saying, " I got my life through you " : so 
he made friendship with the king and came again and again to see him. 
He appointed one of his naga gii'ls, insatiate in pleasures, to be near 
the king and protect him : and he gave the king a charm, saying, " If 
ever you do not see her, repeat this charm." One day the king went to 
the garden with the naga girl and was amusing himself in the lotus-tank. 
The naga girl seeing a water-snake quitted her human shape and made 
love with him. The king not seeing the girl said, [276] "Where is she 
gone?" and repeated the spell: then he saw her in her misconduct and 
struck her with a piece of bamboo. She went in anger to the naga-world, 
and when she was asked, "Why are you come?" she said, " Your friend 
struck me on the back because I did not do his bidding," shewing the 
mark of the blow. The naga-king, not knowing the truth, called four 
naga youths and sent them with orders to enter Senaka's bed-chamber and 
destroy him like chaff by the breath of their nostrils. They entered the 
chamber at the royal bed-time. As they came in, the king was saying to 
the queen : " Lady, do you know where the naga-girl has gone 1 " " King, I 
do not." " To-day when we were bathing in the tank, she quitted her shape 
and misconducted herself with a water-snake : I said, ' Don't do that,' and 
struck her with a piece of bamboo to give her a lesson : and now I fear 
she may have gone to the naga-world and told some lie to my friend, 
destroying his good- will to me." The young nagas hearing this turned 
back at once to the naga-world and told their king. He being moved 
went instantly to the king's chamber, told him all and was forgiven : then 
he said, " In this way I make amends," and gave the king a charm giving 
knowledge of all sounds : "This, O king, is a priceless spell: if you give 
anyone this spell you will at once enter the fire and die." The king said, 
" It is well," and accepted it. From that time he understood the voice 
even of ants. One day he was sitting on the dais eating solid food with 
honey and molasses : and a drop of honey, a drop of molasses, and a 
morsel of cake fell on the ground. An ant seeing this comes crying, 
"The king's honey-jar is broken on the dais, his molasses-cart [277] and 
cake-cart are upset; come and eat honey and molasses and cake." The 
king hearing the cry laughed. The queen being near him thought, "What 
has the king seen that he laughs'?" When the king had eaten his solid 
food and bathed and sat down cross-legged, a fly said to his wife, "Come, 
lady, let us enjoy love." She said, " Excuse me for a little, husband : they 

176 The Jataka. Book VI. 

will soon be V)ringing perfumes to the king ; as he perfumes himself some 
powder will fall at his feet : I will stay there and become fragrant, then 
we will enjoy ourselves lying on the king's back." The king hearing the 
voice laughed again. The queen thought again, " What has he seen that 
he laughs 1 " Again when the king was eating his supper, a lump of rice 
fell on the ground. The ants cried, " A wagon of rice has broken in the 
king's palace, and there is none to eat it." The king hearing this laughed 
again. The queen took a golden spoon and helping him reflected, "Is it 
at the sight of me that the king laughs 1 " She went to the bed-chamber 
with the king and at bed-time she asked, "Why did you laugh, king?" 
He said, "What have you to do with why I laugh?" but being asked 
again and again he told her. Then she said, "Give me your spell of 
knowledge." He said, "It cannot be given": but though repulsed she 
pressed him again. 

The king said, "If I give you this spell, I shall die." "Even though 
you die, give it me." The king, being in the power of womankind, 
saying, "It is well," consented and went to the park in a chariot, saying, 
"I shall enter the fire after giving away this spell." At that moment, 
Sakka, king of gods, looked down on the earth and seeing this case 
said, "This foolish king, knowing that he will enter the fire through 
womankind, is on his way ; I will give him his life " : so he took Suja, 
daughter of the Asuras, and went to Benares. [278] He became a he-goat 
and made her a she-goat, and resolving that the people should not see them, 
he stood before the king's chariot. The king and the Sindh asses yoked 
in the chariot saw him, but none else saw him. For the sake of starting 
talk he was as if making love with the she-goat. One of the Sindh asses 
yoked in the chariot seeing him said, " Friend goat, we have heard before, 
but not seen, that goats are stupid and shameless : but you are doing, with 
all of us looking on, this thing that should be done in secret and in a 
private place, and are not ashamed : what we have heard before agrees 
with this that we see : " and so he spoke the first stanza : 

' Goats are stupid,' says the wise man, and the words are surely true : 
This one knows not he's parading what in secret he should do. 

The goat hearing him spoke two stanzas : 

O, sir donkey, think and realise your own stupidity, 
You're tied with ropes, your jaw is wrenched, and very downcast is 
your eye. 

When you're loosed, you don't escape. Sir, that's a stupid habit too : 
And that Senaka you carry, he's more stupid still than you. 

[279] The king understood the talk of both animals, and hearing it he 
quickly sent away the chariot. The ass hearing the goat's talk spoke the 
fourth stanza : 

No. 386. 177 

Well, Sir king of goats, you fully know my great stupidity : 
But how Senaka is stupid, prithee do explain to me. 

The goat explaining this spoke the fifth stanza : — 

He who his own special treasure on his wife will throw away, 
Cannot keep her faithful ever and his life he must betray. 

The king heai'ing his words said, "King of goats, yoti will surely act 
for my advantage : tell me now what is i"ight for me to do." Then the 
goat said, " King, to all animals no one is dearer than self: it is not good 
[280] to destroy oneself and abandon the honour one has gained for the 
sake of anything that is dear " : so he spoke the sixth stanza : — 

A king, like thee, may have conceived desire 
And yet renounced it if his life's the cost : 

Life is the chief thing: what can man seek higher? 
If life's secured, desires need ne'er be crossed. 

So the Bodhisatta exhorted the king. The king, delighted, asked, 
"King of goats, whence come you?" "I am Sakka, king, come to save 
you from death out of pity for you." " King of gods, I promised to give 
her the charm : what am I to do now ? " " There is no need for the ruin 
of both of you : you say, ' It is the way of the ci-aft,' and have her beaten 
with some blows : by this means she will not get it." The king said, " It 
is well," and agreed. The Bodhisatta after exhortation to the king went 
to Sakka's heaven. The king went to the garden, had the queen sum- 
moned and then said, "Lady, will you have the charm 1 " " Ye.s, lord." 
" Then go through the usual custom." "What custom?" " A hundred 
stripes [281] on the back, but you must not make a sound." She consented 
through greed for the charm. The king made his slaves take whips and 
beat her on both sides. She endured two or three stripes and then cried, 
"I don't want the charm." The king said, "You would have killed me 
to get the charm," and so flogging the skin off her back he sent her away. 
After that she could not bear to talk of it asfain. 

At the end of the lesson the Master declared the Truths, and identified the 
Birth : — at the end of the Truths, the Brother was established in the First Path : — 
"At that time the king was the discontented brother, the queen his former 
wife, the steed Sariputta, and Sakka was myself." 

J. III. 12 

178 The Jataka. Booh VI. 

No. 387. 


^'■QuicMi/ threaded," e^c— The Master told tliis tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning the perfection of wisdom. The occasion of the tale will be given in 
the Mahaummaggai. The Master addressed the brethren, "This is not the first 
time the Tathagata is wise and skilled in devices," and so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born in the kingdom of Kasi in a smith's family, and when he 
grew up he became excellent in the craft. His parents were poor. Not 
far from their village was another smith's village of a thousand houses. 
The principal smith of the thousand was a favourite of the king, rich and 
of great substance. His daughter was exceedingly beautiful, like to a 
nymph of heaven, with all the auspicious marks of a lady of tlie land. 
People came from the villages round to have razors, axes, ploughshares 
and goads made, and generally saw that maiden. When they went back 
to their own villages, they praised her beauty [282] in the places where 
men sit and elsewhere. The Bodhisatta, being attracted by merely hearing 
of her, thought, "I will make her my wife": so he took iron of the best 
kind, and made one delicate strong needle which pierced dice and floated on 
water: then he made a sheath for it of the same kind and pierced dice with 
it : and in the same way he made seven sheaths : how he made them 
is not to be told, for such work prospers through the greatness of Bodhi- 
sattas' knowledge. Then he put the needle in a tube and placing it in a 
case he went to that village and asked for the street where the head- 
smith's house was : then standing at the door he said, " Who will buy for 
money from my hand a needle of this kind?" describing the needle, and so 
standing by the head-smith's house he spoke the first stanza : — 

Quickly threaded, smooth and straight. 

Polished with emery, 
Sharp of point and delicate. 

Needles! who will buy? 

After this he praised it again and spoke the second stanza : — 

Quickly threaded, strong and straight. 

Bounded properly. 
Iron they will penetrate. 

Needles ! who will buy ? 

1 No. 546, vol. VI, 

No. 387. 179 

[283] At that moment the maiden was fanning her father with a palm- 
leaf as he lay on a little bed to allay discomfort after his early meal, and 
hearing the Bodhisatta's sweet voice, as if she had been sickened by a fresh 
lump of meat, and had the discomfort extinguished by a thousand pots of 
water, she said, "Who is this hawking needles with sweet voice in a village 
of smiths'? For what business has he come? I will find out": so laying 
down the palm-fan she went out and spoke with him outside, standing in 
the verandah. The purpose of Bodhisattas prospers ; it was for her sake 
he had come to that village. She speaking with him said, "Young man, 
dwellers in all the kingdom come to this village for needles and the like : 
it is in folly you wish to sell needles in a village of smiths ; though you 
declare the praise of your needle all day no one will take it from your 
hand ; if you wish to get a price, go to another village " : so she spoke two 
stanzas : — 

Our hooks are sold, both up and down, 

Men know our needles well: 
We all are smiths in this good town : 

Needles ! who can sell ? 

In iron-work we have renown, 

In weapons we excel: 
We all are smiths in this good town : 

Needles ! who can sell ? 

The Bodhisatta hearing her words said, " Lady, you say this not 
knowing and in ignorance " : and so he spoke two stanzas : — 

[284] Though all are smiths in this good town. 
Yet skill can needles sell ; 
For masters in the craft will own 
A first-rate article. 

Lady, if once your father know 

This needle made by me ; 
On me your hand he would bestow 

And all his property. 

The head-smith hearing all their talk called his daughter and asked, 
"Who is that you are talking tol" "Father, a man selling needles." 
" Then call him here." She went and called him. The Bodhisatta 
saluted the head-smith and stood by. The head-smith asked, " Of what 
village are youf " I am of such a village and son of such a smith." 
"Why are you come here'?" "To sell needles." "Come, let us see your 
needle." [285] The Bodhisatta, wishing to declare his qualities among 
them all, said, " Is not a thing seen in the midst of all better than one 
seen by each singly?" "Quite right, friend." So he gathered all the 
smiths together and in their midst said, "Sir, take the needle." "Master, 
have an anvil brought and a bronze dish full of water." This was done. 
The Bodhisatta took the needle-tube from the wrapper and gave it to 


180 The Jataka. Booh VI. 

them. The head-smith taking it asked, "Is this the needle?" "No, it 
is not the needle, it is the sheath." He examining could not see end nor 
tip. The Bodhisatta, taking it from them, drew off the sheath with his 
nail and showing it to the people with " This is the needle, this is the 
sheath," he put the needle in the master's hand and the sheath at his feet. 
Again when the master said, "This is the needle, I suppose," he answered, 
" This too is a needle-sheath" : then he struck it off with his nail, and so he 
laid six sheaths in succession at the head-smith's feet and saying, " Here is 
the needle," laid it on his hand. The thousand smiths snapped their 
fingers in delight, and the waving of cloths began ; then the head-smith 
asked, "Friend, what is the strength of this needle?" "Master, have 
this anvil raised up by a strong man and a water-vessel set under the 
anvil : then strike the needle straight into the anvil." He had this done 
and struck the needle by the point into the anvil. The needle' piercing 
the anvil lay across on the surface of the water not moving a hair's 
breadth up or down. All the smiths said, " We have never heard all this 
time even by rumour that there are such smiths as this : " so they 
snapped their fingers and waved a thousand cloths. [286] The head- 
smith called his dai;ghter and in the midst of the assembly saying, " This 
maiden is a suitable match for you," he poured water on^ them and 
gave her away. And afterwards when the head-smith died the Bodhisatta 
became head-smith in the village. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth: 
"The smith's daughter was Rahula's mother, the clever young smith was 

No. 388. 


" Something strange to-day^'' etc. The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning a brother who feared death. He was born in Savatthi of 
good family and was ordained in the Faith : but he feared death and when he 
heard even a little moving of a bough, or falling of a stick or voice of bird or 

^ Eeading adJiikaranim: but we are not certain of the meaning. 
- See Colebrooke's Essays, vol. i. p. 232. 

No. 388. 181 or an^' such thing, he was frightened by the fear of death, and went away 
shaking like a hare wounded in the belly. The Brethren in the Hall of Truth 
began to discuss, saying, " Sirs, they say a certain Brother, fearing death, runs 
away shaking when he hears even a little sound : now to beings in this world 
death is certain, life uncertain, and should not this be wisely borne in mind?" 
The Master found that this was their subject and that the Brother allowed he 
was afraid of death : so he said, " Brethren, ho is not afraid of death for the first 
time," and so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was conceived by a wild sow : in due time she brought forth 
two male young. One day she took them and lay down in a pit. An 
old woman of a village at the gate of Benares was coming home with a 
basket-full of cotton from the cotton field [287] and tapping the ground 
with her stick. The sow heard the sound, and in fear of death left her 
young and ran away. The old woman saw the young pigs, and feeling 
towards them as to children of her own she put them in the basket and 
took them home : then she called the elder Mahatundila (Big-snout), the 
younger Cullatundila (Little-snout), and reared them like children. In 
time they grew up and became fat. When the old woman was asked 
to sell them for money, she answered, "They are my children," and would 
not sell them. On a certain feast-day some lewd fellows were drinking 
strong drink, and when their meat was done they considered where they 
could get meat : finding out that there were pigs in the old woman's house, 
they took money and going there, said, " Mother, take this money and 
give us one of those pigs." She said, " Enough, young men : are there 
people who would give their children to buyers to eat their flesh ? " and so 
refused them. The fellows said, "Mother, pigs cannot be children of men, 
give them to us " : but they could not get this though they asked again 
and again. Then they made the old woman drink strong drink, and when 
she was drunk, saying, "Mother, what will you do with the pigs'? take the 
money and spend it," they put pieces of money in her hand. She took 
the pieces saying, "I cannot give you Mahatuiidila, take Cullatundila." 
"Where is heV "There he is in that bush." "Call him." "I don't 
see any food for him." The fellows sent for a vessel of rice at a price. 
The old woman took it, and filling the pig's trough which stood at the door 
she waited by it. Thirty fellows stood by with nooses in their hands. 
The old woman called him, "Come, little Cullatundila, come." [288] Maha- 
tuiidila, hearing this, thought, " All this time mother has never given the 
call to Cullatundila, she always calls me first ; certainly some danger must 
have arisen for us to-day." He told his younger brother, saying, "Brother, 
mother is calling you, go and liiid out." He went out, and seeing them 
standing by the food-trough he thought, " Death is come upon me to-day," 

182 The Jdtaka. Book VL 

and so in fear of death lie turned back shaking to his brother ; and when 
he came back he could not contain himself but reeled about shaking. 
Mahatuiidila seeing him said, "Brother, you are shaking to-day and reeling 
and watching the entrance: why are you doing so?" He, explaining the 
thing that he had seen, spoke the first stanza : — 

Something strange to-day I fear : 

The trough is full, and mistress by; 
Men, noose in hand, are standing near : 

To eat appears a jeopardy. 

Then the Bodhisatta hearing him said, " Brother Cullatundila, the 
purpose for which my mother rears pigs all this time [289] has to-day 
come to its fulfilment : do not grieve," and so with sweet voice and the 
ease of a Buddha he expounded the law and spoke two stanzas : — 

You fear, and look for aid, and quake, 

But, helpless, whither can you flee ? 
"We're fattened for our flesh's sake: 

Eat, Tundila, and cheerfully. 

Plunge bold into the crystal pool. 

Wash all the stains of sweat away : 
You'll find our ointment wonderful. 

Whose fragrance never can dfecay. 

As he considered the Ten Perfections, setting the Perfection of Love 
before him as his guide, and uttered the first line, his voice reached and 
extended to Benares over the whole twelve leagues. At the instant of 
hearing it, the people of Benares from kings and viceroys downwards came, 
and those who did not come stood listening in their houses. The king's 
men breaking down the bush levelled the gi'ound and scattered sand. The 
drunkenness left the lewd fellows, and throwing away the nooses they 
stood listening to the law : and the old woman's drunkenness left her also. 
The Bodhisatta began to preach the law to Cullatundila among the 

[290j Cullatundila hearing him, thought, " My brother says so to me : 
but it is never our custom to plunge into the pool, and by bathing to 
wash away sweat from our bodies and after taking away old stain to get 
new ointment: why does my brother say so to mel" So he spoke the 
fourth stanza: — 

But what is that fair crystal pool. 

And what the stains of sweat, I pray ? 

And what the ointment wonderful. 
Whose fragrance never can decay ? 

The Bodhisatta hearing this said, "Then listen with attentive ear," 
and so expounding the law with the ease of a Buddha he spoke these 
stanzas : — 

No. 388. 183 

The law is the fair crystal pool, 

Sin is the staiu of sweat, they say : 
Virtue's the ointment wonderful. 

Whose fragrance never will decay. 

Men that lose their life are glad, 

Men that keep it feel annoy : 
Men should die and not be sad, 

As at mid-month's festal joy. 

[292] So the Great Being expounded the law in a sweet voice with a 
Buddha's charm. The multitude by thousands snapped their fingers 
and waved their cloths, and the air was full of the cry, "Good, good." 
The king of Benares honoured the Bodhisatta with royal place, and giving 
glory to the old woman he caused both pigs to be bathed in perfumed 
water, and clothed with robes, and ornamented with jewels on the neck, 
and put them in the position of his sons in the city : so he guarded them 
Avith a great retinue. The Bodhisatta gave the five commands to the 
king, and all the inhabitants of Benares and Kasi kept the commands. 
The Bodhisatta preached the law to them on the holy days (new and 
full moon), and sitting in judgment decided cases : while he lived there 
were no bringers of unjust suits. Afterwards the king died. The Bodhi- 
satta did the last honours to his body: then he caused a book of judgments 
to be written and said, "By observing this book ye should settle suits": 
so having expounded the Law to the people and preached to them with 
zeal, he went to the forest with Cullatundila while they all wept and 
lamented. Then the Bodhisatta's preaching went on for sixty thousand 

[293] After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — at the end of the Truths the Brother who feared death was established 
in the fruition of the first Path : — " In those days the king was Anauda, 
Cullatundila was the Brother who fears death, the multitude was the Congre- 
gation, Mahatuiidila myself." 

No. 389. 


" Gold-clawed creature,'^ etc. — The ^Master told this tale when dwelling in the 
Bamboo-grove, of Ananda's dying for his sake. The occasion is told iii the 
Khandahalai Birth about the hiring of bowmen, and in the CuUahamsa'^ Birth 

1 No. 542, vol. VI. 2 No. 533, vol. v. 

184 The Jataka. Book VL 

about the roar of the elephant Dhanapala^. Then they began a discussion in the 
Hall of Truth : " Sirs, has the Elder Ananda, Treasurer of the Law, who attained 
all the wisdom jjossible to one still under discipline, given up his life for the 
Perfect Buddha when Dhanajmla came?" The Master came and was told the 
subject of their discussion : he said, " Brother, in former times also Ananda gave 
up his life for me : " and so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time there was a brahmin village called Salindiya on the 
east side of Rajagaha. The Bodhisatta v^^as born there in that village in a 
brahmin farmer's family. When he grew up he settled down and worked 
a farm of a thousand karisas^ in a district of Magadha to the north-east of 
the village. One day he had gone to the field with his men, and giving 
them orders to plough he went to a great pool at tlie end of the field to 
wash his face. In that pool there lives a crab of golden hue, beautiful and 
charming. The Bodhisatta having chewed his toothpick went down into 
the pool. When he was washing his mouth [294], the crab came near. 
Then he lifted up the crab and taking it laid it in his outer garment : and 
after doing his work in the field he put the crab again in the pool and 
went home. From that time when going to the field he always went first 
to that pool, laid the crab in his outer garment and then went about his 
work. So a sti'ong feeling of confidence arose between them. The Bodhi- 
satta came to the field constantly. Now in his eyes were seen the five 
graces and the three circles very pure. A she-crow in a nest on a palm in 
that corner of the field saw his eyes, and wishing to eat them said to the 
he-crow, "Husband, I have a longing." "Longing for what?" "I wish 
to eat the eyes of a certain brahmin." "Your longing is a bad one : who 
will be able to get them for you ? " "I know that you can't : but in the 
ant4iill near our tree there lives a black snake : wait on him: he will bite 
the brahmin and kill him, then you will tear out his eyes and bring them 
to me." He agreed and afterwards waited on the black snake. The crab 
was grown great at the time when the seed sown by the Bodhisatta was 
sprouting. One day the snake said to the crow, " Friend, you are always 
waiting on me: what can I do for you?" "Sir, your female slave has 
taken a longing for the eyes of the master of this field : I wait on you in 
hopes of getting his eyes through your favour." The snake said, "Well, 
that is not difficult, you shall get them," and so encouraged him. Next 
day the snake lay waiting for the brahmin's coming, hidden [295] in 
the grass, by the boundary of the field where he came The Bodhisatta 

1 See introductory story to No. 21, Vol. i. ; MiUndapanho, p. 207. 
- According to Childers, Pali Dkttonanj s.v. ammanam, this would be about eight 
thousand acres. 

No. 389. 185 

entering the pool und wasliing his mouth felt a return of affection for the 

crab, and embracing it laid it in his outer garment and went to the field. 

The snake saw him come, and rushing swiftly forward bit him in the flesh 

of the calf and having made him fall on the spot fled to his ant-hill. The 

fall of the Bodhisatta, the spring of the golden crab from the garment, and 

the perching of the crow on the Bodhisatta's breast followed close on each 

other. The crow perching put his beak into the Bodhisatta's eyes. The 

crab thought, " It was through this crow that the danger came on my 

friend : if I seize him the snake will come," so seizing the crow by the 

neck with its claw firmly as if in a vice, he got weary and then loosed him 

a little. The crow called on the snake, " Friend, why do you forsake me 

and run away 1 this crab troubles me, come ere I die," and so spoke the 

first stanza : — 

Gold-clawed creature with projecting eyes. 
Tarn-bred, hairless, clad in liony shell. 
He has caught me : hear my woeful cries I 
Why do you leave a mate that loves you well ? 

The snake hearing him, made its hood large and came consoling the 

The Master explaining the case in his Perfect Wisdom spoke the second 
stanza : — 

[296] The snake fell on the crab amain, his friend he'd not forsake : 

Puffing his mighty hood he came : but the crab turned on the snake. 

The crab being weary then loosed him a little. The snake thinking, 
" Crabs do not eat the flesh of crows nor of snakes, then for what reason 
does this one seize naV in enquiry spoke the third stanza : — 

'Tis not for the sake of food 

Crabs would seize a snake or crow : 
Tell me, you whose eyes protrude. 

Why you take and grip us so? 

Hearing him, the crab explaining the reason spoke two stanzas : — 

This man took me from the pool. 

Great the kindness he has done ; 
If he dies, my grief is full : 

Serpent, he and I are one. 

Seeing I am grown so great 

All would kill me willingly: 
Fat and sweet and delicate. 

Crows at sight would injure me! 

[297] Hearing him, the snake thought : " By some means I must 
deceive him and free myself and the crow." So to deceive him he spoke 
the sixth stanza : — 

186 The Jataka. Book VI. 

If you have seized us only for his sake, 

I'll take the poison from him : let him rise : 

Quick ! from the crow and me your pincers take ; 
Till then the poison's sinking deep, he dies. 

Hearing him the crab thought, " This one wishes to make me let these 
two go by some means and then run away, he knows not my skill in 
device ; now I will loosen my claw so that the snake can move, but I will 
not free the crow," so he spoke the seventh stanza : — 

[298] I'll free the snake, but not the crow ; 
The crow shall be a hostage bound : 
Never shall I let him go 

Till my friend be safe and sound. 

So saying he loosened his claw to let the snake go at his ease. The 
snake took away the poison and left the Bodhisatta's body free from it. 
He rose up well and stood in his natural hue. The crab thinking, " If 
these two be well there will be no prosperity for my friend, I will kill 
them," crushed both their heads like lotus-buds with his claws and took the 
life from them. The she-crow fled away from the place. The Bodhisatta 
spiked the snake's body with a stick and threw it on a bush, let the 
golden crab go free in the pool, bathed and then went to Salindiya. From 
that time there was still greater friendship between him and the ci'ab. 

The lesson ended, the Master declared the Truths, and identifying tlje Birth 
spoke the last stanza : — 

"Mara was the dusky serpent, Devadatta was the crow. 
Good Ananda was the crab, and I the brahmin long ago." 

At the end of the Truths many reached the First Path and the other Paths. 
The female crow was Cificamanavika, though this is not mentioned in the last 

No. 390. 


[299] "-Did we joy,'' efc— The Master told this while dwelling in Jetavana, of 
a stranger merchant. There was in Savatthi a stranger merchant, rich and of 
great substance : he did not enjoy his wealth himself nor give it to others : if 
choice food of fine flavours was served he would not eat it, eating only broth of 

No. 390. 187 

rice-dust with sour gruel ; if silkeu clothes perfumed with iiiceuse were brought 
him he had them removed, and wore clothes of coarse hair-cloth for sugar; if a 
chariot adorned with jewels and gold and drawn by high-bred horses were brought 
him, he had it taken away and went in a broken-down old chariot with a parasol 
of leaves overhead. All his life he did nothing with gifts or the other merits, and 
when he died he was born in the hell Roruva. His substance was heirless : and 
the king's men carried it into the palace in seven days and nights. When it was 
carried in, the king went after breakfast to Jetavaua, and saluted the IMaster. 
When he was asked why he did not wait regularly on Buddha, he answered, 
" Lord, a stranger merchant has died at Savatthi : seven days have been spent in 
carrying his wealth, to which he left no heir, into my house: but though he had 
all that wealth he neither enjoyed it himself nor gave it to others : his wealth was 
like lotus-tanks guarded by demons. One day he fell into the jaws of death after 
refusing to enjoy the flavour of choice meats and the like. Now why did that 
selfish and undeserving man gain all that wealth, and for what reason did he not 
incline his thoughts to the enjoyment of it ?" This was the question he put to 
the Master. " Great king, the reason why he gained his wealth and yet did not 
enjoy it, was this," and so at his request the Master told a tale of old times. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, there was an 
unbelieving selfish merchant in Benares: he gave nothing to any one, he pro- 
vided for no one. One day going to wait on the king he saw a paccekabuddha, 
named Tagarasikhi, begging, and saluting him he asked, " Sir, have you got 
alms?" The paccekabuddha said, "Am I not begging, merchant T' [300] The 
merchant gave orders to his man, " Go, take him to my house, set him on my seat 
and give him his bowl-full of the food prepared for me." The man took him to 
the house, set him down, and told the merchant's wife : she gave him his bowl 
full of food of excellent flavours. He taking the food and leaving the house went 
along the street. The merchant, returning from court, saw him and saluting asked 
him if he had got food. " I have, merchant." The merchant, looking at his 
bowl, could not reconcile his will to it, but thinking, " Had my slaves or work- 
people eaten this food of mine they would have done me hard service : alas, it is 
a loss for me ! " and he could not make the after-thought perfect. Now giving is 
rich in fruit only to one who can make the three thoughts perfect : — 

Did we joy to feel the wish to give, 

Give the gift, and give it cheerfully, 
Ne'er regret the giving while we live. 

Children born of us would never die. 
Joy before the bounty's given, giving cheerfully, 
Pleasure at the thought thereafter, that is perfect charity. 

So the stranger merchant gained much wealth, by reason of his giving alms to 
Tagarasikhi, but he could not enjoy his wealth because he could not make his 
after-thought pure. " Lord, why did he have no son ?" The Master said, " 
king, this was the cause of his having no son" : and so at his request he told a 
tale of old. 

Once upon a time wlien Brahmadatta vras reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a merchant's family worth eighty crores. When 
he grew up, at his parents' death he px'ovided for his younger brother and 
carried on the house : he made an alms-chamber at the house-door and 
lived as a householder giving much in alms. One son was born to him ; 
and when the son could walk on his feet, he saw the misery of desires and 
the blessing of renunciation, so handing over all his substance [301] 
together with his wife and child to his younger brother, he exhorted him 

188 Tlie Jdtaka. Book VI. 

to continue almsgiving with diligence ; then he became an ascetic, and 
gaining the Faculties and Attainments he dwelt in the Himalaya. The 
younger brother took that one son : but seeing him grow up he thought, 
" If my brother's son lives, the estate will be divided into two parts, I will 
kill my brother's son." So one day, sinking him in a river, he killed him. 
After he had bathed and come home, his brother's wife asked him, "Where 
is my boy 1" " He was disporting himself in the river : I looked for him 
but could not see him." She wept and said nothing. The Bodhisatta, 
knowing of this matter, thought, "I will make this business public"; and 
so going through the air and lighting at Benares in fair raiment under and 
upper, he stood at the door: not seeing the alms-chamber, he thought, "That 
wicked man has destroyed the chamber." The younger brother, hearing of 
his coming, came and saluted the Bodhisatta and taking him up to the 
roof gave him good food to eat. And when the meal was over, seated for 
friendly talk he said, "My son does not appear: where is he?" "Dead, 
my lord." " In what way 1" "At a bathing place : but I do not know the 
exact way." " Not know, thou wicked man ! yovir deed was known to me: 
did you not kill him in that way? will you be able to keep that wealth 
when destroyed by kings and others ? What difterence is there between 
you and the Mayha bird?" So the Bodhisatta expounding the law with 
the ease of a Buddha spoke these stanzas :-- 

There is a bird called Mayhaka, in mountain cave it lives: 

On pipal trees with ripening fruit, ' mine,' ' mine' the cry it gives. 

[302] The other birds, while thus he plains, in flocks about him fly : 
They eat the fruit, but still goes on the Mayha's plaintive cry. 

And even so a single man enormous wealth may win. 
And yet may not divide it fair between himself and kin. 

Not once enjoyment does he reap, of raiment or of food, 
Of perfumes or of garlands gay; nor does his kinsfolk good. 

'Mine, mine,' he whimpers as he guards his treasures greedily: 
But kings, or robbers, or his heirs that wish to see him die 
Pillage his wealth : yet still goes on the miser's plaintive cry. 

A wise man, gaining riches great, is helpful to his kin : 

'Tis thus he'll win repute on earth and heaven hereafter win. 

[303] So the Grreat Being expounding to him the law made him renew 
the alms-giving, and going to the Himalaya pursued meditation without 
interruption and so went to the Brahmaloka heaven. 

After the lesson, the j\Iaster said, " So, great king, the stranger merchant had 
neither son nor daughter for all that time because he killed his brother's son," 
and then he identified the Birth : " The younger brother was the stranger 
merchant, the elder was myself." 

No. 391. 189 

No. 391. 


''Noble of face," etc.— The afaster told this while dwelling in Jetavana, con- 
cerning his going about for the whole world's good. The occasion will appear in 
the Mahakanha Birth i. Then the Master said, "Brethren, this is not the first 
time the Tathagata has gone about for the world's good," and so told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was Sakka. At that time a wizard, using his magic, came at mid- 
night and corrupted the chief queen of Benares. Her handmaids knew of 
this. She herself went to the king and said, " Your majesty, some man 
enters the royal chamber at midnight and corrupts me." "Could you 
make any mark on him V "I can." So she got a bowl of real vermilion, 
and when the man came at night and was going away after enjoyment, she 
set the mark of her five fingers on his back and in the morning told the 
king. The king gave orders to his men to go and looking everywhere 
bring a man with a vermilion mark on his back. 

Now the wizard after his misconduct at night stands by day in a 
cemetery on one foot worshipping the sun. The king's men saw him and 
surrounded him: but he, thinking that his action had become known to 
them, [304] used his magic and flew away in the air. The king asked his 
men when they came back from seeing this, " Did you see him V "Yes, 
we saw him." "Who is he?" "A Brother, your majesty." For after 
his misconduct at night he lived by day in disguise of a Brother. The 
king thought, " These men go about by day in ascetic's garb and misconduct 
themselves at night;" so being angry with the Brethren, he adopted 
heretical views, and sent round a proclamation by drum that all the 
Brethren must depart from his kingdom and that his men would punish 
them wherever found. All the ascetics fled from the kingdom of Kasi, 
which was three hundred leagues in extent, to other royal cities, and there 
was no one, righteous Buddhist or Brahmin, to preach to the men of all 
Kasi ; so that the men without preaching became savage, and being averse 
to charity and the commandments were born in a state of punishment for 
the most part as they died, and never got birth in heaven. Sakka, not 

1 No. 469, vol. iv. 

190 The Jataka. Book VI. 

seeing any new gods, reflected on what the i-eason might be, and saw that 
it was the expulsion of the Brethren from the kingdom by the king of 
Benares owing to his adopting heretical views in anger about the wizard : 
then he thought, " Except myself there is no one who can destroy this 
king's heresy ; I will be the helper of the king and his subjects," so he 
went to the paccekabuddhas in the Nandamula cave and said, " Sirs, give 
me an old paccekabuddha, I wish to convert the kingdom of Kasi." He 
got the senior amono: them. When he took his bowl and robes Sakka 
set him before and came himself after, making respectful salutation and 
venerating the paccekabuddha : himself becoming a beautiful young 
Brother he w^ent thrice round the whole city from end to end, and then 
coming to the king's gate he stood in the air. They told the king, " Your 
majesty, there is a beautiful young Bi'other with a priest standing in the 
air [305] at the king's gate." The king rose from his seat and standing at 
the lattice said, "Young Brother, why do you, who are beautiful, stand 
venerating that ugly priest and holding his bowl and robes ? " and so 
talking with him he spoke the first stanza : — 

Noble of face, you make obeisance low; 
Behind one mean and poor to sight you go : 
Is he your better or your equal, say, 
Declare to us your name and his, we pray. 

The Sakka answered, " Great king, priests are in the place of teacher'; 
thei-efore it is not right that I should utter his name : but I will tell you 
my own name," so he spoke the second stanza: — 

Gods do not tell the lineage and the name 
Of saints devout and perfect in the way: 

As for myself, my title 1 proclaim, 

Sakka, the lord whom thirty gods obey. 

The king hearing this asked in the third stanza what was the blessing 
of venerating the Brother : — 

He who beholds the saint of perfect merits, 
And walks behind him with obeisance low : 
[306] I ask, king of gods, what he inherits, 

What blessings will another life bestow ? 

Sakka replied in the fourth stanza : — 

He who beholds the saint of perfect merits. 

Who walks behind him with obeisance low: 
Great praise from men in this world he inherits, 

And death to him the path of heaven will show. 

The king hearing Sakka's words gave up his own heretical views, and 
in delight spoke the fifth stanza : — 

^ It is wrong to tell the name of a saintly teacher, cf. Mahavagga i. 7-i. 1, 

No. 391. 191 

Oh, fortune's sun on me to-day doth rise, 

Our eyes have seen thy majesty divine: 
Thy saint appears, O Sakka, to our eyes, 

And many a virtuous deed will now be mine. 

Sakka, hearing him praising his master, spoke the sixth stanza : — 

Surely 'tis good to venerate the wise, 

To knowledge who their learned thoughts incline : 

Now that the saint and I have met thine eyes, 
O king, let many a virtuous deed be thine. 

[307] Hearing this the king spoke the last stanza : — 

From anger free, with grace in every thought, 

I'll lend an ear whenever strangers sue : 
I take thy counsel good, I bring to nought 

My pride and serve thee, Lord, with homage due. 

Having said so he came down from the terrace, saluted tlie pacceka- 
buddha and stood on one side. The paccekabuddha sat cross-legged in the 
air and said, "Great king, that wizard was no Brother: henceforward 
recognise that the world is not vanity, that there are good Buddhists and 
Brahmins, and so give gifts, practise morality, keep the holy-days," 
preaching to the king. Sakka also by his power stood in the air, and 
preaching to the townsfolk, " Henceforward be zealous," he sent round 
proclamation by drum that the Buddhists and Brahmins who had fled 
should return. Then both went back to their own place. The king stood 
firm in the admonition and did good works. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
" At that time the paccekabuddha reached Nirvana, the king was Ananda, Sakka 
was myself." 

No. 392. 


" You were never," etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning a cei'tain Brother. The story is that the Brother had left Jetavana 
and dwelt in the Kosala kingdom near a certain wood : one day he went down 
into a lotus-pool [308], and seeing a lotus in flower he stood to leeward and ."inelt 

192 Tlie Jataka. Book VI. 

it. Then the goddess who dwelt in that part of the forest frightened him 
saying, " Sir, you are a thief of odours, this is a kind of theft." He went back 
in a fright to Jetavana, and saluted the Master and sat down. " Where have 
you been staying. Brother?" "In such and such a wood, and the goddess 
frightened me in such and such a way." The Master said, "You are not the 
first who have been frightened by a goddess when smelling a flower ; sages of old 
have been frightened in like manner," and at the Brother's request he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family of a village in Kasi : when he 
grew up he learned the arts at Takkasila, and afterwards became an ascetic 
and lived near a lotus-pool. One day he went down into the pool and stood 
smelling a lotus in full flower. A goddess who was in a hollow in a trunk 
of a tree alarming him spoke the first stanza : — 

You were never given that flower you smell, though it's only a single bloom ; 
'Tis a species of larceny, reverend sir, you are stealing its perfume. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke the second stanza: — 

I neither take nor break the flower : from afar I smell the bloom. 
I cannot tell on what pretence you say I steal perfume. 

At the same moment a man was digging in the pool for lotus-fibres and 
breaking the lotus-plants. The Bodhisatta seeing him said, "You call a 
man thief if he smells the flower from afar : [309] w^hy do you not 
speak to that other man 1 " So in talk with her he spoke the third 
stanza : — 

A man who digs the lotus-roots and breaks the stalks I see: 
Why don't you call the conduct of that man disorderly? 

The goddess, explaining why she did not speak to him, spoke the 
fourth and fifth stanzas : — 

Disgusting like a nurse's dress are men disorderly: 

I have no speech with men like him, but I deign to speak to thee. 

When a man is free from evil stains and seeks for purity, 

A sin like a hair-tip shows on him like a dark cloud in tlae sky. 

So alarmed by her the Bodhisatta in emotion spoke the sixth 
stanza :— 

Surely, fairy, you know me well, to pity me you deign : 
If you see me do the like offence, pray speak to me again. 

Then the goddess spoke to him the seventh stanza : — 

I am not here to serve you, no hireling folk are we : 
Find, Brother, for yourself the path to reach felicity. 

No. 392. 193 

[310] So exhorting him she entei'ed her own abode. The Bodhisatta 
entei-ed on high meditation and was born in tlie Brahmaloka world. 

The lesson ended, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth : — 
at the end of the Truths, the Brother was established in the fruit of the First 
Path : — "At that time the goddess was Uppalavanna, the ascetic myself," 

No. 393. 


'■'■ Happy life is theirs,^' etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in the 
East Garden, concerning some Brethren who were given to amusement. The 
great Moggallana had shaken their dwelling and alarmed them. The Brethren 
sat discussing their fault in the Hall of Truth. The Master being told this 
said to them, " They are not given to amusement for the first time," and so told 
an old tale. 

Once npon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was Sakka. Seven brothers in a certain village of Kasi 
seeing the evil of desires had renounced them and become ascetics : they 
dwelt in Mejjharanha but lived in various kinds of amusement, not 
practising devotion diligently and being of full habit of body. Sakka, 
king of gods, said, " I will alarm them;" and so he became a parrot, came 
to their dwelling-place and perching on a tree spoke the first stanza to 
alarm them : — 

[311] Happy life is theirs who live on remnants left from charity: 
Praise in this world is their lot, and in the next felicity. 

Then one of them hearing the parrot's words called to the rest, and 
spoke the second stanza : — 

Should not wise men listen when a paiTot speaks in human tongue : 
Hearken, brethren : 'tis our praises clearly that this bird has sung. 

Then the parrot denying this spoke the third stanza : — 

Not your praises I am singing, carrion-eaters: list to me, 
Refuse is the food you eat, not remnants left from charity. 

J. III. 13 

194 ne Jatalm. Booh VI. 

When they heard him, they all together spoke the fourth stanza : — 

Seven years ordained, with duly tonsured hair. 

In Mejjharaiina here we spend our days. 
Living on remnants: if you blame our fare. 

Who is it then you praise? 

The Great Being spoke the fifth stanza, putting them to shame : — 

Leavings of the lion, tiger, ravening beast, are your supply: 
Refuse truly, though ye call it remnants left from charity. 

[312] Hearing him the ascetics said, "If we are not eaters of 
remnants, then who pray arel" Then he telling them the true meaning 
spoke the sixth stanza : — 

They who giving alms to priests and brahmins, wants to satisfy 
Eat the rest, 'tis they who live on remnants left from charity. 

So the Bodhisatta put them to shame and went to his own place. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : 
" At that time the seven brothers were the sportive Brethren, Sakka was 

No. 394. 


" Oil (Old butter," etc. — The Master told this while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning a greedy Brother. Finding that he was greedy the Master said to 
him, " This is not the first time you are greedy : once before through greed in 
Benares you were not satisfied with carcases of elephants, oxen, horses and men ; 
and in hopes of getting better food you went to the forest;" and so he told an old 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as a quail and lived in the forest on rude grass and 
seeds. At the time there was in Benares a greedy crow who, not content 
■with carcases of elephants and other animals, went to the forest in hopes 
of better food : eating wild fruits thei'e he saw the Bodhisatta and 
thinking " This quail is very fat : 1 fancy he eats sweet food, I will ask 

No. 394. 195 

him of his food and eating it become fat myself," he perched on a bough 
above the Bodhisatta. The Bodhisatta [313], without being asked, gave 
him greeting and spoke the first stanza : — 

Oil and butter are your victuals, uuncle ; rich your food, I trow : 
Tell me then what is the reason of your leanness, master crow. 

Hearing his words the crow spoke three stanzas : — 

I dwell in midst of many foes, my heart goes pit-a-pat 
In terror as T seek my food : how can a crow be fat ? 

Crows si>end their lives in fear, their wits for mischief ever keen ; 
The bits they pick are not enough ; good quail, that's why I'm lean. 

Rude grass and seeds are all your food : there's little richness there : 
Then tell me why you're fat, good quail, on such a scanty fare. 

The Bodhisatta hearing him spoke these stanzas, explaining the reason 
of his fatness : — 

I have content and easy mind, short distances to go, 
I live on anything I get, and so I'm fat, good crow. 

Content of mind, and happiness with little care of heart, 
A standard easily attained : that life's the better part. 

[314] After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the 
Birth : — At the end of the Truths the Brother was established in the fruition of 
the First Path : " At that time the crow was the greedy Brother, the quail was 

No. 395. 


" Our old friend,'" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning a greedy Brother. The occasion is as above. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a pigeon and lived in a nest-basket in the kitchen of a 

1 Cf. no. 42, vol. i. ; no. 274, vol. ii. 


196 The Jataka. Book VI. 

Benares merchant. A crow became intimate with him and lived there 
also. Here the story is to be expanded. The cook pulled out the crow's 
feathers and sprinkled him with flour, then piercing a cowrie he hung 
it on the crow's neck and threw him into a basket. The Bodhisatta 
came from the wood, and seeing him made a jest and spoke the first 
stanza : — 

Our old friend ! look cat him ! 

A jewel bright he wears ; 
His beard in gallant trim, 

How gay our friend appears ! 

[315] The crow hearing him spoke the second stanza : — 

My nails and hair had grown so fast. 

They hampered me in all I did : 
A barber came along at last. 

And of superfluous hair I'm rid. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke the third stanza : — 

Granted you got a barber then. 

Who has cropped your hair so well : 
Round your neck, will you explain. 

What's that tinkling like a bell? 

Then the crow uttered two stanzas : — 

Men of fashion wear a gem 

Round the neck : it's often done : 
I am imitating them : 

Don't suppose it's just for fun. 

If you're really envious 

Of my beard tliat's trimmed so true : 
I can get you barbered thus ; 

You may have the jewel too. 

The Bodhisatta hearing him spoke the sixth stanza : — 

Nay, 'tis you they best become, 

Gem and beard that's trimmed so true. 

I find your presence troublesome : 
I go with a good-day to you. 

[316] With these words he flew up and went elsewhere ; and the crow 
died then and there. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth :— 
After the Truths, the greedy Brother was established in the fruition of the Third 
Path : " At that time the crow was the greedy Brother, the pigeon was myself" 

No. 396. 


[317] '' The peak's a cuhit," c*'.— The Master told this while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning the admonition of a king. The occasion will appear in 
the Tesakuna-Birthi. 

Once upon a time wlien Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was his councillor in things temporal and spii'itual. The king 
was set on the way of the evil courses, ruled his kingdom unrighteously 
and collected wealth by oppressing the people. The Bodhisatta wishing to 
admonish him goes about looking for a parable. Now the king's bed- 
chamber was unfinished and the roof was not complete upon it : the rafters 
supported a peak but were only just set in position. The king had gone 
and taken his pleasure in the park : when he came to his house he looked 
up and saw the round peak : fearing it would fall upon him he went and 
stood outside, then looking up again he thought " How is that peak 
resting so ? and how are the rafters 1 " and asking the Bodhisatta he 
spoke the first stanza : — 

[318] The peak's a cubit and a half in height, 

Eight spans will compass it in circuit round, 
Of simsapa and sara built aright : 
Why does it stand so sound ? 

Hearing him the Bodhisatta thought " I have now got a parable to 
admonish the king," and spoke these stanzas : — 

The thirty rafters lient, of sara wood. 

Set equally, encompass it around, 
They press it tightly, for their hold is good : 

'Tis set aright and sound. 

1 No. 521, vol. V. 

198 The JdtakcL Booh VII. 

So is the wise maa, girt by faitlil'ul friends, 

By steadfast counsellors and pure : 
Never from height of fortune he descends : 

As rafters hold the peak secm-e. 

[319] While the Bodlusatta was speaking, tlie king considered his own 
conduct, "If there is no peak, the rafters do not stand fast ; the peak does 
not stand if not held by the rafters ; if the rafters break, the peak falls : and 
even so a bad king, not holding together his friends and ministers, his armies, 
his brahmins and householders, if these break up, is not held by them but 
falls from his power : a king must be righteous." At that instant they 
brought him a citron as a present. The king said to the Bodhisatta, 
" Friend, eat this citron." The Bodhisatta took it and said, " O king, 
people who know not how to eat this make it bitter or acid : but wise men 
who know take away the bitter, and without removing the acid or spoiling 
the citi-on-flavour they eat it," and by this parable he showed the king the 
means of collecting wealth, and spoke two stanzas :— 

The rough-skinned citron bitter is to eat. 
If it remain untouched by carver's steel : 

Take but the pulp, king, and it is sweet : 
You spoil the sweetness if you add the peel. 

Even so the wise man without violence, 
Gathers king's dues in village and in town. 

Increases wealth, and yet gives no offence : 
He walks the way of right and of renown. 

[320] The king taking counsel with the Bodhisatta went to a lotus-tank, 
and seeing a lotus in flower, with a hue like the new-risen sun, not defiled 
by the water, he said : " Friend, that lotus grown in the water stands 
undefiled by the water." Then the Bodhisatta said, " O king, so should a 
king be," and spoke these stanzas in admonition : — 

Like the lotus in the pool, 

White roots, waters pure, sustain it ; 
In the sun's face flowering full, 

Dust nor mud nor wet can stain it. 

So the man whom virtues rule. 

Meek and pure and good we style him : 

Like the lotus in the pool 

Stain of sin cannot defile him. 

[321] The king hearing the Bodhisatta's admonition afterwtirds ruled 
his kingdom righteously, and doing good actions, charity and the rest, 
became destined for heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth ; 
" At that time the king was Ananda, the wise minister myself." 

JVo. 397. 199 

No. 397. 


" The bow i's bent," etc. — The Master told this while dwelling in the Bamboo 
Grove, concerning a Brother who kept bad company. The occasion was given 
at length in the Mahilamukhata Births The Master said, "Brethren, he is 
not keeping bad company for the first time," and told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a lion and living with a lioness had two chikh'en, a son and 
a daughter. The son's name was Manoja. When he grew up he took 
a young lioness to wife : and so they became five. Manoja killed wild 
buffaloes and other animals, and so got flesh to feed his parents, sister and 
wife. [322] One day in his hunting ground he saw a jackal called Giriya, 
unable to run away and lying on his belly. " How now, friend]" he said. 
"I wish to wait on you, my lord." " Well, do so," So he took the jackal 
to his den. The Bodhisatta seeing him said, " Dear Manoja, jackals are 
wicked and sinners, and give wrong advice ; don't bring this one near you:" 
but could not hinder hira. Then one day the jackal wished to eat 
horseflesh, and said to Manoja, " Sir, except horseflesh there is nothing 
we have not eaten ; let us take a horse." " But where are there horses, 
friend?" "At Benares by the river bank." He took this advice and 
went with him there when the horses bathe in the river ; he took one 
horse, and throwing it on his back he came with speed to the mouth of 
his den. His father eating the horseflesh said, " Dear, horses are kings' 
property, kings have many stratagems, they have skilful archers to shoot ; 
lions who eat horseflesh don't live long, henceforward don't take hoi'ses." 
The lion not following his father's advice went on taking them. The king, 
hearing that a lion was taking the horses, had a bathing-tank for horses 
made inside the town : but the lion still came and took them. The king 
had a stable made, and had fodder and water given them inside it. 
The lion came over the wall and took the horses even from the stable. 
The king had an archer called who shot like lightning, and asked if he 
could shoot a lion. He said he could, and making a tower near the 
wall where the lion came he waited there. The lion came and, posting the 
jackal in a cemetery outside, sprang into the town to take the horses. The 

1 No. 26, vol. i. p. 185. 

200 The Jataka. Book VII. 

archer thinking "His speed is very great when he comes," did not shoot him, 
but when he was going away after taking a horse, hampered by the heavy 
weight, he hit him with a sharp arrow in the hind quarters. The arrow 
came out at his front quarters and flew in the air. [323] The lion yelled 
"I am shot." The archer after shooting him twanged his bow like thunder. 
The jackal hearing the noise of lion and bow said to himself, " My comrade 
is shot and must be killed, there is no friendship with the dead, I will now 
go to my old home in the wood," and so he spoke two stanzas : — 

The bow is beat, the bowstring sounds amain ; 
Manoja, king of beasts, my friend, is slain. 

Alas, I seek the woods as best I may : 

Such friendship's naught ; others must be my stay. 

The lion with a rush came and threw the horse at the den's mouth, 
falling dead himself. His kinsfolk came out and saw him blood-stained, 
blood flowing from his wounds, dead from following the wicked ; and his 
father, mother, sister and wife seeing him spoke four stanzas in order : — 

His fortune is not prosperous whom wicked folk entice ; 
Look at Manoja lying there, through Giriya's advice. 

No joy have mothers in a son whose comrades are not good : 
Look at Manoja lying there all covered with his blood. 

And even so fares still the man, in low estate he lies. 

Who follows not the counsel of the true friend and the wise. 

This, or worse than this, his fate 
Who is high, but trusts the low : 
[324] See, 'tis thus ft-om kingly state 
He has fallen to the bow. 

Lastly, the stanza of the Perfect Wisdom : — 

Who follows outcasts is himself out cast. 

Who courts his equals ne'er will be betrayed, 

Who bows before the noblest rises fast; 
Look therefore to thy betters for thine aid. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
After the Truths the brother who kept bad company was established in the 
fruition of the First Path: — "At that time the jackal was Devadatta, Manoja 
was the keeper of bad company, his sister was Uppalavanna, his wife the Sister 
Khema, his mother the mother of Eahula, his father myself." 

No. 398. 201 

No. 398. 


"TVic Kiii,(/ has sent" etc. — Tlie Master told this talc while dwelling in Jeta- 
vana, concerning a Brother who supported his mother. The occasion will 
appear in the Sania ^ Birth. 

[325] Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was born in the family of a poor householder : they called 
his name Sutana. When he grew up he earned wages and supported his 
parents : when his father died, he supported his mother. The king of 
that day was fond of hunting. One day he went with a great retinue to a 
forest a league or two in extent, and made proclamation to all, " If a deer 
escape by any man's post, the man is fined the value of the deer." The 
ministers having made a concealed hut by the regular road gave it to the 
king. The deer were roused by the crying of men who had surrounded their 
lairs, and one antelope came to the king's post. The king thought, " I will 
hit him," and sent an arrow. The animal, who knew a trick, saw that the 
arrow was coming to his V)i-oadside, and wheeling round fell as if wounded 
by the arrow. The king thought, "I have hit him," and rushed to seize him. 
The deer rose and fled like the wind. The ministers and the rest mocked 
the king. He pursued the deer and when it was tired he cut it in two 
with his sword : hanging the pieces on one stick he came as if carrying a 
pole and saying, " I will rest a little," he drew near to a banyan tree 
l)y the road and lying down fell asleep. A yakkha called Makhadeva was 
reborn in that banyan, and got from Vessavana"' all living things who came 
to it as his food. When the king rose he said, " Stay, you are my food," 
and took him by the hand. "Who are you?" said the king. "I am 
a yakkha born here, I get all men who come to this place as my food." 
The king, taking good heart, asked, " Will you eat to-day only or continu- 
ally 1" "I will eat continually what I get." "Then eat this deer to-day 
and let me go ; from to-morrow I will send you a man with a plate of rice 
every day." "Be careful then: on the day when no one is sent [326] I 
will eat you." " I am king of Benares : there is nothing I cannot do." The 
yakkha took his promise and let him go. When the king came to the town, 
he told the case to a minister in attendance and asked what was to be done. 

' No. oiO, vol. VI. -' King of the yakkhas. 

202 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

" Was a limit of time fixed, O king?" "No." " Tliat was wrong when 
you were about it : but never mind, there are many men in the jail." 
" Then do you manage this affair, and give me life." The minister agreed, 
and taking a man from the jail every day sent him to the yakkha with a 
plate of rice without telling him anything. The yakkha eats both rice and 
man. After a time the jails became empty. The king finding no one to 
carry the rice shook with fear of death. The minister comforting him said, 
"O king, desire of wealth is stronger than desire of life : let us put a packet 
of a thousand pieces on an elephant's back and make proclamation by drum, 
' Who will take rice and go to the yakkha and get this wealth 1'" and he 
did so. The Bodhisatta thought, " I get pence and halfpence for my wages 
and can hardly support my mother : I will get this wealth and give it her, 
and then go to the yakkha : if I can get the better of him, well, and if I 
cannot she will live comfortably" : so he told his mother, but she said, "I 
have enough, dear, I don't need wealth," and so forbade him twice ; but the 
third time without asking her, he said, " Sirs, bring the thousand pieces, I 
will take the I'ice." So he gave his mother the thousand pieces and said, 
" Don't fret, dear ; I will overcome the yakkha and give happiness to the 
people : I will come making your tearful face to laugh," and so saluting 
her he went to the king with the king's men, and saluting him stood there. 
The king said, "My good man, will you take the rice?" "Yes, O king." 
"What should you take with you?" [327] "Your golden slippers, O 
king." " Why ?" " O king, that yakkha gets to eat all people standing on 
the ground at the foot of the tree : I will stand on slippers, not on his 
ground." " Anything else?" " Your umbrella, king." "Why so?" 
" O king, the yakkha gets to eat all people standing in the shade of his own 
tree : I will stand in the shade of the umbrella, not of his tree." " Any- 
thing else?" "Your sword, O king." "For what purpose?" "O king, 
even goblins fear those with weapons in their hands." "Anything else?" 
" Your golden bowl, O king, filled with your own rice." " Why, good 
man?" " It is not meet for a wise man like me to take coarse food in an 
earthen dish." The king consented and sent officers to give him all he 
asked. The Bodhisatta said, " Fear not, O great king, I will come back to- 
day having overcome the yakkha and caused you happiness," and so 
taking the things needful and going to the place, he set men not far from 
the tree, put on the golden slippers, girt the sword, put the white umbrella 
over his head, and taking rice in a gold dish went to the yakkha. The 
yakkha watching the road saw him and thought, " This man comes not as 
they came on the other days, what is the reason?" The Bodhisatta draw- 
ing near the tree pushed the plate of rice in the shadow with the sword- 
point, and standing near the shadow spoke the first stanza : — 

The king has sent thee rice prepared and seasoned well with meat : 
If Makliadeva is at home, let him come forth and eat ! 

No. 398. 203 

[328] Hearing him the yakkha, thought, " 1 will deceive him, and eat 
him when he comes into the shadow," and so he spoke the second stanza : — • 

Come inside, young man, with your seasoned food, 
Both it and you, young man, to eat are good. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke two stanzas : — 

Yakkha, you'll lose a great thing for a small, 
Men fearing death will bring no food at all. 

You'll have good supply of cheer, 

Pure and sweet and flavoured to your mind: 

But a man to bring it here, 

If you eat me, will be hard to find. 

[329] The yakkha thought, "The young man speaks sense," and being 
well disposed spoke two stanzas : — - 

Young Sutana, my interests are clearly as you show : 
Visit your mother then in peace, you have my leave to go. 

Take sword, and parasol, and dish, young man, and go yo;ir ways, 
Visit your mother happily and bring her happy days. 

Hearing the yakkha's words the Bodhisatta was pleased, thinking, " My 
task is accomplished, the yakkha overcome, much wealth won and the king's 
word made good," and so returning thanks to the yakkha he spoke a final 
stanza : — 

With all thy kith and kin, yakkha, right happy may you be : 

The king's command has been performed, and wealth has come to me. 

So he admonished the yakkha, saying, " Friend, you did evil deeds of 
old, yon were cruel and harsh, you ate the flesh and blood of othei-s and so 
were born as a yakkha: from henceforth do no murder or the like:" so 
telling the blessings of virtue and the misery of vice, he established the 
yakkha in the five virtues : then he said, " Why dwell in the forest ? come, 
I will settle you by the city gate and make you get the best rice." So 
he went away with the yakkha, making him take the sword and the other 
things, and came to Benares. They told the king that Sutana was come 
with the yakkha. The king with his ministers [330] went out to meet the 
Bodhisatta, settled the yakkha at the city gate and made him get the best 
rice : then he entered the town, made proclamation by drum, and calling a 
meeting of the townsfolk spoke the praises of the Bodhisatta and gave him 
the command of the army : himself was established in the Bodhisatta's 
teaching, did the good works of charity and the other virtues, and became 
destined for heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth :— 
After the Truths, the Brother who supported his mother was established in the 
fruition of the First Path :— " At that time the Yakkha was Aiigulimala, the king 
Ananda, the youth myself" 

204 The Jcitaka. Book VII. 

No. 399. 


"■Uvir icUl the old folks " etc. — The Master told this when dwelHug in Jeta- 
vana, concerning a Brother who sup})orted his mother. 

Once upon a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born of a vulture. When he grew up he put his parents, 
now okl and dim of eye, in a vulture's cave and fed them by bringing 
them flesh of cows and the like. At the time a certain hunter laid snares 
for vultures all about a Benares cemetery. One day the Bodhisatta 
seeking for flesh came to the cemetery and caught his foot in the snares. 
He did not think of himself, but remembered his old parents. " How will 
my parents live now ? I think they will die, ignorant that I am caught, 
helpless and destitute, wasting away in that hill-cave : " so lamenting he 
spoke the first stanza : — 

How will the old folks manage now within the mountain cave? 
For I am fastened in a snare, cruel Nillya's slave. 

[331] The son of a hunter, hearing him lament, spoke the second 
stanza, the vulture spoke the third, and so on alternately : — • 

Vulture, what strange laments of yours are these my ears that reach? 
I never heard or saw a bird that uttered human speech. 

I tend my aged parents within a mountain cave, 

How will the old folks manage now that I've become your slave ? 

Carrion a vulture sights across a hundred lea,gues of land ; 
Why do you ftiil to see a snare and net so close at hand ? 

When ruin comes upon a man, and fates his death demand, 
He foils to see a snare or net although so close at hand. 

Go, tend your aged parents within their mountain-cave, 

Go, visit them in peace, you have from me the leave you crave. 

O huntei', happiness be thine, with all thy kith and kin : 
I'll tend my aged parents their mountain-cave within. 

Then the Bodhisatta, freed from the fear of death, joyfully gave thanks 
and speaking a final stanza took his mouthful of meat, and went away and 
gave it to his parents. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
After the Truths, the Brother was established in the fruition of the First Path : — 
[332] "At that time, the hunter was Channa, the parents were king's kin, the 
vulture-king myself." 

No. 400. 205 

No. 400. 


^^ Friend Anutlracari," etc. — The Master told this while dwelling in Jeta- 
vana, concerning Upananda, of the Sakya tribe. He was ordained in the faith, 
but forsook the virtues of contentment and the rest and became ^'ery greedy. 
At the beginning of the rains he tried two or three monasteries, leaving at 
one an umbrella or a shoe, at one a walking-stick or a water-pot, and dwell- 
ing in one himself. He began the rains in a country-monasteiy, and saying, 
"The Brethren must live contentedly," explained to the Brethren, as if he 
were making the moon rise in the sky, the way to the noble state of content, 
praising contentment with the necessaries. Hearing him the Brethren threw 
away their pleasant robes and vessels, and took pots of clay and robes of dust- 
rags. He put the others in his own lodging, and when the rains and the 
pavarana festival were over he filled a cart and went to Jetavana. On the way, 
behind a monastery in the forest, wrapping his feet with creepers and saying, 
" Surely something can be got here," he entei'ed the monastery. Two old Brethren 
had spent the rains there : they had got two coarse cloaks and one fine blanket, 
and, as they could not divide them, they were pleased to see him, thinking, "This 
Elder will divide these between us," and said, " Sir, we cannot divide this which is 
raiment for the rains ; we have a dispute about it, do you divide it between us." 
He consented and giving the two coarse cloaks to them he took the blanket, 
saying, "This falls to me who know the rules of discipline," and went away. 
These Elders, who loved the blanket, went with him to Jetavana, and told the 
matter to the Brethren who knew the rules, saying, "Is it right for those who 
know the rules to devoiu- plunder thus 1" The Brethren seeing the pile of robes 
and bowls brought l^y the Elder Upananda, said, " Sir, you have great merit, you 
have gained much food and raiment." He said, " Sirs, where is my merit ? I 
gained this in such and such a manner," telling them all. In the Hall of Truth 
they raised a talk, saying, " Sirs, Upananda, of the Sakya tribe, is very covetous 
and greedy." [333] The Master, finding their subject, said, "Brothers, Upananda's 
deeds are not suited for progress ; when a Brother explains progress to another 
he should first act suitably himself and then preach to others." 

Yourself first stablish in propriety. 

Then teach ; the wise should not self-seeking be. 

By this stanza of the Dhammapada he showed the law and said, " Brothers, 
Upananda is not covetous for the first time ; he was so before and he plundered 
men's property before " : and so he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was i-eigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a tree-spirit by a river-bank. A jackal, named Mayavl, 
had taken a wife and lived in a place by that river-bank. One day his 
mate said to him, " Husband, a longing has come upon me : I desire to 
eat a fresh rohita fish." He said, " Be easy, I will bring it you," and 

^ Cf. Folk-lore Journal, iv. 52, Tibetan Tales, p. 332. 

206 The Jdtaka. Booh VII. 

going by the river he wrapt his feet in creepers, and went along the bank. 
At the moment, two otters, Gambhiracarl and Anutlracarl, were standing 
on the bank looking for fish. Gambhiracarl saw a great rohita fish, and 
entering the water with a bound he took it by the tail. The fish was 
strong and went away dragging him. He called to the other, " This great 
fish will be enough for both of us, come and aid me," speaking the first 
stanza : — 

Friend Anutiracari, rush to my aid, I pray : 

I've caught a great fish : but by force he's carrying me away. 

[334] Hearing him, the other spoke the second stanza : — 

Gambhiracarl, luck to you ! your grip be firm and stout. 
And as a roc would lift a snake, I'll lift the fellow out. 

Then the two together took out the rohita fish, laid him on the ground 
and killed him : but saying each to the other, " You divide him," they 
quarrelled and could not divide him : and so sat down, leaving him. At 
the moment the jackal came to the spot. Seeing him, they both saluted 
him and said, " Lord of the grey grass-colour, this fish was taken by 
both of us together : a dispute arose because we could not divide him : do 
you make an equal division and part it," speaking the third stanza : — 

A sti'ife arose between us, mark ! O thou of grassy hue, 
Let our contention, honoured sir, be settled fair by you. 

The jackal hearing them, said, declaring his own strength : — 

I've arbitrated many a case and done it peacefully: 

Let your contention, honoured sirs, be settled fair by me. 

Having spoken that stanza, and making the division, he spoke this 
stanza : — 

Tail, Anutiracari ; Gambhiracarl, head : 

The middle to the arbiter will properly be paid. 

[335] So having divided the fish, he said, " You eat head and tail 
without quarrelling," and seizing the middle portion in his mouth he ran 
away before their eyes. They sat downcast, as if they had lost a thousand 
pieces, and spoke the sixth stanza : — 

But for our strife, it would have long sufficed us without fail : 
But now the jackal takes the fish, and leaves us head and tail. 

The jackal was pleased and thinking " Now I will give my wife rohita 
fish to eat," he went to her. She saw him coming and saluting him spoke 
a stanza : — 

Even as a king is glad to join a kingdom to his rule. 
So I am glad to see my lord to-day with his mouth full. 

No. 400. 207 

Then she asked him about the means of attainment, speaking a 
stanza : — 

How, being of the land, have you from water caught a fish ? 
How did you do the feat, my lord ? pray answer to my wish. 

The jackal, explaining the means to her, spoke the next stanza : — 

By strife it is their weakness comes, by strife their means decay : 
By strife the otters lost their prize : Mayavi, eat the prey. 

[336] Tliere is another stanza uttered by the Perfect Wisdom of 
Buddha : — 

Even so when strife arises among men, 

They seek an arbiter : he's leader then : 

Their wealth decays, and the king's coffers gain. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
"At that time the jackal was U})ananda, the otters the two old men, the tree- 
spirit who witnessed the cause was myself." 

No. 401. 


" Basanna's good sword," etc. — The Master told this, when living in Jetavana, 
concerning the temptation of a Brother by his wife when a layman. The 
Brother confessed that he was backsliding for this reason. The Master said, 
" That woman does }'ou harm : formerly too you were dying of mental sickness 
owing to her, and got life owing to wise men," and so he told a tale of old. 

[337] Once upon a time when the great king Maddava was reigning 
in Benares, the Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin household. They called 
his name young Senaka. When he grew up he learned all the sciences at 
Takkasila, and coming back to Benares he became king Maddava's counsellor 
in things temporal and spiritual, and being called wise Senaka he was looked 
upon in all the city as the sun or the moon. The son of the king's house- 
hold priest came to wait on the king and seeing the chief queen adorned 
with all ornaments and exceedingly beautiful, he became enamoured, and 

208 The Jataka. Booh VII. 

when he went home lay without taking food. His comrades enquired of 
him and he told them the matter. The king said, "The household priest's 
son does not appear, how is this ? " When he heard the cause, he sent for 
him and said, "I give her to you for seven days, spend those days at your 
house and on the eighth send her back," He said, "Very well," and taking 
her to his house took delight with her. They became enamoured of each 
other, and keeping it secret they fled by the house door and came to the 
country of another king. No man knew the place they went to, and their 
path was like the way of a ship. The king made proclamation by drum 
round the city, and though he sought in many ways he did not find the 
place whither she had gone. Then great sorrow for her fell upon him : his 
heart became hot and poured out blood : after that blood flowed from his 
entrails, and his sickness became great. The great royal physicians could 
not cure him. The Bcdhisatta thought, " The disease is not in the king, 
he is touched by mental sickness because he sees not his wife : I will 
cure him by a certain means"; so he instructed the king's wise counsellors, 
Ayura and Pukkusa by name, saying, " The king has no sickness, except 
mental sickness because he sees not the queen : now he is a great helper 
to us and we will cure him by a certain means : [338] we will have 
a gathering in the palace-yard and make a man who knows how to do 
it swallow a sword : we will put the king at a window and make him 
look down on the gathering : the king seeing the man swallow a sword 
will ask, ' Is there anything harder than that ? ' Then, my lord Ayura, 
you should make answer, ' It is harder to say ' I give up so and so '" : 
then he will ask you, my lord Pukkusa,^ and you should make answer, 
"O king, if a man says, 'I give up so and so' and does not give it, his 
word is fruitless, no men live or eat or drink by such words ; but they 
who do according to that word and give the thing according to their 
promise, they do a thing harder than the other : then I will find what 
to do next." So he made a gathering. Then these three wise men went 
and told the king, saying, " O great king, there is a gathering in the 
palace-yard ; if men look down on it their sorrow becomes joy, let us go 
thither": so they took the king, and opening a window made him look 
down on the gathering. Many people were showing off each his own 
art which he knew : and a man was swallowing a good sword of thirty- 
three inches and sharp of edge. The king seeing him thought, " This man 
is swallowing the sword, I will ask wise men if there is anything 
harder than that": so he asked Ayura, speaking the first stanza : — 

1 Dasanna's good sword thirsts for blood, its edge is sharpened perfectly: 
Yet 'midst the crowd he swallows it: a harder feat there cannot be: 
I ask if anything is hard compared to this: pray answer me. 

^ A kingdom in Central India, apparently a seat of the s\Yord-making art. 

No. 401. 209 

[339] Then he spoke the second stanza in answer : — 

Greed may lure a man to swallow swords though sharpened perfectly: 
But to say, ' I give this freely,' that a harder feat would be ; 
All things else are easy; royal Magadha, I've answered thee. 

When the king heard wise Ayura's words, he thought, " So then it is 
harder to say, * I give this thing,' than to swallow a sword : I said, ' I give 
my queen to the priest's son': I have done a very hard thing": and so his 
sorrow at heart became a little lighter. Then thinking, "Is there anything 
harder than to say, 'I give this thing to another'?" he talked with wise 
Pukkusa and spoke the third stanza: — 

Ayura has solved my question, wise in all philosophy : 

Pukkusa I ask the question now, if harder feat there be : 

Is there aught that's hard compared to this ? pray answer me. 

The wise Pukkusa in answer to him spoke the fourth stanza : — 

Not by words men live, and not by language uttered fruitlessly : 
But to give and not regret it, that a greater feat would be : 
All things else are easy; royal Magadha, I've answered thee. 

[340] The king, hearing this, considered, " I first said, ' I will give 
the queen to the priest's son,' and then I did according to my word and 
gave her: surely I have done a hard thing": so his sorrow became lighter. 
Then it came into his mind, "There is no one wiser than wise Senaka, I 
will ask this question of him" : and asking him he spoke the fifth stanza : — 

Pukkusa has solved my question, wise in all philosophy : 
Senaka I ask the question now, if harder feat there be : 
Is there aught that's hard compared to this ? pray answer me. 

So Senaka spoke the sixth stanza in answer to him : — 

If a man should give a gift, or small or great, in charity. 
Nor regret the giving after: that a harder feat would be: 
All things else are easy: royal Magadha, I've answered thee. 

The king, hearing the Bodhisatta's words, reflected : " I gave the 
queen to the priest's son of my own thought : [341] now I cannot control 
my thought, I sorrow and pine : this is not worthy of me. If she loved 
me she would not forsake her kingdom and flee away : what have I to do 
with her when she has not loved me but fled away ? " As he thought thus, 
all his sorrow rolled away and departed like a drop of water on a lotus leaf. 
That instant his entrails were at rest. He became well and happy, and 
praised the Bodhisatta, speaking the final stanza : — 

Ayura answered question, good Pukkusa as well : 
The words of Senaka the wise all answers do excel. 

And after this praise he gave him much wealth in his delight. 
J. III. 14 

210 The Jdtaha. Book VII. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth :— 
after the Truths, the backsliding Brother was established in the fruition of the 
First Path : — " At that time the queen was the wife of his layman days, the 
king the backsliding Brother, Ayura was Moggallana, Pukkusa was Sariputta, 
and the wise Senaka was myself." 

No. 402. 


" Thou art confused,^' e^c— The Master told this when staying in Jetavana, 
concerning the Perfection of Wisdom. The occasion of the story will appear in 
the Ummagga-Birth^. 

Once upon a time a king called Janaka was reigning in Benares, At 
that time the Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family, and they called 
his name young Senaka. When he grew up he learned all the arts at 
Takkasila, and returning to Benares saw the king. The king set him in 
the place of minister and gave him great glory. [342] He taught the 
king things temporal and spiritual. Being a pleasant preacher of the law 
he established the king in the five precepts, in alms-giving, in keeping the 
fasts, in the ten ways of right action, and so established him in the path of 
virtue. Throughout the kingdom it was as it were the time of the appear- 
ing of the Buddhas. On the fortnightly fast the king, the viceroys and 
others would all assemble and decorate the place of meeting. The Bodhi- 
satta taught the law in a decorated room in the middle of a deer-skin- 
couch with the power of a Buddha, and his word was like the preaching of 
Buddhas. Then a certain old brahmin begging for money-alms got a 
thousand pieces, left them in a brahmin family and went to seek alms 
again. When he had gone, that family spent all his pieces. He came 
back and would have his pieces brought him. The brahmin, being unable 
to give them to him, gave him his daughter to wife. The other brahmin 
took her and made his dwelling in a brahmin village not far from Benares. 
Because of her youth his wife was unsatisfied in desires and sinned with 
another young brahmin. There are sixteen things that cannot be satisfied : 
and what are these sixteen ] The sea is not satisfied with all rivers, nor 

1 See Folk-lore Journal, iv. 175, Tibetan Tales, viii. * No. 546, vol. vi. 

No. 402. 211 

the tire with fuel, nor a king with his kingdom, nor a fool with sins, nor a 
woman with three things, intercourse, adornment and child-bearing, nor a 
brahmin with sacred texts, nor a sage with ecstatic meditation, nor a sekha' 
with honour, nor one free from desire with penance, nor the energetic man 
with energy, nor the talker with talk, nor the politic man with the council, 
nor the believer with serving the church, nor the liberal man with giving 
away, nor the learned with hearing the law, nor the four congregations - 
with seeing the Buddha. So this brahmin woman [343], being unsatisfied 
with intercourse, wished to put her husband away and do her sin with 
boldness. So one day in her evil purpose she lay down. When he said, 
" How is it, wife 1 " she answered, "Brahmin, I cannot do the work of your 
house, get me a maid." " Wife, I have no money, what shall I give to 
get her?" "Seek for money by begging for alms and so get her." 
"Then, wife, get ready something for my journey." She filled a skin-bag 
with baked meal and unbaked meal, and gave them to him. The brahmin, 
going through villages, towns and cities, got seven hundred pieces, and 
thinking, " This money is enough to buy slaves, male and female," he was 
returning to his own village ; at a certain place convenient for water he 
opened his sack, and eating some meal he went down to drink water 
without tying the mouth. Then a black snake in a hollow tree, smelling 
the meal, entered the bag and lay down in a coil eating the meal. The 
brahmin came, and without looking inside fastened the sack and putting it 
on his shoulder went his way. Then a spirit living in a tree, sitting in a 
hollow of the trunk, said to him on the way, " Brahmin, if you stop on the 
way you will die, if you go home to-day your wife will die," and vanished. 
He looked, but not seeing the spirit was afraid and troubled with the fear of 
death, and so came to the gate of Benares weeping and lamenting. It was 
the fast on the fifteenth day, the day of the Bodhisatta's preaching, seated 
on the decorated seat of the law, and a multitude with perfumes and 
flowers and the like in their hands came in troops to hear the preaching. 
The brahmin said, "Where are ye going?" and was told, "0 brahmin, 
to-day wise Senaka preaches the law with sweet voice and the power of a 
Buddha : do you not know 1 " He thought, " They say he is a wise 
preacher, and I am troubled with the fear of death : wise men [344] are 
able to take away even great sorrow : it is right for me too to go there 
and hear the law." So he went with them, and when the assembly and 
the king among them had sat down round about the Bodhisatta, he stood 
at the outside, not far from the seat of the law, with his mealsack on his 
shoulder, afraid with the fear of death. The Bodhisatta preached as if he 
were bringing down the river of heaven or showering ambrosia. The 
multitude became well pleased, and making applause listened to the 

' A holy man who has not attained sainthood. 
^ Brethren, Sisters, laymen and laywomen. 


212 TJie Jataha. Book VII. 

preaching. Wise men have far sight. At that moment the Bodhisatta, 
opening his eyes gracious with the five graces, surveyed the assembly on 
every side and, seeing that brahmin, thought, "This great assembly has 
become well pleased and listens to the law, making applause, but that one 
brahmin is ill pleased and weeps : there must be some sorrow within him 
to cause his tears : as if touching rust with acid, or making a drop of 
water roll from a lotus leaf, I will teach him the law, making him free 
from sorrow and well pleased in mind." So he called him, "Brahmin, I 
am wise Senaka, now will I make thee free from sorrow, speak boldly," 
and so talking with him he spoke the first stanza : — 

Thou art confused in thought, disturbed in sense, 
Tears streaming from thine eyes are evidence ; 
What hast thou lost, or what dost wish to gain 
By coming hither? Give me answer plain. 

[345] Then the brahmin, declaring his cause of sorrow, spoke the 
second stanza : — 

If I go home my wife it is must die, 
If I go not, the yakkha said, 'tis I ; 
That is the thought that pierces cruelly : 
Explain the matter, Senaka, to me. 

The Bodhisatta, hearing the brahmin's words, spread the net of know- 
ledge as if throwing a net in the sea, thinking, "There ai-e many causes of 
death to beings in this world : some die sunk in the sea, or seized therein 
by ravenous fish, some falling in the Ganges, or seized by crocodiles, some 
falling from a tree or pierced by a thorn, some struck by weapons of divers 
kinds, some by eating poison or hanging or falling from a precipice or by 
extreme cold or attacked by diseases of divers kinds, so they die : now 
among so many causes of death from which cause shall this brahmin die if 
he stays on the road to-day, or his wife if he goes home'?" As he considered, 
he saw the sack on the brahmin's shoulder and thought, "There must be a 
snake who has gone into that sack, and entering he must have gone in 
from the smell of the meal when the brahmin at his breakfast had eaten 
some meal and gone to drink water without fastening the sack's mouth : 
the brahmin coming back after drinking water must have gone on after 
fastening and taking up the sack without seeing that the snake had 
entered : [346] if he stays on the road, he will say at evening when he 
rests, ' I will eat some meal,' and opening the sack will put in his hand : 
then the snake will bite him in the hand and destroy his life : this will be 
the cause of his death if he stays on the road : but if he goes home the 
sack will come into his wife's hand; she will say, ' I will look at the ware 
within,' and opening the sack put in her hand, then the snake will bite 
her and destroy her life, and this will be the cause of her death if he goes 
home to-day." This he knew by his knowledge of expedients. Then this 

No. 402. 213 

came into his mind, " The snake must be a black snake, brave and fearless ; 
when the sack strikes against the brahmin's broadside, he shows no motion 
or quivei'ing ; he shows no sign of his being there amidst sxich an assem- 
bly : therefore he must be a black snake, brave and fearless : " from his 
knowledge of expedients he knew this as if he was seeing with a divine 
eye. So as if he had been a man who had stood by and seen the snake 
enter the sack, deciding by his knowledge of expedients, the Bodhisatta 
answering the brahmin's question in the royal assembly spoke the third 
stanza : — 

First with many a doubt I deal, 

Now my tongue the truth declares ; 
Brahmin, in your bag of meal 

A snake has entered unawares. 

[347] So saying, he asked, " O bi-ahmin, is there any meal in that sack 
of yours 1 " " There is, O sage." " Did you eat some meal to-day at your 
breakfast time?" "Yes, O sage." "Where were you sitting]" " In a 
wood, at the root of a tree." " When you ate the meal, and went to 
drink water, did you fasten the sack's mouth or nof?" "I did not, O 
sage." " When you drank water and came back, did you fasten the sack 
after looking in?" "I fastened it without looking in, O sage." "O 
brahmin, when you went to drink water, I think the snake entered the 
sack owing to the smell of the meal without your knowledge : such is 
the case : therefore put down your sack, set it in the midst of the 
assembly and opening the mouth, stand back and taking a stick beat the 
sack with it : then when you see a black snake coming out with its hood 
spread and hissing, you will have no doubt : " so he spoke the fourth 
stanza : — 

Take a stick and beat the sack. 

Dumb and double-tongued is he ; 
Cease your mind with doubts to rack ; 

Ope the sack, the snake you'll see. 

The brahmin, hearing the Great Being's words, did so, though alarmed 
and frightened. The snake came out of the sack when his hood was 
struck with the stick, and stood looking at the crowd. 

[348] The Master, explaining the matter, spoke the fifth stanza : 

Frightened, 'midst the assembled rout, 

String of meal-sack he untied ; 
Angry crept a serpent out, 

Hood erect, in all his pride. 

When the snake came out with hood erect, there was a forecast of the Bodhi- 
satta as the omniscient Buddha. The multitude began waving cloths and 
snapping fingers in thousands, the showers of the seven precious stones were as 
showers from a thick cloud, cries of ' good ' were raised in hundreds of thousands, 

214 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

and the noise was like the splitting of the earth. This answering of such a 
question with the power of a Buddha is not the power of birth, nor the power of 
men rich in gifts and high family : of what is it the power then ? Of knowledge : 
the man of knowledge makes spiritual insight to increase, opens the door of the 
noble Paths, enters the great and endless nirvana and masters the perfection of 
disciple-hood, pacceka-buddha-hood, and perfect buddha-hood : knowledge is the 
best among the qualities that bring the great and endless nirvana, the rest are 
the attendants of knowledge : and so it is said : — 

'Wisdom is best,' the good confess, 

Like the moon in starry skies; 
Virtue, fortune, righteousness. 

Are the handmaids of the wise. 

When the question had been so answered by the Bodhisatta, a certain 
snake-charmer made a mouth-band for the snake, caught him and let him 
loose in the forest. The brahmin, coming up to the king, saluted him and 
made obeisance, and praising him spoke half a stanza : — 

Great, king Janaka, thy gain, 
Seeing Senaka the wise. 

[349] After pr-aising the king, he took seven hundred pieces from the 
bag and praising the Bodhisatta, he spoke a stanza and a half wishing to 
give a gift in delight : — 

Dread thy wisdom; veils are vain, 
Brahmin, to thy piercing eyes. 

These seven hundred pieces, see. 
Take them all, I give them thee; 
'Tis to thee I owe my life, 
And the welfare of my wife. 

Hearing this, the Bodhisatta spoke the eighth stanza : — 

For reciting poetry 

Wise men can't accept a wage; 
Eather let us give to thee, 

Ere thou take the homeward stage. 

So saying, the Bodhisatta made a full thousand pieces to be given to 
the brahmin, and asked him, " By whom were you sent to beg for money ?" 
"By my wife, O sage." [350] "Is your wife old or young?" "Young, 
O sage." " Then she is doing sin with another, and sent you away think- 
ing to do so in security : if you take these pieces home, she will give to her 
lover the pieces won by your labour : therefore you should not go home 
straight, but only after leaving the pieces outside the town at the root of a 
tree or somewhere : " so he sent him away. He, coming near the village, 
left his pieces at the root of a tree, and came home in the evening. His 
wife at that moment was seated with her lover. The brahmin stood at the 
door and said, "Wife." She recognised liis voice, and putting out the light 

No. 402. 215 

opened the door : when the brahmin came in, she took the other and put 
him at the door : then coming back and not seeing anything in the sack 
she asked, "Brahmin, what alms have you got on your journey?" "A 
thousand pieces." " Where is it ? " " It is left at such and such a place : 
never mind, we will get it to-morrow." She went and told her lover. He 
went and took it as if it were his own treasure. Next day the brahmin 
went, and not seeing the pieces came to the Bodhisatta, who said, " What 
is the matter, brahmin?" "I don't see the pieces, O sage." "Did you 
tell your wife ? " " Yes, O sage." Knowing that the wife had told her 
lover, the Bodhisatta asked, " Brahmin, is there a brahmin who is a 
friend of your wife's?" "There is, O sage." "Is there one who is a 
friend of yours?" "Yes, O sage." Then the Great Being caused seven 
days' expenses to be given him and said, " Go, do you two invite and 
entertain the first day fourteen brahmins, seven for yourself and seven 
for your wife : from next day onwards take one less each day, till on 
the seventh day you invite one brahmin and your wife one : then if you 
notice that the brahmin your wife asks on the seventh day has come 
every time, tell me." [351] The brahmin did so, and told the Bodhisatta, 
" O sage, I have observed the brahmin who is always our guest." The 
Bodhisatta sent men with him to bring that other brahmin, and asked 
him, " Did you take a thousand pieces belonging to this brahmin from the 
root of such and such a tree?" "I did not, O sage." "You do not 
know that I am the wise Senaka ; I will make you fetch those pieces." 
He was afraid and confessed, saying, " I took them." " What did you 
do ? " "I put them in such and such a place, O sage." The Bodhisatta 
asked the first brahmin, " Brahmin, will you keep your wife or take 
another?" "Let me keep her, O sage." The Bodhisatta sent men to 
fetch the pieces and the wife, and gave the brahmin the pieces from the 
thief's hand; he punished the other, removing him from the city, 
punished also the wife, and gave great honour to the brahmin, making 
him dwell near himself. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth :— 
At the end of the Truths, many attained the fruition of the First Path:— 
"At that time the brahmin was Ananda, the spirit Sariputta, the assembly 
was the church of Buddha, and wise Senaka was myself." 

216 The Jdtaka. Bool VII. 

No. 403. 


'■'■ AUhisena, many beggars" etc. — The Master told this when dwelling in the 
shrine called Aggalava near Alavi, concerning the regulations for the building of 
cells 1. The occasion was told in the Maiiikantha Birth ^ above. The Master 
addressed the Brethren, saying, "Brethren, formerly [352] before Buddha was 
born in the world, priests of other religions, even though offered their choice by 
kings, never asked for alms, holding that begging from others was not agreeable 
or pleasant," and so he told the tale of old time. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin household in a certain village, and they 
called his name young Atthisena. When he grew iip, he learned all the 
arts at Takkasila, and afterwards seeing the misery of desires he took the 
religious life, and reaching the higher Faculties and Attainments, he dwelt 
long in the Himalaya : then coming down among men to get salt and 
vinegar, he reached Benares, and after staying in a garden he came 
begging next day to the king's court. The king, being pleased with his 
bearing and manner, sent for him, and set him on a seat on the terrace, 
giving him good food : then receiving his thanks he was pleased, and 
exacting a promise made the Bodhisatta dwell in the royal garden, and 
went to wait on him two or three times each day. One day, being pleased 
with his preaching of the law, he gave him a choice, saying, "Tell me 
whatever you desire, beginning from my kingdom." The Bodhisatta did 
not say, " Give me so and so." Others ask for whatever they desire, saying, 
' Give me this,' and the king gives it, if not attached to it. One day the 
king thought, " Other suitors and mendicants ask me to give them so and 
so ; but the noble Atthisena, ever since I offered him a choice, asks 
for nothing: he is wise and skilful in device: I will ask him." So one 
day after the early meal he sat on one side, and asking him as to the cause 
of other men's making suits and his own making none, he spoke the first 
stanza : — 

Atthisena, many beggars, though they're strangers utterly. 

Throng to me with their petitions : why hast thou no suit to me ? 

^ See above, p. 52. 
» No. 253, vol. ii. 

No. 403. 217 

[353] Hearing him the Bodhisatta spoke the second stanza : — 

Neither suitor, nor rejector of a suit, can pleasant be : 
That's the reason, be not angry, why I have no suit to thee. 

Hearing his words the king spoke three stanzas : — 

He who Hves by sueing, and has not at proper season sued, 
Makes another fall from merit, fails to gain a livelihood. 

He who lives by sueing, and has aye at proper season sued, 
Makes another man win merit, gains himself a livelihood. 

Men of wisdom are not angry when they see the suitors throng ; 
Speak, my holy friend ; the boon thou askest never can be wrong. 

[354] So the Bodhisatta, even though given the choice of the kingdom, 
made no suit. When the king's wish had been so expressed, the Bodhi- 
satta to show him the priests' way said, "O great king, these suits are 
preferred by men of worldly desires and householders, not by priests : from 
their ordination priests must have a pure life unlike a householder : " and 
so showing the priests' way, he spoke the sixth stanza : — 

Sages never make petitions, worthy laymen ought to know : 
Silent stands the noble suitor : sages make petition so. 

[355] The king hearing the Bodhisatta's words said, "Sir, if a wise 
attendant of his own knowledge gives what ought to be given to his friend, 
so I give to you such and such a thing," and so he spoke the seventh 
stanza : — 

Brahmin, I offer thee a thousand kine, 
Red kine, and eke the leader of the herd : 

Hearing but now those generous deeds of thine, 
I too in turn to generous deeds am stirred. 

When he said this, the Bodhisatta refused, saying, " Great king, I took 
the religious life free from defilement : I have no need of cows." The 
king abode by his admonition ; doing alms and other good works he 
became destined for heaven, and not falling away from his meditation, was 
born in the Brahma world. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
After the Truths many were established in the fruition of the First Path : — "At 
that time the king was Ananda, Atthisena was myself." 

218 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

No. 404. 


"Let not the wise man" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning Devadatta being swallowed up by the earth. Finding that 
the Brethren were talking about this in the Hall of Truth, he said, " Devadatta 
has not been destroyed with his company now for the first time : he was destroyed 
before," and he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in the womb of a monkey, and lived in the king's 
garden with a retinue of five hundred monkeys. [356] Devadatta was 
also born in the womb of a monkey, and lived there also with a retinue of 
five hundred monkeys. Then one day when the king's family priest had 
gone to the garden, bathed and adorned himself, one tricky monkey going 
ahead of him sat above the gateway arch of the garden, and let excrement 
fall on the priest's head as he went out. When the priest looked up, he 
let it fall again in his mouth. The priest turned back, saying in threat to 
the monkeys, "Very well, I shall know how to deal with you," and went 
away after washing. They told the Bodhisatta that he had been angry 
and threatened the monkeys. He made announcement to the thousand 
monkeys, "It is not well to dwell near the habitation of the angry; let 
the whole troop of monkeys flee and go elsewhere." A disobedient 
monkey took his own retinue and did not flee, saying, "I will see about it 
afterwards." The Bodhisatta took his own retinue and went to the forest. 
One day a female slave pounding rice had put some rice out in the sun 
and a goat was eating it : getting a blow with a torch and running away 
on fire, he was rubbing himself on the wall of a grass-hut near an elephant- 
stable. The fire caught the gi-ass-hut and from it the elephant-stable ; in 
it the elephants' backs were burnt, and the elephant doctors were attending 
the elephants. The family priest was always going about watching for an 
opportunity of catching the monkeys. He was sitting in attendance on 
the king, and the king said, " Sir, many of our elephants have been injured, 
and the elephant doctors do not know how to cure them ; do you know 
any remedy?" "I do, great king." "What is it?" "Monkey's fat, 
great king." " How shall we get it ] " " There are many monkeys in the 
garden." The king said, " Kill monkeys in the garden and get their fat." 
The archers went and killed five hundred monkeys with arrows. One old 

^ Cf. Kdkajutaka, no. 140, vol. i. and Tibetan Tales, xliii. 

No. 405. 219 

monkey fled although wounded by an arrow, and though he did not fall 
on the spot [357], fell when he came to the Bodhisatta's place of abode. 
The monkeys said, " He has died when he reached our place of abode," and 
told the Bodhisatta that he was dead from a wound he had got. He came 
and sat down among the assembly of monkeys, and spoke these stanzas by 
way of exhorting the monkeys with the exhortation of the wise, which is 
" Men dwelling near their enemies perish in this way : " — 

Let not the wise man dwell where dwells his foe : 
One night, two nights, so near will bring him woe. 

A fool's a foe to all who trust his word : 
One monkey brought distress on all the herd. 

A foolish chief, wise in his own conceit. 
Comes ever, like this monkey, to defeat. 

A strong fool is not good to guard the herd, 
Curse to his kindred, like the decoy-bird. 

One strong and wise is good the herd to guard, 
Like Indra to the Gods, his kin's reward. 

Who virtue, wisdom, learning, doth possess. 
His deeds himself and other men will bless. 

Therefore virtue, knowledge, learning, and himself let him regard. 
Either be a lonely Saint or o'er the flock keep watch and ward. 

[358] So the Bodhisatta, becoming king of monkeys, explained the way 
of learning the Discipline. 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth: "At that time the dis- 
obedient monkey was Devadatta, his troop was Devadatta's company and the wise 
king was myself." 

No. 405. 


''SevenUj and hoo," etc.—HhQ Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning the brahma'- Baka. In him a false doctrine arose, namely, ihis 
present existence is perpetual, permanent, eternal, unchangmg: apart from it 
there is no salvation or release at all." In a former birth this brahma had once 

1 Cf. Hardy, Manual of Budhism, p. 348. 

2 A brahma means an angel in one of the Brahma-loka heavens, three of which are 
mentioned below. 

220 The Jataka. Booh VI I. 

practised meditation, so he was born in the Vehapphala heaven. Having spent 
there an existence of five hundred kalpas, he was born in the Subhakinna heaven ; 
after sixty-four kalpas there he passed and was born in the Abhassara 
heaven, where existence is for eight kalpas. It was there that this false doctrine 
arose in him. He forgot that he had passed from higher Brahmaloka heavens 
and had been born in that heaven, and perceiving neither of these things had 
taken up the false doctrine. The Lord, understanding his reflections, [359] as 
easily as a strong man can extend his bent arm or bend his extended arm, 
disappearing from Jetavana, appeared in that Brahmaloka. The brahma, seeing 
the Lord, said, "Come hither, my lord; welcome, my lord; it is a long time, my 
lord, since thou hast taken this opportunity, even for coming hither ; this world, 
my lord, is perpetual, it is permanent, it is eternal, it is absolute, it is un- 
changing ; this world is not born, it decays not, it dies not, it passes not away, 
it is not born again : apart from this world there is no other salvation beyond." 
When this was said, the Lord said to Baka the brahma, "Baka the brahma has 
come to ignorance, he has come to ignorance, when he will say that a thing 
which is not permanent is permanent, and so on, and that there is no other 
salvation apart from this when there is another salvation." Hearing this the 
brahma thought, "This one presses me hard, finding out exactly what I say," 
and as a timid thief, after receiving a few blows, says, "Am I the only thief? so 
and so and so and so are thieves too," showing his associates ; so he, in fear of 
the Lord's questioning, showing that others were his associates, sj)oke the first 
stanza : — 

Seventy and two, Gotama, are we 
Righteous and great, from birth and age we're free : 
Our heaven is wisdom's home, there's nought above : 
And many others will this view approve. 

Hearing his words, the Master spoke the second stanza : — 

[360] Short your existence in this world : 'tis wrong, 
Baka, to think existence here is long : 
A hundred thousand aeons past and gone 
All your existence well to me is known. 

Hearing this, Baka spoke the third stanza : — 

Of wisdom infinite, Lord, am I : 
Birth, age, and sorrow, all beneath me lie : 
What should I do with good works, long ago? 
Yet tell me something. Lord, that I should know. 

Then the Lord, relating and showing him things of past time, spoke four 
stanzas : — 

To many a man of old thou gavest drink 
For thirst and parching drought ready to sink : 
That virtuous deed of thine so long ago 
Remembering, as if waked from sleep, I know. 

[361] By Eni's bank thou sett'st the people free 
When chained and held in close captivity : 
That virtiious deed of thine so long ago 
Remembering, as if waked from sleep, I know. 

By Ganges' stream the man thou didst set free. 
Whose boat was seized by naga, cruelly 
Lusting for flesh, and save him mightily : 
That virtuous deed of thine, so long ago 
Remembering, as if waked from sleep, I know. 

No. 406. 221 

And I was Kappa, thy disciple true, 
Thy wisdom and thy virtues all I knew : 
And now those deeds of thine so long ago 
Remembering, as if waked from sleep, I know. 

[363] Hearing his own deeds from the Master's discourse, Baka gave thanks 
and spoke this last stanza : — 

Thou knowest every life that hath been mine : 
Buddha thou art, all wisdom sure is thine : 
And sure thy glorious majesty and state 
Even this Brahma world illuminate. 

So the Master, making known his quality as Buddha and expounding the 
Law, shewed forth the Truths. At the end the thoughts of ten thousand 
biahmas were freed from attachments and sins. So the Lord became the refuge 
of many brahmas, and going back from Brahmaloka to Jetavana preached the 
law in the way described and identified the Birth: "At that time Baka the 
brahma was the ascetic Kesava, Kappa the disciple was myself." 

No. 406. 


" Villages full sixteen thousand" etc. — The Master told this when dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning the precept on the storing up of medicines *. The occasion 
however arose in Rajagaha. When the venerable Pilindiyavaccha went to the 
king's dwelling to set free the park-keeper's family-, he made the palace all of gold 
hy magic power : and the people in their delight brought to that elder the five 
kinds of medicine. He gave them away to the congregation of Brethren. So 
the congregation abounded in medicines, [364] and as they received the medicines, 
they filled pots and jars and bags in this way and laid them aside. People 
seeing this murmured, saying, " Those greedy priests are hoarding in their 
houses." The Master, hearing this thing, declared the precept, " Whatever 
medicines for sick brethren [sc. are received, must be used within seven days]," 
and said, " Brethren, wise men of old, before the Buddha appeared, ordained 
in heresy and keeping only the five precepts, used to chide those who laid aside 
even salt and sugar for the next day ; but you, though ordained in such a rule of 
salvation, make a hoard for the second and the third day," and so he told the 
tale of old. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was the king's son of the Gandhara 
kingdom ; at his father's death he became king and ruled with righteousness 

' Mahdvagga vi. 15. 10. 

' See Mahdvagga vi. 15. 1 — . 

222 The Jataka. Book VII. 

In the Central Region, in the kingdom of Videha a king named Videha 
was i-uling at the time. These two kings had never seen each other, 
but they were friends and had great trust the one in the other. At that 
time men were long-lived : their life was for thirty thousand years. Then 
once, on the fast day of the full moon, the king of Gandhara had taken the 
vow of the commands', and on the dais in the middle of a royal throne 
pi'epared for him, looking through an open window on the eastern quarter, 
he sat giving to his ministers a discourse on the substance of the law. At 
that moment Rahu was covering the moon's orb which was full and 
spreading over the sky. The moon's light vanished. The ministers, not 
seeing the moon's brightness, told the king that the moon was seized by 
Rahu. The king, observing the moon, thought, *' That moon has lost its 
light, being marred by some trouble from outside ; now my royal retinue 
is a trouble, and it is not meet that I should lose my light like the moon 
seized by Rahu: I will leave my kingdom like the moon's orb shining in a 
clear sky and become an ascetic: why should I admonish another? I will 
go about, detached from kin and people, admonishing myself alone : that is 
meet for me." So he said, " As ye please [365] so do," and gave over the 
kingdom to his ministers. When he gave up his kingdom in the two 
kingdoms of Kashmir and Gandhara, he took the religious life, and attain- 
ing the transcendental faculty he passed the rains in the Himalaya region 
devoted to the delight of meditation. The king of Videha, having asked 
of merchants, "Is it well with my friend]" heard that he had taken the 
religious life, and thought, "When my friend has taken the religious life, 
what should I do with a kingdom ? " So he gave up the rule in his city of 
Mithila, seven leagues in extent, and his kingdom of Videha, thi-ee hun- 
dred leagues in extent, with sixteen thousand villages, storehouses filled, 
and sixteen thousand dancing girls, and without thinking of his sons and 
daughters he went to the Himalaya region and took the religious life. 
There he lived on fruits only, dwelling in a state of quietude. Both 
of them following this quiet life afterwards met, but did not recognise 
each other : yet they lived together in this quiet life in friendliness. The 
ascetic of Videha waited upon the ascetic of Gandhara. On a day of full 
moon as they were sitting at the root of a tree and talking on things 
relating to the law, Rahu covered the moon's orb as it was shining in the 
sky. The ascetic of Videha looked up, saying, " Why is the moon's light 
destroyed 1 " And seeing that it was seized by Rahu, he asked, " Master, 
why has he covered the moon and made it dark 1 " " Scholar, that is the 
moon's one trouble, Rahu by name ; he hinders it from shining : I, seeing 
the moon's orb struck by Rahu, thought, ' There is the moon's pure orb 
become dark by trouble from outside; now this kingdom is a trouble to 

1 A vow to keep the five moral precepts. 

No. 406. 223 

me : I will take the religious life so that the kingdom does not make me 
dark as Rahu does the moon's orb ' : and so taking the moon's orb seized 
by Rahu as my theme, I forsook ray great kingdom and took the religious 
life." "Master, were you king of Gandharal" [366] "Yes, I was." 
" Master, I was the king Videha in the kingdom of Videha and city of 
Mithila : were we not friends though we never saw each other]" "What 
was your theme V "I heard that you had taken the religious life and 
thinking, ' Surely he has seen the good of that life,' I took you as my 
theme, and leaving my kingdom took the religious life." From that time 
they were exceedingly intimate and friendly, and lived on fruits only. 
After a long time's dwelling there they came down from Himfilaya for salt 
and vinegar, and came to a frontier village. The people, being pleased 
with their deportment, gave them alms and taking a promise made for 
them houses for the night and the like in the forest, and made them dwell 
there, and built by the road a room for taking their meals in a pleasant 
watered spot. They, after going their rounds for alms in the frontier 
village, sat and ate the alms in that hut of leaves and then went to their 
dwelling-house. The people who gave them food one day put salt on a 
leaf and gave it them, another day gave them saltless food. One day they 
gave them a great deal of salt in a leaf basket. The ascetic of Videha 
took the salt, and coming gave enough to the Bodhisatta at the meal time 
and took to himself the proper measure : then putting up the rest in a leaf 
basket he put it in a roll of grass, saying, " This will do for a saltless day." 
Then one day when saltless food was received, the man of Videha, giving 
the alms-food to the man of Gandhara, took the salt from the roll of grass 
and said, " Master, take salt." " The people gave no salt to-day, where 
have you got it ? " " Master, the people gave much salt one day before : 
then I kept what was over, saying, ' This will do for a saltless day.' " 
Then the Bodhisatta chid him, saying, "O foolish man, you forsook the 
kingdom of Videha, three hundred leagiies in extent, took the religious 
life and attained freedom from attachments, and now you get a desire 
for salt and sugar." And so admonishing him he spoke the first stanza : — 

[367] Villages full sixteen thousand with their wealth you threw away. 

Treasuries with wealth in plenty : and you're hoarding here to-day ! 

Videha, being thus chidden, did not endure the chiding but became 
estranged, saying, " Master, you see not your own fault, though you see 
mine ; did you not leave your kingdom and become religious, saying, 
'Why should I admonish another? I will admonish myself alone': 
why then are you now admonishing meV So he spoke the second 
stanza : — 

Candahar and all its province, all its wealth, you threw away. 
Giving no more royal orders : and you're ordering me to-day ! 

224 The Jataka. Book VII. 

Hearing him the Bodhisatta spoke the third stanza : — 

It is righteousness I'm speaking, for I hate unrighteousness : 
Kighteousness when I am speaking, sin on me leaves no impress. 

The ascetic of Videha, hearing the Bodhisatta's words, said, " Master, 
it is not meet for one to speak after annoying and angering another, even 
though he speaks to the point : [368] you are speaking very harshly to me, 
as if shaving me with blunt steel," and so he spoke the fourth stanza : — 

Whatsoever words, if spoken, would to others cause offence. 

Wise men leave those words unspoken, though of mighty consequence. 

Then the Bodhisatta spoke the fifth stanza : — 

Let my hearer scatter chaflf, or let him take oflfence or not. 
Righteousness when I am speaking, sin on me can leave no spot. 

Having so said, he went on, " I will not work with you, O Ananda^, as 
a potter with raw clay only : I will speak chiding again and again ; what 
is truth, that will abide." And so being steadfast in conduct suitable to 
that admonition of the Blessed One, as a potter among his vessels, after 
beating them often, takes not the raw clay, but takes the baked vessel 
only, so preaching and chiding again and again he takes a man like a 
good vessel, and preaching to show him this, he spoke this pair of 
stanzas : — 

Were not wisdom and good conduct trained in some men's lives to grow. 
Many would go wandering idly like the blinded buffalo. 

But since some are wisely trained in moral conduct fair to grow. 
Thus it is that discij^lined in paths of virtue others go. 

[369] Hearing this, the Videha ascetic said, "Mastex-, from this time 
admonish me; I spoke to you with peevish natural temper, pardon me," 
and so paying respect he gained the Bodhisatta's pardon. So they dwelt 
together in peace and went again to Himalaya. Then the Bodhisatta told 
the Videha ascetic how to attain to mystic meditation. He did so and 
reached the higher Faculties and Attainments. So both, never leaving off 
meditation, became destined for the Brahma world. 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth : " At that time the Videha 
ascetic was Ananda, the Gandhara king was myself." 

1 The ascetic is addressed by this name, as if his future re-birth as Ananda was 

No. 407. 225 

No. 407. 


" You made yourself," etc. — The Master told this while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning good works towards one's relatives. The occasion will appear in the 
Bhaddasala Birth-. They began talking in the Hall of Truth, saying, "The 
supreme Buddha does good works towards his relatives." [370] When the Master 
had asked and been told their theme, he said, " Brethren, this is not the first 
time a Tathagata has done good works towards his relatives," and so he told a 
tale of old time. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born of a monkey's womb. When he grew up and 
attained stature and stoutness, he was sti'ong and vigorous, and lived in 
the Himalaya with a retinue of eighty thousand monkeys. Near the 
Ganges bank there was a mango tree (others say it was a banyan), with 
branches and forks, having a deep shade and thick leaves, like a mountain- 
top. Its sweet fruits, of divine fragrance and flavour, were as large as 
waterpots : from one branch the fruits fell on the ground, from one into 
the Ganges water, from two into the main trunk of the tree. The Bodhi- 
satta, while eating the fruit with a troop of monkeys, thought, "Someday 
danger will come upon us owing to the fruit of this tree falling on the 
water " ; and so, not to leave one fruit on the branch which grew over the 
water, he made them eat or throw down the flowers at their season from 
the time they were of the size of a chick-pea. But notwithstanding, one 
ripe fruit, unseen by the eighty thousand monkeys, hidden by an ant's 
nest, fell into the river, and stuck in the net above the king of Benares, 
who was bathing for amusement with a net above him and another below. 
When the king had amused himself all day and was going away in the 
evening, the fishermen, who were drawing the net, saw the fruit and not 
knowing what it was, shewed it to the king. The king asked, " What is 
this fruit f "We do not know, sire." "Who will knowl" "The 
foresters, sire." He had the foresters called, and learning from them that 
it was a mango, he cut it with a knife, and first making the foresters eat of 
it, he ate of it himself [371] and had some of it given to his seraglio and his 
ministers. The flavour of the ripe mango remained pervading the king's 
whole body. Possessed by desire of the flavour, he asked the foi-esters 
where that tree stood, and hearing that it was on a river bank in the 

1 This story is figured in Cunuingham's Stupa of Bharhut, plate xxxiii, fig. 4 
(explained by Mr Tawney in Proc. As. Soc. of Bengal for Aug. 1891). Cf. Jdtaka- 
mdhl, no. 27 (The Great. Mon'key). 

- No. 444, vol. iv. 

J. III. 15 

226 Tlie JataTca. Book VII. 

Himalaya quarter, he had many rafts joined together and sailed upstream 
by the route shewn by the foresters. The exact account of days is not 
given. In diie course they came to the place, and the foresters said to the 
king, "Sire, there is the tree." The king stopped the rafts and went on 
foot with a great retinue, and having a bed prepared at the foot of the tree, 
he lay down after eating the mango fruit and enjoying the various excel- 
lent flavoui's. At each side they set a guard and made a fire. When the 
men had fallen asleep, the Bodhisatta came at midnight with his retinue. 
Eighty thousand monkeys moving from branch to branch ate the mangoes. 
The king, waking and seeing the herd of monkeys, roused his men and 
calling his archers said, " Surround these monkeys that eat the mangoes so 
that they may not escape, and shoot them : tomorrow we will eat man- 
goes with monkey's flesh." The archers obeyed, saying, "Very well," and 
surrounding the tree stood with arrows ready. The monkeys seeing them 
and fearing death, as they could not escape, came to the Bodhisatta and 
said, "Sire, the archers stand round the tree, saying, 'We will shoot those 
vagrant monkeys:' what are we to do?" and so stood shivering. The 
Bodhisatta said, "Do not fear, I will give you life ;" and so comforting the 
herd of monkeys, he ascended a branch that rose up straight, went along 
another branch that stretched towards the Ganges, and springing from the end 
of it, he passed a hundred bow-lengths and lighted on a bush on the bank \ 
Coming down, he marked the distance, saying, "That will be the distance I 
have come :" [372] and cutting a bamboo shoot at the root and stripping it, 
he said, "So much will be fastened to the tree, and so much will stay in the 
air," and so reckoned the two lengths, forgetting the part fastened on his 
own waist. Taking the shoot he fastened one end of it to the tree on the 
Ganges bank and the other to his own waist, and then cleared the space of 
a hundred bow-lengths with the speed of a cloud torn by the wind. From 
not reckoning the part fastened to his waist, he failed to reach the tree : 
so seizing a branch fii-mly with both hands he gave signal to the troop of 
monkeys, " Go quickly with good luck, treading on my back along the 
bamboo shoot." The eighty thousand monkeys escaped thus, after saluting 
the Bodhisatta and getting his leave. Devadatta was then a monkey and 
among that herd : he said, " This is a chance for me to see the last of my 
enemy," so climbing up a branch he made a spring and fell on the Bodhi- 
satta's back. The Bodhisatta's heart broke and great pain came on him. 
Devadatta having caiised that maddening pain went away: and the Bodhi- 
satta was alone. The king being awake saw all that was done by the 
monkeys and the Bodhisatta: and he lay down thinking, "This animal, not 
reckoning his own life, has caused the safety of his troop." When day 
broke, being pleased with the Bodhisatta, he thought, " It is not right to 

1 From the figure on the Bharhut Stupa, it appears that he jumped across the 

No. 407. 227 

destroy this king of the monkeys: I will bring him down by some means and 
take care of him :" so turning the raft down the Ganges and building a 
platform there, he made the Bodhisatta come down gently, and had him 
clothed with a yellow robe on his back and washed in Ganges water, made 
him drink sugared water, and had his body cleansed and anointed with oil 
refined a thousand times ; then he put an oiled skin on a bed and making 
him lie there, he set himself on a low seat, and spoke the first stanza : — 

[373] You made yoiu'self a bridge for them to pass in safety through : 
What are you then to them, monkey, and what are they to you 1 

Hearing him, the Bodhisatta instructing the king spoke the other 

stanzas : — 

Victorious king, I guard the herd, I am their lord and chief, 

When they were filled with fear of thee and stricken sore with grief 

I leapt a hundred times the length of bow outstretched that lies. 
When I had bound a bamboo-shoot firmly around my thighs : 

I reached the tree like thunder-cloud sped by the temi^est's blast ; 
I lost my strength, but reached a bough : with hands I held it fast. 

And as I hung extended there held fast by shoot and bough. 
My monkeys passed across my back and are in safety now. 

Therefore I fear no pain of death, bonds do not give me pain, 
The happiness of those was won o'er whom 1 used to reign. 

A parable for thee, king, if thou the truth would'st read : 

The happiness of kingdom and of army and of steed 

And city must be dear to thee, if thou would'st rule indeed. 

[374] The Bodhisatta, thus instructing and teaching the king, died. 
The king, calling his ministers, gave orders that the monkey-king should 
have obsequies like a king, and he sent to the seraglio, saying, "Come to 
the cemetery, as retinue for the monkey-king, with i*ed garments, and 
dishevelled hair, and torches in your hands." [375] The ministers made a 
funeral pile with a hundred waggon loads of timber. Having prepared 
the Bodhisatta's obsequies in a royal manner, they took his skull, and 
came to the king. The kins: caused a shrine to be built at the Bodhi- 
satta's burial-place, torches to be burnt there and offerings of incense 
and flowers to be made ; he had the skull inlaid with gold, and put in 
front raised on a spear-point : honoviring it with incense and flowers, he 
put it at the king's gate when he came to Benares, and having the whole 
city decked out he paid honour to it for seven days. Then taking it as a 
relic and raising a shrine, he honoured it with incense and garlands all 
his life ; and established in the Bodhisatta's teaching he did alms and 
other good deeds, and ruling his kingdom righteously became destined for 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : 
" At that time the king was Ananda, the monkey's retinue the assembly, and the 
monkey-king myself" 


228 Tlie Jataka. Booh VII. 

No. 408. 


"J mango in a forest" etc. The Master told this when dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning rebuke of sin. The occasion will appear in the Paniya Birth i. At that 
time in Savatthi five hundred friends, who had become ascetics, dwelling in 
the House of the Golden Pavement, had lustful thoughts at midnight. The 
Master regards his disciples three times a night and three times a day, six 
times every night and day, as a jay guards her egg, or a yak-cow her tail, or a 
mother her beloved son, or a one-eyed man his eye ; so in the very instant he re- 
bukes a sin which is beginning. He was observing Jetavana on that midnight 
and knowing the Brethren's conduct of their thoughts, he considered, " This sin 
among these brethren if it grows will destroy the cause of Sainthood. I will this 
moment rebuke their sin and show them Sainthood" : so leaving the perfumed 
chamber he called Ananda [376], and bidding him collect all the brethren dwelling 
in the place, he got them together and sat down on the seat prepared for Buddha. 
He said, " Brethren, it is not right to live in the power of sinful thoughts ; a sin if 
it grows brings great ruin like an enemy : a Brother ought to rebuke even a little 
sin : wise men of old seeing even a very slight cause, rebuked a sinful thought 
that had begun and so brought about paccekabuddha-hood" : and so he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahraadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a potter's family in a suburb of Benares : when 
he grew up he became a householder, had a son and daughter, and sup- 
ported his wife and children by his potter's handicraft. At that time in 
the Kaliiiga kingdom, in the city of Dantapura, the king named Karandu, 
going to his garden with a great retinue, saw at the garden-gate a mango 
tree laden with sweet fruit : he stretched out his hand from his seat on 
the elephant and seized a bunch of mangoes : then entering the garden he 
sat on the royal seat and ate a mango, giving some to those worthy of 
favours. From the time when the king took one, ministers, brahmins, 
and householders, thinking that others should also do so, tO(»k down and 
ate mangoes from that tree. Coming again and again they climbed the 
tree, and beating it with clubs and breaking the bi-anches down and off, 
they ate the fruit, not leaving even the unripe. The king amused himself 
in the garden for the day, and at evening as he came by on the royal 
elephant he dismounted on seeing the tree, and going to its root he looked 
up and thought, " In the morning this tree stood beautiful with its burden 
of fruit and the gazers could not be satisfied : now it stands not beautiful 
with its fruit broken down and off." Again looking from another place 

1 No. 4.59, vol. iv. 

No. 408. 229 

he saw another mango tree barren, and thought, "This mango tree stands 
beautiful in its barrenness like a bare mountain of jewels ; the other from 
its fruitfulness [377] fell into that misfortune: the householder's life is like 
a fruitful tree, the religious life like a barren tree : the wealthy have fear, 
the poor have no fear : I too would be like the barren tree." So taking 
the fruit-tree as his subject, he stood at the root ; and considering the 
three 1 properties and perfecting spiritual insight, he attained pacceka- 
buddha-hood, and reflecting, "The envelop of the womb is now fallen from 
me, re-birth in the three existences is ended, the filth of transmigration is 
cleansed, the ocean of tears dried up, the wall of bones broken down, there 
is no more re-birth for me," he stood as if adorned with every ornament. 
Then his ministers said, " You stand too long, great king." " I am not 
a king, I am a paccekabuddha." " Paccekabuddhas are not like you, O 
king." " Then what are they like ? " " Their hair and beards are shaved, 
they are dressed in yellow robes, they are not attached to family or tribe, 
they are like clouds torn by wind or the moon's orb freed from Rahu, and 
they dwell on Himalaya in the Nandamida cave : such, O king, are the 
paccekabuddhas." At that moment the king threw up his hand and 
touched his head, and instantly the marks of a householder disappeared, 
and the marks of a priest came into view : — 

Three robes, bowl, razor, needles, strainer, zone, 
A pious Brother those eight marks should own, 

the requisites, as they are called, of a priest became attached to his body. 
Standing in the air he preached to the multitude, and then went through 
the sky to the mountain cave Nandamiila in the Upper HimJilaya. 

In the kingdom of Candahar in the city Takkasila, the king named 
Naggaji on a terrace, in the middle of a royal couch, saw a woman who had 
put a jewelled bracelet on each hand and was grinding perfume as she sat 
near : he thought, "These jewelled bracelets do not rub or jingle when separ- 
ate," and so sat watching. Then she, putting the bracelet from the right 
hand [378] on the left hand and collecting perfume with the right, began to 
grind it. The bracelet on the left hand rubbing against the other made a 
noise. The king observed that these two bracelets made a sound when 
rubbing against each other, and he thought, " That bracelet when separate 
touched nothing, it now touches the second and makes a noise : just so 
living beings when separate do not touch or make a noise, when they 
become two or three they rub against each other and make a din : now I 
rule the inhabitants in the two kingdoms of Cashmere and Candahar, and 
I too ought to dwell like the single bracelet ruling myself and not ruling 
another " : so making the rubbing of the bracelets his topic, seated as he 

1 Impermaneuce, suffering, unieality. 

230 The Jataka. Book VII. 

was, he realised the three properties, attained spiritual insight, and gained 
paccekabuddha-hood. The rest as before. 

In the kingdom of Videha, in the city of Mithila, the king, named 
Nimi, after breakfast, surrounded by his ministers, stood looking down at 
the street through an open window of the palace. A hawk, having taken 
some meat from the meat-market, was flying up into the air. Some 
vultures or other birds, surrounding the hawk on each side, went on peck- 
ing it with their beaks, striking it with their wings and beating it with 
their feet, for the sake of the meat. Not enduring to be killed, the hawk 
dropt the flesh, another bii'd took it : the rest leaving the hawk fell on the 
other : when he relinquished it, a third took it : and they pecked him also 
in the same way. The king seeing those birds thought, " Whoever took 
the flesh, sorrow befel him : whoever relinquished it, happiness befel him : 
whoever takes the five pleasures of sense, sorrow befals him, happiness the 
other man : these are common to many : now I have sixteen thousand 
women : I ought to live in happiness leaving the five pleasures of sense, 
as the hawk relinquishing the morsel of flesh." Considering this wisely, 
[379] standing as he was, he realised the three properties, attained spiritual 
insight, and reached the wisdom of paccekabuddha-hood. The rest as 

In the kingdom of Uttarapancala, in the city of Kampilla, the king, 
named Dummukha, after breakfast, with all his ornaments and surrounded 
by his ministers, stood looking down on the palace-yard from an open 
window. At the instant they opened the door of a cow-pen : the bulls 
coming from the pen set upon one cow in lust : and one great bull with 
sharp horns seeing another bull coming, possessed by the jealousy of lust, 
struck him in the thigh with his sharp horns. By the force of the blow 
his entrails came out, and so he died. The king seeing this thought, 
"Living beings from the state of beasts upwards reach sorrow from the 
power of lust : this bull through lust has reached death : other beings also 
are disturbed by lust : I ought to abandon the lusts that disturb those 
beings:" and so standing as he was he realised the three properties, 
attained spiritual insight and reached the wisdom of paccekabuddha- 
hood. The rest as before. 

Then one day those four paccekabuddhas, considering that it was time 
for their rounds, left the Nandamiila cave, having cleansed their teeth by 
chewing betel in the lake Anotatta, and having attended to their needs in 
Manosila, they took the bowl and robe, and by magic flying in the air, and 
treading on clouds of the five colours, they alighted not far from a suburb 
of Benares. In a convenient spot they put on the robes, took the bowl, 
and entering the suburb they went the rounds for alms till they caine to 
the Bodhisatta's house-door. The Bodhisatta seeing them was delighted 
and making them enter his house he made them sit on a seat prepared, he 

No. 408. 231 

gave them water of respect and served them with excellent food, hard and 
soft. Then sitting on one side he saluted the eldest of them, saying, " Sir, 
your religious life appears very beautiful : your senses are very calm, your 
complexion is very clear : what topic of thought [380] made you take to 
the religious life and ordination 1 " and as he asked the eldest of them, so 
also he came up to the others and asked them. Then those four saying, 
" I was so and so, king of such and such a city in such and such a king- 
dom " and so on, in that way each told the causes of his retiring from the 
world and spoke one stanza each in order : — 

A mango in a forest did I see 
Full-grown, and dark, fruitful exceedingly : 
And for its fruit men did the mango break, 
'Twas this inclined my heart the bowl to take. 

A bracelet, polished by a hand renowned, 
A woman wore on each wrist without sound : 
One touched the other and a noise did wake: 
'Twas this inclined my heart the bowl to take. 

Birds in a flock a bird unfriended tore. 
Who all alone a lump of carrion bore: 
The bird was smitten for the carrion's sake : 
'Twas this inclined my heart the bowl to take. 

A bull in pride among his fellows paced ; 
High rose his back, with strength and beauty graced : 
From lust he died : a horn his wound did make : 
'Twas this inclined my heart the bowl to take. 

The Bodhisatta, hearing each stanza, said, " Good, sir : your topic is 
suitable," and so commended each paccekabuddha : and having listened to 
the discourse delivered by those four, he became disinclined to a house- 
holder's life. When the paccekabuddhas went forth, after breakfast 
seated at his ease, he called his wife and said, " Wife, those four pacceka- 
buddhas left kingdoms to be Brethren and now live without sin, without 
hindrance, in the bliss of the i-eligious life : while I make a livelihood by 
earnings: what have I to do with a householder's life? do you take the 
children and stay in the house " : and he spoke two stanzas : — 

Kalinga's king Karandu, Gandhara's Naggaji, 

Paricala's ruler Dummukha, Videha's great Nimi, 

Have left their thrones and live the life of Brothers sinlessly. 

Here their godlike forms they show 

Each one like a blazing fire: 
Bhaggavi, I too will go, 

Leaving all that men desire. 

[382] Hearing his words she said, "Husband, ever since I heai'd the 
discourse of the paccekabuddhas I too have no content in the house," and 
she spoke a stanza : — 

232 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

'Tis the appointed time, I know : 

Better teacliers may not be : 
Bhaggava, I too will go, 

Like a bird from hand set free. 

The Bodhisatta hearing her words was silent. She was deceiving the 
Bodhisatta, and was anxious to take the religious life before him : so she said, 
"Husband, I am going to the water-tank, do you look after the children," 
and taking a pot as if she had been going there, she went away and coming to 
the ascetics outside the town she was ordained by them. The Bodhisatta 
finding that she did not return attended to the children himself. After- 
wards when they grew up a little and could understand for themselves, in 
order to teach them [383], when cooking rice he would cook one day a little 
hard and raw, one day a little underdone, one day well-cooked, one day 
sodden, one day without salt, another with too much. The children said, 
" Father, the rice to-day is not boiled, to-day it is sodden, to-day well 
cooked : to-day it is without salt, to-day it has too much salt." The 
Bodhisatta said, " Yes, dears," and thought, " These children now know 
what is raw and what is cooked, what has salt and what has none : they 
will be able to live in their own way : I ought to become ordained." 
Then showing them to their kinsfolk he was ordained to the religious life, 
and dwelt outside the city. Then one day the female ascetic begging in 
Benares saw him and saluted him, saying, " Sir, I believe you killed the 
children." The Bodhisatta said, "I don't kill children: when they could 
understand for themselves I became ordained : you were careless of them 
and pleased yourself by being ordained" : and so he spoke the last stanza ; — 

Having seen they could distinguish salt from saltless, boiled from raw, 
I became a Brother: leave me, we can follow each the law. 

So exhorting the female ascetic he took leave of her. She taking the 
exliortation saluted the Bodhisatta and went to a place that pleased her. 
After that day they never saw each other. The Bodhisatta reaching super- 
natural knowledge became destined to the Brahma heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and identified the Birth :■ — 
After the Truths live hundred Brothers were established in Sainthood: — "At 
that time the daughter was Uppalavanna, the son was Eahula, the female 
ascetic Rahula's mother, and the ascetic was myself." 

No. 409. 233 

No. 409. 


[384] "/ cwried for the king,'^ etc. The Master told this when dweUiiig in 
the Ghosita forest near Kosambi, concerning BhaddavatiRa, king Udena's she- 
elephant. Now the way in which this elephant was adorned and the royal lineage 
of Udena will be set forth in the Matanga^ Birth. One day this elephant going 
out of the city in the morning saw the Buddha surrounded by a multitude of saints, 
in the incomparable majesty of a Buddha, entei'ing the city for alms, and falling 
at the Tathagata's feet, with lamentation she prayed to him, saying, "Lord 
who knowest all, saviour of the whole world, when I was young and able to do 
woi'k, Udena, the rightful king, loved me, saying, ' My life and kingdom and 
queen are all due to her,' and gave me great honour, adorning me with all orna- 
ments ; he had my stall smeared with perfumed eartli, and coloured hangings 
put round it, and a lamp lit with perfumed oil, and a dish of incense set there, he 
had a golden pot set on my dunghill, and made me stand on a coloured carpet, 
and gave me royal food of many choice flavours : but now when 1 am old and 
cannot do work, he has cut oft' all that honour ; unprotected and destitute I 
live by eating ketaka fruit in the forest ; I have no other refuge : make Udena 
think on my merits and restore me again my old honour, Lord." The Master 
said, " Go thou, I will speak to the king and get thy old honour restored," and he 
went to the door of the king's dwelling. The king made Buddha enter, and gave 
great entertainment in the palace to the assembly of brethren following Buddha. 
When the meal was over, the Master gave thanks to the king and asked, "0 
king, where is Bhaddavatika?" "Lord, I know not." "O king, after giving 
honom* to servtints, it is not right to take it away in their old age, it is right to 
be grateful and thankful; Bhaddavatika is now old, she is worn with age and 
unprotected, and she lives by eating ketaka fruit in the wood : it is not meet for 
you to leave her unprotected in her old age": so telling Bhaddavatika's merits 
and saying, " Restore all her former honours," [385] he departed. The king did 
so. It was spread over the whole city that the former honour was restored 
because the Buddha had told her merits. This became known in the assembly 
of the Brethren, and the Brethren discussed it in their meeting. The Master, 
coming and hearing that this was their subject, said, " Brethren, this is not the 
first time that the Buddha has by telling her merits got her former honours 
restored" : and he told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time there was a king named Dalhadliamma reigning in 
Benares. At that time the Bodhisatta was born in a minister's family, 
and when he grew up he served the king. He received much honour from 
the king, and stood in the place of the most valued minister. The king 
had a certain she-elephant^, endowed with might and very strong. She 
went a hundred leagues in one day, she did the duties of messenger 

1 No. 497, vol. iv. 

2 Morris. Journ. Pali Text Soc. for 1887, p. 150 : but possibly the word means 

234 The Jataka. Booh VII. 

for the king, and in battle she fought and crushed the enemy. The 
king said, " She is very sei'viceable to me," gave her all ornaments and 
caused all honour to be given her such as Udena gave to Bhaddavatika. 
Then when she was weak from age the king took away all her honour. 
From that time she was unprotected and lived by eating grass and leaves 
in the forest. Then one day when the vessels in the king's court were 
not sufficient, the king sent for a potter, and said, " The vessels are not 
sufficient." " O king, I have no oxen to yoke in carts to bring cow-dung 
(for baking clay)." The king hearing this tale said, "Where is our 
she-elephant ] " "O king, she is wandering at her own will." The 
king gave her to the potter, saying, " Henceforth do thou yoke her and 
bring cow-dung." The potter said, "Good, O king," and did so. Then 
one day she, coming out of the city, saw the Bodhisatta coming in, and 
falling at his feet, she said, lamenting: "Lord, the king in my youth 
considered me very serviceable and gave me great honour : [386] now that 
I am old, he has cut it all away and takes no thought of me ; I am unpro- 
tected and live by eating grass and leaves in the foi'est ; in this misery he 
has now given me to a potter to yoke in a cart ; except thee I have no 
refuge : thou knowest my services to the king ; restore me now the honour 
I have lost": and she spoke three stanzas : — 

I carried for the king of old : was he not satisfied 1 

With weapons at my breast I faced the fight with mighty stride. 

My feats in battle done of old does not the king forget. 
And such good services I did for couriers as are set 1 

Helpless and kinless now am I : surely my death is near, 
To serve a potter when I'm come as his dung-carrier. 

[387] The Bodhisattii, hearing her tale, comforted her, saying, "Grieve 
not, I will tell the king and restore thy honour " : so entering the city, he 
went to the king after his morning meal and took up the talk, saying, 
"Great king, did not a she-elephant, named so and so, enter battle at 
such and such places with weapons bound on her breast, and on such a 
day with a writing on her neck did she not go a hundred leagvies on a 
message? Thou gavest her great honour: where is she now ? " " I gave 
her to a potter for carrying dung." Then the Bodhisatta said, "Is it 
right, great king, for thee to give her to a potter to be yoked in a cart 1 " 
And for admonition he spoke four stanzas : — 

By selfish hopes men regulate the honours that they pay : 
As you the elephant, they throw the outworn slave away. 

Good deeds and services received whenever men forget. 

Ruin pursues the business still on which their hearts are set. 

Good deeds and services received if men do not forget, 
Success attends the business still on which their hearts are set. 

No. 409. 235 

To all the multitude around this blessed truth I tell : 

Be grateful all, and for reward you long in heaven shall dwell. 

[388] With this beginning the Bodhisatta gave instruction to all 
gathered there. Hearing this the king gave the old elephant her former 
houoiir, and established in tlie Bodhisatta's instruction gave alms and did 
works of merit and became destined for heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth: — "At that time the she- 
elephant was Bhaddavatika, the king Anauda, the minister was I myself." 

No. 410. 


'^ Deep in the wood" etc. — The Master told this while dwelling at Jetavana, 
about a certain old Brother. The story was that this Brothei- ordained a novice, 
who waited on him but soon died of a fatal disease. The old man went about 
weeping and wailing for his death. Seeing him, the Brethi-en began to talk in 
the Hall of Truth, "Sirs, this old Brother goes about weeping and wailing for the 
novice's death : he must surely have neglected the meditation on death." The 
Master came, and hearing the subject of their talk, he said, " Brethren, this is 
not the first time this man is weeping for the other's death," and so he told the 
old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was Sakka. A certain wealthy brahmin, living in Benares, 
left the world, and became an ascetic in the Himalaya, [389] living by 
picking up roots and fruits in the forest. One day, searching for wild 
fruits, he saw an elephant-calf, and took it to his hermitage : he made as 
if it were his own son, calling it Somadatta, and tended it with food of 
grass and leaves. The elephant grew up to be great : but one day he took 
much food and fell sick of a surfeit. The ascetic took him inside the 
hermitage, and went to get wild fruits : but before he came back the young 
elephant died. Coming back with his fniits, the ascetic thought, "On other 
days my child comes to meet me, but not to-day ; what is the matter with 
him 1 " So he lamented and spoke the first stanza : — 

Deep in the wood he'd meet me : but to-day 
No elephant I see : where does he stray ? 

236 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

With this lament, he saw the elephant lying at the end of the 
covered walk and takiiig him round the neck he spoke the second stanza 
in lamentation : — 

'Tis he that lies in death cut down as a tender shoot is shred ; 
Low on the ground he lies : alas, my elephant is dead. 

At the instant, Sakka, surveying the world, thought, " This ascetic left 
wife and child for religion, now he is lamenting the young elephant whom 
he called his son, I will rouse him and make him think," and so coming to 
the hermitage he stood in the air and spoke the third stanza :— 

[390] To sorrow for the dead doth ill become 

The lone ascetic, freed from ties of home. 

Hearing this, the ascetic spoke the fourth stanza : — 

Should man with beast consort, Sakka, grief 
For a lost playmate finds in tears relief. 

Sakka uttered two stanzas, admonishing him : — 

Such as to weep are fain may still lament the dead, 
Weep not, O sage, 'tis vain to weep, the wise have said. 

If by our tears we might prevail against the grave, 
Thus would we all unite our dearest ones to save. 

Hearing Sakka's words, the ascetic took thought and comfort, dried his 
tears, and uttered the remaining stanzas in praise of Sakka : — 

As ghee-fed flame that blazes out amain 

Is quenched with water, so he quenched my pain. 

With sorrow's shaft my heart was wounded sore : 
He healed my wound and did my life restore. 

[391] The barb extracted, full of joy and peace. 

At Sakka's words I from my sorrow cease. 

These were given above'. 

After admonishing the ascetic, Sakka went to his own place. 

The Master, after the lesson, identified the Birth : "At that time the young 
elephant was the novice, the ascetic the old Brother, Sakka was I myself" 

1 See supra, p. 214. 

No. 411. 237 

No. 411. 


"Heretofore the hairs," ei!(\— The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, about the Great Renunciation. The Brethren were sitting in the Hall 
of Truth, praising the Buddha's renunciation. The Master, finding that this 
was their topic, said, "Brethren, it is not strange that I should now make the 
Great Renunciation and retirement from the world, I who have for many hundred 
thousand ages exercised perfection : of old also 1 gave up the reign over the 
kingdom of Kasi, three hundred leagues in extent, and made the renunciation," 
and so he told the old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was conceived in the womb of his priest's chief wife. On the 
day of his birth, the king also had a son born. On the naming day they 
called the Great Being SusTma-Kumara, and the king's son Brahmadatta- 
Kumara. The king, seeing the two were born on the same day, had the 
Bodhisatta given to the nurse and brought up together with his own son. 
They both grew up fair, like sons of gods ; [392] they both learned all 
sciences at Takkasila and came home again. The prince became viceroy, 
eating, drinking, and living along with the Bodhisatta : at his father's 
death he became king, giving great honour to the Bodhisatta and making 
him his priest : one day he adorned the city, and decked like Sakka, king 
of gods, he went round the city in procession, seated on the shoulder of a 
royal elephant in his pride, equal to Eravana', with the Bodhisatta behind 
on the elephant's back. The queen-mother, looking out from the royal 
window to see her son, saw the priest behind him as he came back 
from the procession : she fell in love with him and entering her chamber 
thought, " If I cannot win him, I shall die here " : so she left her food and 
lay there. The king, not seeing her, asked after her : when he heard she 
was ill, he went to her, and asked with respect what ailed her. She would 
not tell for shame. He sat on the royal throne, and sent his own chief 
queen to find what ailed his mother. She went and asked, stroking the 
queen -mother's back. Women do not hide secrets from women : and the 
secret was told. The queen went and told the king. He said, " Well, go 
and comfort her : 1 will make the priest king, and make her his chief 
queen." She went and comforted her. The king sent for the priest 
and told him the matter, " Friend, save my mother's life : thou shalt be 

1 Sakka's elephant. 

238 The Jataka. Book VII. 

king, she thy chief queen, I viceroy." The priest said, " It cannot be " : 
but being asked again he consented : and the king made the priest king, 
the queen-mother chief queen, and himself viceroy. They lived all in 
harmony together, but the Bodhisatta pined amid a householder's life : he 
left desires and leaned to a religious life : careless of the pleasures of sense 
he stood and sat and lay alone, like a man bound in jail or a cock in a 
cage. [393] The chief queen thought, "The king avoids me, he stands 
and sits and lies alone; he is young and fresh, I am old and have grey hairs : 
what if I were to tell him a story that he has one grey hair, make him 
believe it and seek my company 1 " One day, as if cleaning the king's 
head, she said, " Your majesty is getting old, there is a grey hair on your 
head." "Pull it out and put it in my hand." She pulled a hair out, 
but threw it away and put into his hand one of her own grey hairs. 
When he saw it, fear of death made the sweat start from his forehead, 
though it was like a plate of gold. He admonished himself, saying, 
" Suslma, you have become old in your youth ; all this time sunk in the 
mud of desire, like a village pig wallowing in filth and mire, you cannot 
leave it : quit desires, and become an ascetic in the Himalaya : it is high 
time for the religious life," and with this thought, he uttered the first 
stanza : — 

Heretofore the hairs were dark 

Clustering about my brow ; 
White to-day : Suslma, mark ! 

Time for religion now ! 

So the Bodhisatta praised the religious life : but the queen saw she 
had caused him to leave her instead of loving her, and in fear, wishing 
to keep him from the religious life by praising his body, she uttered two 
stanzas : — 

[374] Mine, not thine, the silvered hair ; 

Mine the head from which it came : 
For thy good the lie I dare : 

One such fault forbear to blame ! 

Thou art young, and fair to see. 

Like a tender plant in spring ! 
Keep thy kingdom, smile on me ! 

Seek not now what age will bring ! 

But the Bodhisatta said, " Lady, you tell of what must come : as age 
ripens, these dark hairs must turn and become pale like betel : I see the 
change and breaking up of body that comes in years, in the ripening of 
age, to royal maids and all the rest, though they are tender as a wreath of 
blue lotus-flowers, fair as gold, and drunken with the pride of their glorious 
youth : such, lady, is the dreary end of living beings," and, moreover, 
showing the truth with the charm of a Buddha, he uttered two stanzas : — 

No. 411. 239 

[395] I have marked the youthful maid, 

Swaying Hke the tender stalk, 
Tn her pride of form arrayed ; 

Men are witched where'er she walk. 

'Tis the same one I have scanned 

(Eighty, ninety, years have passed). 
Quivering, palsied, staflf in hand, 

Bent like rafter-tree at last. 

In this stanza the Great Being showed the misery of beauty, and now 
declared his discontent with the householder's life : — 

[396] Such the thoughts I ponder o'er; 

Lonely nights the thoughts allow: 
Layman's life I love no more : 
Time for religion now ! 

Delight in layman's life is a weak stay : 
The "wise man cuts it off and goes his way. 
Renouncing joys of sense and all their sway. 

Thus declaring both the delight and misery of desires, he showed the 
truth with all a Buddha's charm, he sent for his friend and made him 
take the kingdom again : he left his majesty and power amid the loud 
lamentations of kinsmen and friends ; he became an ascetic sage in the 
Himalaya, and entering on the ecstasy of meditation, became destined for 
the world of Brahma. 

[397] After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, and giving the drink 
of ambrosia to many, he identified the Birth : " At that time the chief queen was 
the mother of Rahula, the king was Ananda, and king Susima was I myself." 

No. 412. 


"7 bore with me," etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning rebuke of sin. The incident leading to the tale will appear in the 
Paiiiia'^ Birth. On this occasion the Master, perceiving that five hundred Brethren 
were overcome by thoughts of desire in the House of the Golden Pavement, 

' Compare No. 370, supra. 
2 Not known. 

240 The Jataka. Book VII. 

gathered the assembly and said, " Brethren, it is right to distrust where distrust 
is proper ; sins surround a man as banyans and such plants grow up around a 
tree : in this way of old a spirit dwelling in the top of a cotton-tree saw a bird 
voiding the banyan seeds it had eaten among the branches of the cotton-tree, 
and became terrified lest her abode should thereby come to destruction :" and so 
he told a tale of old. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a tree-spirit dwelling in the top of a cotton-tree. A king 
of the rocs assumed a shape a hundred and fifty leagues in extent, and 
dividing the water in the great ocean by the blast of his wings, he seized 
by the tail a king of snakes a thousand fathoms long, and making the 
snake disgorge what he had seized in his mouth, he flew along the tree 
tops towards the cotton-tree. The snake-king thought, " I will make him 
drop me and let me go," so he stuck his hood into a banyan-tree and 
wound himself round it firmly. Owing to the roc-king's strength and the 
great size of the snake-king the banyan was uprooted. But the snake- 
king would not let go the banyan. The roc-king took the snake-king, 
banyan-tree and all, to the cotton-tree, laid him on the trunk, opened his 
belly [398] and ate the fat. Then he threw the rest of the carcase into 
the sea. Now in that banyan there was a certain bird, who flew up 
when the banyan was thrown away, and perched in one of the boughs high 
on the cotton-tree. The tree-spirit seeing the bird shook and trembled 
with fear, thinking, " This bird will let its droppings fall on my trunk : 
a growth of banyan or of fig will arise and go spreading all over my 
tree : so my home will be destroyed." The tree shook to the roots with 
the trembling of the spirit. The roc-king perceived the trembling, and 
spoke two stanzas in enquiry as to the reason : — 

1 bore with me the thousand fathoms length of that king-snake : 
His size and my huge bulk you bore and yet you did not quake. 

But now this tiny bird you bear, so small compared to me: 
You shake with fear and tremble; but wherefore, cotton-tree? 

Then the deity spoke four stanzas in explanation of the reason :— 

Flesh is thy food, king : the bird's is fruit : 
Seeds of the banyan and the fig he'll shoot 
And bo-tree too, and all my trunk pollute; 

Tliey will gi'ow trees in shelter of my stem. 
And I shall be no tree, thus hid l)y them. 

[399] Other trees, once strong of root and rich in branches, plainly show 
How the seeds that birds do carry in destruction lay them low. 

Parasitic growths will bury e'en the mighty forest tree : 
This is why, O king, I quiver when the fear to come I see. 

No. 412. 241 

Hearing the tree-spirit's words, the roc-king spoke the final stanza : — 

Fear is right if things are fearful : 'gainst the coming clanger guard : 
Wise men look on both worlds calmly if they present fears discard. 

So speaking, the roc-king by his power drove the bird away from that 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths, beginning with the words : 
" It is right to distrust where distrust is proper," and identified the Birth : — after 
the Truths [400] five hundi'ed Brethren were established in Sainthood : — "At 
that time Sariputta was the roc-king and I myself the tree-spirit." 

No. 413. 


" The righteous king" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning the Kosala king's favour to a stranger. At one time, 
the story goes, that king showed no favour to his old warriors who came to him 
in the usual way, but gave honour and hospitality to strangers coming for the 
first time. He went to fight in a distm'bed frontier province: but his old 
warriors would not fight, thinking that the new-comers who were in favour 
would do so; and the new-comers would not, thinking that the old warriors 
would. The rebels prevailed. The king, knowing that his defeat was owing to 
the mistake he had made in showing favour to new-comers, returned to Savatthi. 
He resolved to ask the Lord of Wisdom whether he was the only king who 
had ever been defeated for that reason : so after the morning meal he went to 
Jetavana and put the question to the Master. The Master answered, "Great 
King, yours is not the only case : former kings also were defeated by reason of 
the favour they showed to new-comers," and so, at the king's request, he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time in the city of Indapattana, in tbe kingdom of the 
Kvirus, a king was reigning named Dhanaiijaya, of the race of Yudhitthila. 
The Bodhisatta was boi-n in the house of his family priest. When he grew 
up, he learned all the arts at Takkasila. He returned to Indapattana, and 
at his father's death he became family priest to the king and his counsellor 
in things temporal and spiritual. His name was called Vidhurapandita. 

J. III. 16 

242 The Jataka. Book VII. 

King Dhanafljaya disregarded his old soldiers and showed favour to 
new-comers. He went to fight in a disturbed frontier province: but neither 
his old warriors nor the new-comers would fight, each thinking the other 
party would see to the matter. The king was defeated. On his return to 
Indapattana he reflected that his defeat was due to the favour he had shown 
to new-comers. [401] One day he thought, "Am I the only king who 
has ever been defeated through favour shown to new-comers, or have others 
had the same fate before? I will ask Vidhurapandita." So he put the 
question to Vidhurapandita when he came to the king's levee. 

The Master, declaring the reason of his question, spoke half a stanza : 

The righteous king Yudhitthila once asked Vidhura wise, 
"Brahmin, dost know in whose lone heart much bitter sorrow lies?" 

Hearing him, the Bodhisatta said, "Great king, your sorrow is but 
a trifling sorrow. Of old, a brahmin goatherd, named Dhumakari, 
took a great flock of goats, and making a pen in the forest kept them 
there: he had a smoking fire and lived on milk and the like, tending his 
goats. Seeing some deer of golden hue who had come, he felt a love for 
them, and disregarding his goats he paid the honour due to them to the 
deer. In the autumn the deer moved away to the Himalaya: his goats 
were dead and the deer gone from his sight : so for sorrow he took jaundice 
and died. He paid honour to new-comers and perished, having sorrow and 
misery a hundred, a thousand times more than you." Bx-inging forward 
this instance, he said, 

A brahmin with a flock of goats, of high Vasittha's race. 
Kept smoking fire by night and day in forest dwelling-place. 

Smelling the smoke, a herd of deer, by gnats sore pestered, come 
To find a dwelling for the rains near Dhumakari's home. 

The deer have all attention now; his goats receive no care. 
They come and go untended all, and so they perish there. 

[402] But now the gnats have left the wood, the autumn's clear of rain: 
The deer must seek the mountain-heights and river-springs again. 

The brahmin sees the deer are gone and all his goats are dead: 
Jaundice attacks him worn with grief, and all his colour's fled. 

So he who disregards his own, and calls a stranger dear. 
Like Dhumakari, mourns alone with many a bitter tear. 

Such was the tale told by the Great Being to console the king. The 
king was comforted and pleased, and gave him much wealth. From that 
time onward he showed favour to his own people, and doing deeds of 
charity and virtue, he became destined for heaven. 

No. 413. 243 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth: "At that time the Kuru 
king was Ananda, Dhumakari was Pasenadi, king of Kosala, and Vidhurapandita 
was myself." 

No. 414. 


[403] " Who is it that ivakes" etc. — The Master told this tale while dweUing 
in Jetavana, concerning a certain lay-brother. He was a disciple who had 
entered on the First Path. He set out by a forest road from Savatthi with 
a caravan of carts. At a certain pleasant watered spot the leader of the caravan 
unyoked five hundred carts, and arranging for food, both hard and soft, he took 
up his lodging there. The men lay down here and there to sleep. The lay-brother 
practised perambulation at the root of a tree near the leader of the caravan. 
Five hundred robbers planned to plunder the caravan : with various weapons in 
their hands they sm-rounded it and waited. Seeing the lay-brother at his walk 
they stood waiting to begin plundering when he should go to sleep. He went on 
walking all night. At dawn the robbers threw away the sticks and stones and 
other weapons they had picked up : they went away, saying, " Master Caravan- 
leader, you are owner of your property because you have got your life owing to 
that man who keeps awake so diligently : you should pay hoiiom- to him." The 
caravan-men rising betimes saw the stones and other things thrown away by 
the robbers and gave honour to the lay-brother, recognising that they owed their 
lives to him. The lay-brother went to his destination and did his business : 
then he returned to Savatthi and went on to Jetavana : there he saluted and 
did homage to the Tathagata and sat at his feet, and on his invitation to declare 
himself, he told the tale. The Master said, " Lay-brother, it is not you alone 
who have gained special merit by waking and watching, wise men of old did the 
same." And so at the lay-brother's request, he told an old story. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family. When he grew up he learned 
all the arts at Takkasila, and then returning lived as a householder. 
After a time he left his house and became an ascetic : soon he reached the 
Faculty of Meditation, and living in the Himalaya quarter in the standing 
and walking attitudes only, he walked all night without sleeping. [404] A 
spirit who lived in a tree at the end of his walk was pleased with him 
and spoke the first stanza, putting a question to him from a hole in the 
trunk : — 

Who is it that wakes when others sleep and sleeps while others wake? 
Who is it can read my riddle, who to this will answer make? 


244 The Jdtaka. Booh VII. 

The Bodhisatta, hearing the spirit's voice, spoke this stanza : — 

I am he who wakes while others sleep, and sleeps while others wake. 
I am he can read your riddle, I to you can answer make. 

The spirit put a question again in this stanza : — 

How is it you wake while others sleep, and sleep while others wake ? 
How is it you read my riddle, how this answer do you make? 

He explained the point : — 

Some men forget that virtue lies in stern sobriety, 
When such are sleeping I'm awake, O spirit of the tree. 

Passion and vice and ignorance in some have ceased to be : 
When such are waking then I sleep, O spirit of the tree. 

So it is I wake while others sleep, and sleep while others wake : 
So it is I read your riddle, so to you I answer make. 

[405] When the Great Being gave this answer, the spirit was pleased 
and spoke the last stanza in his praise : — 

Good it is you wake while others sleep, and sleep while others wake : 
Good your reading of my riddle, good the answer that you make. 

And so making the Bodhisatta's praises, the spirit entered its abode 
in the tree. 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth : " At that time, the tree- 
spirit was Uppalavanna, the ascetic was myself." 

No. 415. 


^^ Service done" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning queen Mallika. She was the daughter of the chief of the garland- 
makers of Savatthi, extremely beautiful and very good. When she was sixteen 
years of age, as she was going to a flower-garden with some other girls, she had 
three portions of sour gruel in a flower-basket. As she was leaving the town, 
she saw the Blessed One entei'ing it, diffusing radiance and surrounded by the 
assembly of the Brethren : and she brought him the three portions of gruel. 

1 Compare J<7fafca)Hr7/f7 No. 3, KafJi'ltmritudgarn No. xxvii 79. 

No. 415. 245 

The Master accepted, holding out his royal bowl. She saluted the Tathagata's 
feet with her head, and taking her joy as subject of ixieditation, stood on one side. 
Observing her the Master smiled. The Venerable Ananda wondered why the 
Tathagata smiled and asked him the question. The Master told him the reason, 
"Ananda, this girl will be to-day the chief queen of the Kosala king through 
the fruit of these portions of gruel." The girl went on to the flower-garden. 
[406] That very day the Kosala king fought with Ajatasattu and fled away in 
defeat. As he came on his horse he heard the sound of her singing, and being 
attracted by it he rode towards the garden. The girl's merit was ripe : so when 
she saw the king she came without running away, and seized at the bridle by 
the horse's nose. The king from horseback asked if she was married or no. 
Hearing that she was not, he dismounted, and being wearied with wind and sun 
rested for a little time in her lap : then he made her mount, and with a great 
army entered the town and brought her to her own house. At evening he 
sent a chariot and with great honour and pomp brought her from her house, set 
her on a heap of jewels, anointed her and made her chief queen. From that 
time onward she was the dear, beloved and devoted wife of the king, possessed of 
faithful serv^ants and the five feminine charms : and she was a favourite of the 
Buddhas. It became noised abroad through the whole city that she had attained 
such prosperity because she had given the three portions of gruel to the Master. 

One day they began a discussion in the Hall of Truth : "Sirs, queen Mallika 
gave three portions of gruel to the Buddhas, and as the fruit of that, on the very 
same day she was anointed queen : great indeed is the virtue of Buddhas." The 
Master came, asked and was told the subject of the Brethren's talk : he said, "It 
is not strange. Brethren, that Mallika has become chief queen of the Kosala king 
by giving three portions of gruel to the omniscient Buddha alone : for why 1 It 
is because of the great virtue of Buddhas : wise men of old gave gruel without 
salt or oil to paccekabuddhas, and owing to that attained in their next birth 
the glory of being kings in Kasi, three hundred leagues in extent " : and so he 
told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a poor family ; when he grew up he made a 
living by working for wages with a certain rich man. One day he got 
four portions of sour gruel from a shop, thinking, " This will do for my 
breakfast," and so went on to his farming- work. Seeing four pacceka- 
buddhas coming towards Benares to collect alms, he thought, "I have 
these four portions of gruel, [407] what if I were to give them to these 
men who are coming to Benares for alms ? " So he came up and salut- 
ing them said, " Sirs, I have these four portions of gruel in hand : I 
offer them to you : pray accept them, good sirs, and so I shall gain 
merit to my lasting good and welfare." Seeing that they accepted, he 
spread sand and arranged four seats and strewed broken branches on 
them : then he set the paccekabuddhas in order ; bringing water in a 
leaf -basket, he poured the water of donation, and then set the four portions 
of gruel in four bowls with salutation and the words, "Sirs, in consequence 
of these may I not be born in a poor family ; may this be the cause of my 
attaining omniscience." The paccekabuddhas ate and then gave thanks 
and departed to the Nandamula cave. The Bodhisatta, as he saluted, felt 
the joy of association with paccekabuddhas, and after they had departed 

246 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

from his sight and he had gone to his work, he remembered them always 
till his death : as the fruit of this, he was born in the womb of the chief 
queen of Benares. His name was called prince Brahmadatta. From the 
time of his being able to walk alone, he saw clearly by the power of recol- 
lecting all that he had done in former births, like the reflexion of his own 
face in a clear mirror, that he was now born in that state because he had 
given four portions of gruel to the paccekabuddhas when he was a servant 
and going to work in that same city. When he gi-ew up he learned all the 
arts at Takkasila : on his return his father was pleased with the accomplish- 
ments he displayed, and appointed him viceroy: afterwards, on his father's 
death, he was established in the kingdom. Then he married the exceed- 
ingly beautiful daughter of the Kosala king, and made her his chief queen. 
On the day of his parasol-festival they decorated the whole city as if it 
were a city of the gods. He went round the city in procession; [408] then 
he ascended the palace, which was decorated, and on the dais mounted a 
throne with the white parasol erected on it ; sitting there he looked down 
on all those that stood in attendance, on one side the ministers, on another 
the brahmins and householders resplendent in the beauty of varied apparel, 
on another the townspeople with various gifts in their hands, on another 
troojis of dancing-girls to the number of sixteen thousand like a gathering 
of the nymphs of heaven in full apparel. Looking on all this entrancing 
splendour he remembered his former estate and thought, " This white 
parasol with golden garland and plinth of massive gold, these many thou- 
sand elephants and chariots, my great territory full of jewels and pearls, 
teeming with wealth and grain of all kinds, these women like the nymphs 
of heaven, and all this splendour, which is mine alone, is due only to an 
alms-gift of four portions of gruel given to four paccekabuddhas : I have 
gained all this through them " : and so remembering the excellence of the 
paccekabuddhas he plainly declared his own former action of merit. As 
he thought of it his whole body was filled with delight. Delight melted 
his heart and amid the multitude he uttered two stanzas of joyous song : — 

Service done to Buddhas high 

Ne'er, they say, is reckoned cheap : 
Alms of gruel, saltless, dry, 

Bring me this reward to reap. 

Elephant and horse and kine. 

Gold and corn and all the land. 
Troops of girls with form divine : 

Alms have brought them to my hand. 

[409] So the Bodhisatta in his joy and delight on the day of his 
parasol-ceremony sang the song of joy in two stanzas. From that time 
onwax'd they were called the king's favourite song, and all sung them — the 
Bodhisatta's dancing girls, his other dancers and musicians, his people in 
the palace, the townsfolk and those in ministerial circles. 

No. 415. 247 

[410] After a long time had passed, the chief queen became anxious 
to know the meaning of the song, but she durst not ask the Great Being. 
One day the king was pleased with some quality of hers and said, " Lady, 
I will give you a boon; accept a boon." "It is well, O king, I accept." 
" What shall I give you, elephants, horses or the like 1" " O king, 
through your grace I lack nothing, I have no need of such thiugs : but if 
you wish to give me a boon, give it by telling me the meaning of your 
song." "Lady, what need have you of that boon? Accept something else." 
" O king, I have no need of anything else : it is that I will accept." 
" Well, lady, I will tell it, but not as a secret to you alone : I will send 
a drum round the whole twelve leagues of Benares, I will make a 
jewelled pavilion at my palace-door and arrange there a jewelled throne: 
on it I will sit amidst ministers, brahmins and other people of the city, 
and the sixteen thousand women, and there tell the tale." She agreed. 
The king had all done as he said, and then sat on the throne amidst a great 
multitude, like Sakka amidst the company of the gods. The queen too 
with all her ornaments set a golden chair of ceremony and sat in an 
appropriate place on one side, and looking with a side glance she said, 
"O king, tell and explain to me, as if causing the moon to arise in the sky, 
the meaning of the song of joy you sang in your delight"; and so she 
spoke the thii'd stanza : — 

Glorious and righteous king, 
Many a time the song you sing. 
In exceeding joy of heart : 
Pray to me the cause impart. 

[411] The Great Being declaring the meaning of the song spoke four 
stanzas : — 

This the city, but the station different, in my previous birth : 
Servant was I to another, hireling, but of honest worth. 

Going from the town to labour four ascetics once I saw. 
Passionless and calm in bearing, perfect in the moral law. 

All my thoughts went to those Buddhas : as they sat beneath the tree. 
With my hands I brought them gruel, offering of piety. 

Such the virtuous deed of merit : lo ! the fruit I reap to-day — 
All the kingly state and riches, all the land beneath my sway. 

[412] When she heard the Great Being thus fully explaining the fruit 
of his action, the queen said joyfully, " Great king, if you discern so visibly 
the fruits of charitable giving, from this day forward take a portion of rice 
and do not eat yourself until you have given it to righteous priests and 
brahmins " ; and she spoke a stanza in praise of the Bodhisatta : — 

Eat, due alms remembering. 

Set the wheel of right to roll : 
Flee injustice, mighty king. 

Righteously thy realm control. 

248 The Jdtaha. Book VII. 

The Great Being, accepting what she said, spoke a stanza : — 

Still I make that road my own 

Walking in the path of right, 
Where the good, fair queen, have gone : 

Saints are pleasant to my sight. 

[413] After saying this, Le looked at the queen's beauty and said, 
" Fair lady, I have told fully my good deeds done in former time, but 
amongst all these ladies there is none like you in beauty or charming 
grace : by what deed did you attain this beauty ? " And he spoke a 
stanza : — 

Lady, like a nymph of heaven. 

You the crowd of maids outshine: 
For what gracious deed was given 

Meed of beauty so divine? 

Then she told the virtuous deed done in her foi'mer birth, and spoke the 
last two stanzas: — 

I was once a handmaid's slave 

At Ambattha's royal court. 
To modesty my heart I gave. 
To virtue and to good report. 

In a begging Brother's bowl 

Once an alms of rice I put; 
Charity had filled my soul : 

Such the deed, and lo ! the fruit. 

She too, it is said, spoke with accurate knowledge and remembrance of 
past births. 

[414] So both fully declared their past deeds, and from that day they 
had six halls of charity built, at the four gates, in the centre of the city 
and at the palace-door, and stirring up all India they gave great gifts, 
kept the moral duties and the holy days, and at the end of their lives 
became destined for heaven. 

At the end of the lesson, the Master identified the birth : " At that time the 
queen was the mother of Rahula, and the king was myself.' 

No. 416. 249 

No. 416. 


" Terror and fear,'' etc. — The Master told this while dwelling in the Bamboo- 
grove, concerning Devadatta's going about to kill him. They were discussing it 
in the Hall of Truth, " Sirs, Devadatta [415] is going about to kill the Tathagata, 
he has hired bowmen, thrown down a rock, let loose Nfilagiri, and uses special 
means for the destruction of the Tathagata." The IMaster came and asked the 
subject of their discussion as they sat together: when they told him, he said, 
" Brethren, this is not the first time he has gone about to kill me : but he 
could not even make nie afraid, and gained only sorrow for himself : " and so 
he told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time when Bi-ahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as the son of his chief queen. When he grew up, 
he learned all the arts at Takkasila, and acquired a spell for the under- 
standing of all animals' cries. After listening duly to his teacher, he 
returned to Benares. His father appointed him viceroy : but though he 
did so, he became anxious to kill him and would not even see him. 

A she-jackal with two cubs entered the city at night by a sewer, when 
men were retired to rest. In the Bodhisatta's palace, near his bed-room, 
there was a chamber, where a single traveller, who had taken his shoes off 
and put them by his feet on the floor, was lying down, not yet asleep, on 
a plank. The jackal-cubs were hungry and gave a cry. Their mother 
said in the speech of jackals, " Do not make a noise, dears : there is a man 
in that chamber who has taken his shoes off and laid them on the floor : 
he is lying on a plank, but is not asleep yet : when he falls asleep, I will 
take his shoes and give you food." By the power of the sjiell the 
Bodhisatta understood her call, and leaving his bedroom he opened a 
window and said, " Who is there 1 " " I, your majesty, a traveller," 
"Where are your shoes'?" "On the floor." " Lift them and hang them 
up." Hearing this the jackal was angry with the Bodhisatta. One day she 
entered the city again by the same way. That day a drunken man [416] 
went down to drink in a lotus-tank : falling in, he sank and was drowned. 
He possessed the two garments he was wearing, a thousand pieces in his 
under-garment, and a ring on his finger. The jackal-cubs cried out for 
hunger, and the mother said, '* Be quiet, dears : there is a dead man in this 
lotus-tank, he had such and such property : he is lying dead on the tank- 
stair, I will give you his flesh to eat." The Bodhisatta, hearing her, 
opened the window and said, "Who is in the chamber?" One rose and 

250 The Jataka. Book VII. 

said, "I." "Go and take the clothes, the thousand pieces and the ring 
from the man who is lying dead in yonder lotus-tank, and make the body 
sink so that it cannot rise out of the water." The man did so. The jackal 
was angry again: "The other day you prevented my children eating the 
shoes ; to-day you prevent them eating the dead man. Very well : on the 
third day from this a hostile king will come and encompass the city, your 
father will send you to battle, they will cut off your head : I will drink 
your throat's blood and satisfy my enmity : you make yourself an enemy of 
mine and I will see to it : " so she cried abusing the Bodhisatta. Then 
she took her cubs and went away. On the third day the hostile king 
came and encompassed the city. The king said to the Bodhisatta, " Go, 
dear son, and fight him." " O king, I have seen a vision : I cannot 
go, for I fear I shall lose my life." " What is your life or death to me ? 
Go." The Great Being obeyed : taking his men he avoided the gate where 
the hostile king was posted, and went out l)y another which he had opened. 
As he Avent the whole city became as it were deserted, for all men went 
out with him. He encamped in a cei'tain open space and waited. The 
king thought, " My viceroy has emptied the city and fled with all my 
forces: the enemy is lying all round the city: [417] I am but a dead 
man." To save his life he took his chief queen, his family priest, and a 
single attendant named Parantapa : with them he fled in disguise by 
night and entered a wood. Hearing of his flight, the Bodhisatta entered 
the city, defeated the hostile king in battle and took the kingdom. His 
father made a hut of leaves on a river bank and lived there on wild fruits. 
He and the family priest used to go looking for wild fruits : the servant 
Parantapa stayed with the queen in the hvit. She was with child by the 
king: bnt owing to being constantly with Parantapa, she sinned with him. 
One day she said to him, " If the king knows, neither you nor I would 
live: kill him." "In what way?" "He makes you carry his sword and 
bathing-dress when he goes to bathe : take him ofi" his guard at the 
bathing-place, cut off his head and chop his body to pieces with the sword 
and then bury him in the ground." He agreed. One day the priest 
had gone out for wild fruits : he had climbed a tree near the king's 
bathing-place and was gathering the fruit. The king wished to bathe, and 
came to the water-side with Parantapa carrying his sword and bathing- 
dress. As he was going to bathe, Parantapa, meaning to kill him when off 
his guard, seized him by the neck and raised the sword. The king cried 
out in fear of death. The priest heard the cry and saw from above that 
Parantapa was murdering him : but he was in great terror and slipping 
down from his branch in the tree, he hid in a thicket. Parantapa heard 
the noise he made as he slipped down, and after killing and burying the 
king he thought, " There was a noise of slipping from a branch there- 
abouts ; who is there ] " But seeing no man he bathed and went away. 

No. 416. 251 

Then the priest came out of his hiding-place; [418] knowing that the 
king had been cut in pieces and buried in a pit, he bathed and in fear 
of his life he pretended to be blind when he came back to the hut. 
Parantapa saw him and asked what had happened to hira. He feigned not 
to know him and said, " O king, I am come back with my eyes lost : I 
was standing by an ant-hill in a wood full of serpents, and the breath of 
some venomous serpent must have fallen on me." Parantapa thought the 
priest was addressing him as king in ignorance, and to put his mind at rest 
he said, " Brahmin, never mind, I will take care of you," and so comforted 
him and gave him plenty of wild fruits. From that time it was Parantapa 
who gathered the fruits. The queen bore a son. As he was growing up, 
she said to Parantapa one day at early morning when seated comfortably, 
" Some one saw you when you were killing the king 'i " " ISTo one saw me : 
but I heard the noise of something slipping from a bough : whether it was 
man or beast I cannot tell : but whenever fear comes on me it must 
be from the cause of the boughs creaking," and so in conversation with her 
he spoke the first stanza : — 

Terror and fear fall on me even now, 

For then a man or beast did shake a bough. 

They thought the priest was asleep, but he was awake and heard their 
talk. One day, when Parantapa had gone for wild fruits, the priest 
remembered his brahmin-wife and spoke the second stanza in lamentation : — 

[419] My true wife's home is near at hand : my love will make me be 
Pale like Parantapa and thin, at quivering of a tree. 

The queen asked what he was saying. He said, "I was only thinking:" 
but one day again he spoke the third stanza : — 

My dear wife's in Benares: her absence wears me now 
To pallor like Parantapa's at shaking of a bough. 

Again one day he spoke a fourth stanza : — 

Her black eye's glow, her speech and smiles in thought do bring me now 
To pallor like Parantapa's at shaking of a bough. 

In time the young prince grew up and reached the age of sixteen. 
Then the brahmin made him take a stick, and going with him to the 
bathing-place opened his eyes and looked. [420] "Are you not blind, 
brahmin 1 " said the prince. " I am not, but by this means I have saved 
my life: do you know who is your father?" "Yes." "That man is not 
your father : your father was king of Benares : that man is a servant of 
your house, he sinned with your mother and in this spot killed and bui-ied 
your father " ; and so saying he pulled up the bones and showed them to 
him. The prince grew very angry, and asked, "What am I to do?" "Do 
to that man what he did to your father here," and showing him the 

252 The Jdtaka. Book VII. 

whole matter he taught him in a few days how to handle a sword. Then 
one day the prince took sword and bathing-dress and said, " Father, let us 
go and bathe." Parantapa consented and went with him. When he 
went down into the water, the prince took his top-knot in the left hand 
and the sword in the right, and said, "At this spot you took my father by 
the top-knot and killed him as he cried out: even so will 1 do to you." 
Parantapa wailed in fear of death and spoke two stanzas : — 

Surely that soimd has come to you and told you what befel : 
Surely the man who bent the bough has come the tale to tell. 

The foolish thought that once 1 had has reached your knowledge now: 
That day a witness, man or beast, was there and shook the bough. 

Then the prince spoke the last stanza : — 

'Twas thus you slew my father with trait'rous word, untrue ; 
You hid his body in the boughs : now fear has come to you. 

[421] So saying, he slew him on the spot, buried hhn and covered the 
place with branches : then washing the sword and bathing, he went back 
to the hut of leaves. He told the priest how he had killed Parantapa : he 
censured his mother, and saying, "What shall we do now?" the three 
went back to Benares. The Bodhisatta made the young prince viceroy 
and doing charity and other good works passed fully through the path to 

After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth : " At that time Devadatta 
was the old king, I myself was the young one." 

No. 417. 


[422] "Robed in ivhite," etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling at 
Jetavana, concerning a man who supported his mother. The story is that 
the man was of good family and conduct in Savatthi : on his father's death 
he became devoted to his mother and tended her with the services of mouth- 
washing, teeth-cleansing, bathing, feet-washing and the like, and also by giving 
her gruel, rice and other food. She said to him, "Dear son, there are other 
duties in a householder's life : you must marry a maid of a suitable family, who 
will attend to me, and then you can do your proper work." " Mother, it is for 
my own good and pleasure that I wait on you : who else would wait on you so 
well ? " " Son, you ought to do something to advance the fortune of our house." 
" I have no care for a householder's life ; I will wait on you, and after you are 
dead and burned I will become an ascetic." She pres.sed him again and again : 
and at last, without winning him over or gaining his consent, she brought him a 
maid of a suitable family. He married and lived with her, because he would not 
oppose his mother. She observed the great attention with which her husband 
waited on his mother, and desirous of imitating it she too waited on her with 
care. Noticing his wife's devotion, he gave her thenceforth all the pleasant food 
he could get. As time went on she foolishly thought in her pride, " He gives 
me all the pleasant food he gets : he must be anxious to get rid [423] of his 
mother and I will find some means for doing so." So one day she said 
" Husband, your mother scolds me when you leave the house." He said nothino-. 
She thought, " I will irritate the old woman and make her disagreeable to her 
son" : and thenceforth she gave her rice-gruel either very hot or very cold or very 
salt or saltless. When the old woman complained that it was too hot or too salt 
she threw in cold water enough to fill the dish : and then on complaints of its 
being cold and saltless, she would make a great outcry, "Just now you said it was 
too hot and too salt : who can satisfy you ? " So at the bath she would throw 
very hot water on the old woman's back : when she said, " Daughter, my back is 
burning," the other would throw some very cold water on her, and on complaints 
of this, she would make a story to the neighbours, " This woman said just now 
it was too hot, now she screams 'it is too cold' : who can endure her impudence T' 
If the old woman complained that her bed was full of fleas, she would take the 
bed out and shake her own bed over it and then bring it back declaring " I've 
given it a shake": the good old lady, having twice as many fleas biting her 

1 See Morris, Folk-lore Journal, ii. p. 306. 

254 The Jataka. Booh VIII. 

now, would spend the night sitting up and complain of being bitten all night ; 
the other would retort, "Your bed was shaken yesterday and the day before 
too : who can satisfy all such a woman's needs ? " To set the old woman's son 
against her, she would scatter phlegm and mucus and grey hairs here and there, 
and when he asked who was making the whole house so dirty, she would say, 
" Your mother does it ; but if she is told not to do so, she makes an outcry : I 
can't stay in the same house with such an old witch : you must decide whether 
she stays or I." He hearkened to her and said, " Wife, you are yet young and 
can get a living wherever you go : but my mother is weak and I am her stay : 
go and depart to your own kin." When she heard this, she was afraid and 
thought, " He cannot break with his mother who is so very dear to him : but if I 
go to my old home, I shall have a miserable life of separation : I will conciliate 
my mother-in-law and tend her as of old " : [424] and thenceforth she did so. 
One day that lay brother went to Jetavana to hear the law : saluting the 
Master he stood on one side. The Master asked him if he were not careless of 
his old duties, if he were dutiful in tending his mother. He answered, " Yes, 
Lord : my mother brought me a maid to wife against my will, she did such and 
such unseemly things," telling him all, " but the woman could not make me break 
with my mother, and now she tends her with all respect." The Master heard 
the story and said, " This time you would not do her bidding : but formerly you 
cast out your mother at her bidding and owing to me took her back again to your 
house and tended her " : and at the man's request he told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, a 
young man of a certain family on his father's death devoted himself to 
his mother and tended her as in the introductory story : the details are to 
be given in full as above. But in this case, when his wife said she could 
not live with the old witch and he must decide which of them should go, 
he took her word that his mother was in fault and said, *' Mother, you are 
always raising strife in the house : henceforth go and live in some other 
place, where you choose." She obeyed, weeping, and going to a certain 
friend's house, she worked for wages and with difficulty made a living. 
After she left, her daughter-in-law conceived a child, and went about 
saying to her husband and the neighbours that such a thing could never 
have happened as long as the old witch was in the house. After the child 
was born, she said to her husband, " I never had a son while your mother 
stayed in the house, but now I have : so you can see what a witch she 
was." The old woman heai'd that the son's birth was thought to be due to 
her leaving the house, and she thought, " Surely Right must be dead in 
the world : [425] if it were not so, these people would not have got a son 
and a comfortable life after beating and casting out their mother : I will 
make an offering for the dead Right." So one day she took ground 
sesame and rice and a little pot and a spoon : she went to a cemetery of 
corpses and kindled a fire under an oven made with three human skulls : 
then she went down into the water, bathed herself head and all, washed 
her garment and coming back to her fireplace, she loosened her hair and 
began to wash the rice. 

No. 417. 255 

The Bodhisatta was at that time Sakka, king of heaven ; and the 
Bodhisattas are vigilant. At the instant he saw, in his survey of the 
world, that the poor old woman was making a death-offering to Right as 
if Right were dead. Wishing to shew his power in helping her, he came 
down disguised as a brahmin "travelling on the high road: at sight of 
her he left the road and standing near her, began a convei-sation by 
saying, " Mother, people do not cook food in cemeteries : what are you 
going to do with this sesame and rice when cooked 1 " So he spoke the 
first stanza : — 

Robed in white, with dripping hair, 

Why, Kaccani i, boil the pot ? 
Washing rice and sesame there, 

AVill you use them when they're hot ? 

She spoke the second stanza to give him information : — 

Brahmin, not for food will I 

Use the sesame and the rice : 
Right is dead; its memory 

I would crown with sacrifice. 

[426] Then Sakka spoke the third stanza : — 

Lady, think ere you decide : 

Who has told you such a lie ? 
Strong in might and thousand-eyed 

Perfect Right can never die. 

Hearing him, the woman spoke two stanzas : — 

Brahmin, I have witness strong, 

' Right is dead ' I must believe : 
All men now who follow wrong 

Great prosperity receive. 

Barren once, my good son's spouse 

Beats me, and she bears a son : 
She is lady of our house, 

I an outcast and undone. 

Then Sakka spoke the sixth stanza : — 

2 Nay, I live eternally ; 

'Twas for your sake that I came : 
She beat you ; but her son and she 

Shall be ashes in my flame. 

.[427] Hearing him, she cried, "Alas, what say you? I will try to 
save my grandson from death," and so she spoke the seventh stanza : — 

King of gods, your will be done : 

If for me you left the sky. 
May my children and their son 

Live with me in amity. 

^ She is called Kiltiyani iu the eighth stanza. 
^ Sakka identifies himself with Right. 

256 The Jataha. Booh VIII. 

Then Sakka spoke the eighth stanza : — 

Katiyani's will be done : 

Beaten, you still on Eight rely ; 
With yovir children and their son 

Share one home in amity. 

After saying this, Sakka, now in all his divine apparel, stood in the 
air by his supernatural power and said, " Kaccaui, be not afraid : by my 
power your son and daughter-in-law will come, and after getting your 
forgiveness on the way will take you back with them : dwell with them 
in peace:" then he went to his own place. By Sakka's power they 
bethought themselves of her goodness, and making enquiry through the 
village they found she had gone towards the cemetery. They went along 
the road calling for her : when they saw her they fell at her feet, and 
asked and obtained her pardon for their offence. She welcomed her 
grandson. So they all went home in delight and thenceforth dwelt 

Joyful with her good son's wife 

Katiyani then did dwell : 
Indra pacified their strife, 

Son and grandson tend her well. 

This stanza is inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

[428] After the lesson the Master declared the Truths and identified the 
Birth : after the Truths that lay brother was established in the fruition of the 
First Path : — " At that time the man who supported his mother was the man 
who is supporting his mother to-day, the wife of that time was the wife of to- 
day, and Sakka was myself." 

No. 418. 


"J pool so deep," e^c— The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning an indistinguishable terrific sound heard at midnight by the king of 
Kosala. The occasion is like that already described in the Lohakumbhl Births 
At this time however, when the king said, " Lord, what does the hearing of these 
sounds import to me ? " the IVIaster answered, " Great king, be not afraid : no 
danger shall befal you owing to these sounds : such terrible indistinguishable 

See supra, p. 29. 

No. 418. 257 

sounds have not been heard by you alone : kings of old also heard like sounds, 
and meant to follow the advice of brahmins to offer in sacrifice four animals of 
each species, but after hearing what wise men had to say, they set free the 
animals collected for sacrifice and caused proclamation by drum against all 
slaughter " : and at the king's request, he told the old tale. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a brahmin family worth eighty crores. When he 
grew up he learned the arts at Takkasilil. After his parents' death he 
reviewed all their treasures, got rid of all his wealth by way of charity, 
forsook desires, went to the Himalaya and became an ascetic and 
entered on mystic meditation. After a time he came to the haunts of 
men for salt and vinegar, and reaching Benares dwelt in a garden. At 
that time the king of Benares when seated on his royal bed at midnight 
heard eight sounds : — first, a crane made a noise in a garden near the 
palace ; second, immediately after the crane, a female crow made a noise 
from the gateway of the elephant-house ; [429] third, an insect settled on 
the peak of the palace made a noise ; fourth, a tame cuckoo in the palace 
made a noise ; fifth, a tame deer in the same place ; sixth, a tame monkey 
there ; seventh, a gnome living in the palace ; eighth, immediately after 
the last, a paccekabuddha, passing along the roof of the king's habitation 
to the garden, uttered a sound of ecstatic feeling. The king was terrified 
at hearing these eight sounds, and next day consulted the brahmins. The 
brahmins said, " Great king, there is danger for you : let us oflfer sacrifice 
out of the palace ; " and getting his leave to do their pleasure, they came 
in joy and delight and began the work of sacrifice. Now a young pupil 
of the oldest sacrificial bi'ahmin was wise and learned : he said to his 
master, " Master, do not cause such a harsh and cruel slaughter of so 
many creatures." "Pupil, what do you know about it? even if nothing 
else happens, we shall get much fish and flesh to eat." "Master, do not, 
for the belly's sake, an action which will cause rebirth in hell." Hearing 
this, the other brahmins were angry with the pupil for endangering their 
gains. The pupil in fear said, " Very well, devise a means then of getting 
fish and flesh to eat," and left the city looking for some pious ascetic able 
to prevent the king from sacrificing. He entered the royal garden and 
seeing the Bodhisatta, he saluted him and said, " Have you no compassion 
on creatures 1 The king has ordered a sacrifice which will bring death on 
many creatures : ought you not to bring about the release of such a 
multitude ? " " Young brahmin, I do not know the king of this land, nor 
he me." " Sir, do you know what will be the consequence of those sounds 
the king heard?" "I do." "If you know, [430] why do you not tell 
the king?" "Young brahmin, how can I go with a horn fastened' on my 

1 As an emblem of pride, as in the Bible. 

J. III. 17 

258 The Jdtaka. Book VIII. 

forehead to say, ' I know ? ' If the king comes here to question me, I will 
tell him." The young brahmin went swiftly to the king's court, and when 
he was asked his business, he said, " Great king, a certain ascetic knows 
the issue of those sounds you heard : he is sitting on the royal seat in your 
garden, and says he will tell you if you ask him : you should do so." The 
king went swiftly, saluted the ascetic, and after friendly greeting he sat 
down and asked, "Is it true that you know the issue of the sounds I 
have heard?" "Yes, great king." "Then pray tell me." "Great king, 
there is no danger connected with those sounds : there is a certain crane in 
your old garden ; it was without food, and half dead with hunger made the 
first sound : " and so by his knowledge giving precisely the crane's meaning 
he littered the first stanza : — 

A pool so deep and full of fish they called this place of yore. 

The crane-king's residence it was, my ancestors' before : 

And though we live on frogs to-day, we never leave its shore. 

" That, great king, was the sound the crane made in the pangs of 
hunger : if you wish to set it free from hunger, have the garden cleaned 
and fill the tank with water." The king told a minister to have this done. 
" Great king, there is a female crow who lives in the doorway of your 
elephant house : she made the second sound, grieving for her son : you 
need have no fear from it," and so he uttered the second stanza : — 

Oh ! who of wicked Bandhura ? the single eye will rend 

My nest, my nestlings and myself oh ! who will now befriend ? 

[431] Then he asked the king for the name of the chief groom in the 
elephant-house. "His name, sir, is Bandhura." "Has he only one eye, 
O king?" "Yes, sir." "Great king, a certain crow has built her nest 
over the doorway of your elephant-house ; there she laid her eggs, there 
her young in due time were hatched : every time the groom enters or 
leaves the stable on his elephant, he strikes with his hook at the crow and 
her nestlings, and destroys the nest : the crow in this distress wishes to 
tear his eye and spoke as she did. If you are well-disposed to her, send 
for Bandhura and prevent him from destroying the nest." The king sent 
for him, I'ebuked and removed him, and gave the elephant to another. 

" On the peak of your palace-roof, great king, there is a wood-insect ; 
it had eaten all the fig-wood there and could not eat the harder wood : 
lacking food and unable to get away, it made the third sound in lamenta- 
tion : you need have no fear from it : " and so by his knowledge giving 
precisely the insect's meaning he spoke the third stanza : — 

I've eaten all the fig-wood round as far as it would go : 
Hard wood a weevil liketh not, though other food runs low. 

The king sent a servant and by some means had the weevil set free. 

No. 418. 259 

"In your habitation, great king, is there a certain tame cuckoo]" 
"There is, sir." "Great king, that cuckoo was pining for the forest when 
it remembered its former life, ' How can I leave this cage, and go to my 
dear forest 1 ' and so made the fourth sound : you need have no fear from 
it : " and so he spoke the fourth stanza : — 

[432] Oh to leave this royal dwelling ! oh to gain my liberty, 

Glad at heart to roam the wood, and build my nest upon the tree. 

So saying, he added, " The cuckoo is pining, great king, set her fi^ee." The 
king did so. 

"Great king, is there a tame deer in your habitation?" "There is, 
sir." "He was chief of the herd: remembering his hind and pining for 
love of her he made the fifth sound : you need have no fear from it : " and 
he spoke the fifth stanza : — 

Oh to leave this royal dwelling ! oh to gain my liberty, 

Drink pure water of the fountain, lead the herd that followed me ! 

The Great Being caused this deer too to be set free and went on, " Great 
king, is there a tame monkey in your habitation'?" "There is, six*." 
" He was chief of a herd in the Himalaya, and he was fond of the society 
of female monkeys : he was brought here by a hunter named Bharata : 
pining and longing for his old haunts he made the sixth sound : you need 
have no fear from it," and he spoke the sixth stanza : — 

Filled and stained was I with passions, with desire infatuate, 
Bharata the hunter took me ; may I bring you happy fate ! 

The Great Being caused the monkey too to be set free, and went on, 
" Great king, is there a gnome living in your habitation 1 " " There is, 
sir." " He is thinking of what he did with his sylph [433] and in the pain 
of desire made the seventh sound. One day he had climbed the peak of a 
high mountain with her : they plucked and decked themselves with many 
flowers of choice hue and scent, and never noticed that the sun was set- 
ting ; darkness fell as they were descending. The sylph said, ' Husband, 
it is dark, come down carefully without stumbling,' and taking him by 
the hand, she led him down. It was in memory of her words that he 
made the sound : you need have no fear from it." By his knowledge he 
stated and made known the circumstance precisely, and spoke the seventh 
stanza : — 

When the darkness gathered thickly on the mountain summit lone, 
' Stumble not,' she gently warned me, ' with thy foot against a stone.' 

So the Great Being explained why the gnome had made the sound, and 
caused him to be set free, and went on, " Great king, there was an eighth 
sound, one of ecstasy. A certain paccekabuddha in the Nandamula cave 
knowing that the conditions of life were now at an end for him came to 


260 Tlie Jataha. Booh VIII. 

the abode of man, thinking, ' I will enter into Nirvana in the king of 
Benares' park : his servants will bury me, and hold sacred festival and 
venerate my relics and so attain heaven : ' he was coming by his super- 
natural power and just as he reached your palace-roof, he threw off the 
burden of life and sung in ecstasy the song that lights up the entrance 
into the city of Nirvana : " and so he spoke the stanza uttered by the pac- 
cekabuddha : 

[434] Surely I see the end of birth, 

I ne'er again the womb shall see : 
My last existence on the earth 
Is o'er, and all its misery. 

"With these words of ecstasy he reached your park and passed into 
Nirvana at the foot of a s41-tree in full flower: come, great king, and 
perform his funeral rites." So the Great Being took the king to the place 
where the paccekabuddha entered into Nirvana and shewed him the body. 
Seeing the body, the king with a great army paid honour with perfumes 
and flowers and the like. By the Bodhisatta's advice he stopped the 
sacrifice, gave all the creatures their lives, made proclamation by drum 
through the city that there should be no slaughter, caused sacred festival 
to be held for seven days, had the paccekabuddha's body burnt with great 
honour on a pyre heaped with perfumes and made a stupa where four 
high roads meet. The Bodhisatta preached righteousness to the king and 
exhorted him to diligence : then he went to the Himalaya and there 
did works in the Perfect States, and without a break in his meditations 
became destined for the Brahma Heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master said, " Great king, there is no danger at all to 
you from that sound, stop the sacrifice and give all these creatures their lives " : 
and having caused proclamation to be made by drum that their lives were 
spared, he identified the Birth : " At that time the king was Ananda, the pupil 
was Sariputta, and the ascetic was myself." 

No. 419. 


[435] " J7e?-e is a golden necklace" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling 
in Jetavana, concerning a female servant of Anathapindika. The story is that one 
feast-day, when she was going with a number of fellow-servants to a pleasure- 
garden, she asked her mistress Pannalakkhanadevi for an ornament to wear. 

No. 419. 261 

Her mistress gave her an ornament of her own, worth a hundred thousand pieces. 
She put it on and went along with the other servants to the pleasure-garden. A 
certain thief coveted the ornament, and with the design of killing her and taking 
it he began talking to her, and in the garden he gave her fish, flesh and strong 
drink. "He does it, I suppose, because he desires me," she thought, and at 
evening when the others lay down to rest after their sports, she rose and went to 
him. He said, "Mistress, this place is not private; let us go a little farther." She 
thought, 1" Anything private can be done in this place: no doubt he must be 
anxious to kill me and take what I am wearing : I'll teach him a lesson : " so she 
said, " Master, I am dry owing to the strong drink : get me some water," and 
taking him to a well asked him to draw some water, shewing him the rope and 
bucket. The thief let down the bucket. Then as he was stooping to draw up 
the wafer, the girl, who was very strong, pushed him hard with both hands and 
threw him into the well. "You won't die that way," she said, and thi'ew a large 
brick upon his head. He died on the spot. When she came back to the town 
and gave her mistress the ornament, she said, "I have very nearly been killed 
to-day for that ornament," and told the whole story. The mistress told 
Anathapindika, and he told the Tathagata. The Master said, "Householder, 
this is not the first time that servant girl has been endowed with wits rising 
to the occasion ; she was so before also : it is not the first time she killed that 
man ; she did it once before," and at Anathapindika's request, he told the tale 
of old. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benai'es, there 
was a beautiful woman of the town, called Sulasa, who had a train of five- 
hundred courtesans, and whose price was a thousand pieces a night. There 
was in the same city a robber named Sattuka, [436] as strong as an 
elephant, who used to enter rich men's houses at night and plunder at wilL 
The townsmen assembled and complained to the king. The king ordered 
the city-watch to post bands here and there, have the robber caught and 
cut off his head. They bound his hands behind his back and led him to 
the place of execution, scourging him in every square with whips. The 
news that he was taken excited the whole city. Sulasa was standing at a 
window, and looking down on the street she saw the robber, loved him at 
sight and thought, " If I can free that stout fighting-man, I will give up 
this bad life of mine and live respectably with him." In the way described 
in the Kanavera Birth ^ she gained his freedom by sending a thousand 
pieces to the chief constable of the city and then lived with him in delight 
and harmony. The robber after three or four months thought, "I sliall never 
be able to stay in this one place : but one can't go empty-handed : Sulasa's 
ornaments ai'e worth a hundred thousand pieces : I will kill her and 
take them." So he said to her one day, " Dear, when I was being hauled 
along by the king's men, I promised an offering to a tree-deity on a mountain- 
top, who is now threatening me because I have not paid it : let us make 
an offering." " Very well, husband, prepare and send it." "Dear, it will 

1 Omitting na, with other MSS. 

2 See supra, p. 40. 

262 The Jdtaka. Book VIII. 

not do to send it : let us both go and present it, wearing all our ornaments 
and with a great retinue." " Very well, husband, we'll do so." He made 
her prepare the offering and when they reached the mountain-foot, he said, 
" Dear, the deity, seeing this crowd of people, will not accept the offering ; 
let us two go up and present it." She consented, and he made her carry 
the vessel. He was himself armed to the teeth, and when they reached 
the top, he set the offering [437] at the foot of a tree which grew beside a 
precipice a hundred times as high as a man, and said, " Dear, I have not 
come to present the offering, I have come with the intention of killing you 
and going away with all your ornaments : take them all off and make a 
bundle of them in your outer garment." " Husband, why would you kill 
me?" "For your money." "Husband, remember the good I have done 
you : when you were being hauled along in chains, I gave up a rich man's 
son for you and paid a large sum and saved your life : though I might get 
a thousand pieces a day, I never look at another man ; such a benefactress 
I am to you : do not kill me, I will give you much money and be your 
slave." With these entreaties she spoke the first stanza : — 

Here is a golden necklace, and emeralds and pearls. 

Take all and welcome : give me place among thy servant girls. 

When Sattuka had spoken the second stanza in accordance with his 
purpose, to wit — 

Fair lady, lay thy jewels down and do not weep so sore : 

I'll kill thee : else I can't be sure thou'lt give me all thy store : — 

Sulasa's wits rose to the occasion, and thinking, "This robber will not 
give me my life, but I'll take his life first by throwing him down the 
precipice in some way," she spoke the two stanzas : — 

Within my years of sense, within my conscious memory. 

No man on earth, I do protest, have I loved more than thee. 

Come hither, for my last salute, receive my last embrace : 
For never more upon the earth shall we meet face to face. 

Sattuka could not see her purpose, so he said, "Very well, dear; come 

and embrace me." Sulasa walked round him in respectful salutation three 

times, kissed him, and saying, " Now, husband, I am going [438] to make 

obeisance to you on all four sides," she put her head on his foot, did 

obeisance at his sides, and went behind him as if to do obeisance there : 

then with the strength of an elephant she took him by the hinder parts 

and threw him head over heels down that place of destruction a hundred 

times as high as a man. He was crushed to pieces and died on the spot. 

Seeing this deed, the deity who lived on the mountain-top spoke these 

stanzas ; — 

Wisdom at times is not confined to men : 
A woman can shew wisdom now and then. 

No. 419. 263 

Wisdom at times is not confined to men : 
Women are quick in counsel now and then. 

How quick and keen she was the way to know, 
She slew him like a deer with full-stretched bow. 

He that to great occasion fails to rise 
Falls, like that dull thief from the precipice. 

One prom])t a crisis in his fate to see. 
Like her, is saved from threatening enemy. 

So Sulasa killed the robbei\ When she descended from the mountain 
and came among her attendants, they asked where her husband was. 
" Don't ask me," she said, and mounting her chariot she went on to the 

[439] After the lesson, the Master identified the Birth : "At that time the 
two then were the same two now, the deity was myself." 

No. 420. 


"Conscious of an angry froiun," e^c— The Master told this tale while dwelling 
at Jetavana, concerning the admonition of a king. On this occasion the Master, 
at the king's request, told the tale of old. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born as the son of his chief queen. When he grew up, 
he became king on his father's death and gave abundant alms. He had a 
park-keeper named Sumaiigala. A certain paccekabuddha left the Nanda- 
mula cave on a pilgrimage for alms, and coming to Benares stayed in the 
park. Next day he went into the town to beg. The king saw him with 
favour, made him come up into the palace and sit on the throne, waited on 
him with various delicate kinds of food, both hard and soft, and received 
his thanks : being pleased that the paccekabuddha should stay in his park, 
he exacted a promise and sent him back thither : after his morning meal 
he went there in person, arranged the places for his habitation by night 

264 The Jataka. Book VIII. 

and day, gave him the park-keeper Sumaiigala as attendant, and went 
back to the town. After that the paccekabuddha had meals constantly in 
the palace and lived there a long time : Sumangala respectfully attended on 
him. One day he went away, saying to Sumangala, " I am going to such 
and such a village for a few days, but will come back : inform the king." 
Sumangala informed the king. After a few days' stay in that village 
the paccekabuddha came back to the park in the evening after sunset. 
[440] Sumangala, not knowing of his arrival, had gone to his own house. 
The paccekabuddha put away his bowl and robe, and after a little walk sat 
down on a stone-slab. That day some strange guests had come to the 
park-keeper's house. To get them soup and curry he had gone with a bow 
to kill a tame deer in the park : he was there looking for a deer when he 
saw the paccekabuddha and thinking he was a great deer, he aimed an 
aiTOw and shot him. The paccekabuddha uncovered his head and said, 
" Sumangala." Greatly moved Sumangala said, " Sir, I knew not of your 
coming and shot you, thinking you were a deer : forgive me." " Very 
well, but what will you do now 1 Come, pull out the arrow." He made 
obeisance and pulled it out. The paccekabuddha felt great pain and 
passed into nirvana then and there. The park-keeper thought the king 
would not pardon him if he knew : he took his wife and children and fled. 
By supeinatural power the whole city heard that the paccekabuddha had 
entered nirvana, and all were greatly excited. Next day some men entered 
the park, saw the body and told the king that the park-keeper had fled 
after killing the paccekabuddha. The king went with a great retinue and 
for seven days paid honour to the body : then with all ceremony he took 
the relics, built a shrine, and doing honour to it went on ruling his 
kingdom righteously. After a year, Sumangala determined to find out 
what the king thought : he came and asked a minister whom he saw to 
find out what the king thought of him. The minister praised Sumangala 
before the king : but he was as if he heard not. The minister said no 
more, but told Sumangala that the king was not pleased with him. After 
another year he came, and again in the third year he brought his wife and 
children. The minister knew the king was appeased [441], and setting 
Sumangala at the palace-door told the king of his coming. The king sent 
for him, and after greeting said, "Sumangala, why did you kill that 
paccekabuddha, through whom I was gaining merit?" "O king, I did 
not mean to kill him, but it was in this way that I did the deed," and 
he told the story. The king bade him have no fear, and reassuring 
him made him park-keeper again. Then the minister asked, "O king, 
why did you make no answer when you heard Sumaiigala's praises twice, 
and on the third hearing why did you send for him and forgive him?" 
The king said, ' ' Dear sir, it is -svi-ong for a king to do anything hastily 
in his anger : therefore I was silent at first and the third time when I 

No. 420. 265 

knew I was appeased I sent for Sumaiigala": and so he spoke these 
stanzas to declare the duty of a king : — 

Conscious of an angry frown, 

Ne'er let king stretch out his rod : 
Things unworthy of a crown 

Then would follow from his nod. 

Conscious of a milder mood, 

Let him judgments harsh decree, 
When the case is understood, 

Fix the proper penalty : 

Self nor others will he vex, 

Clearly parting right from wrong : 
Though his yoke is on men's necks. 

Virtue holds him high and strong. 

Princes reckless in their deed 

Ply the rod rem(.>rselessly, 
111 repute is here their meed, 

Hell awaits theui when they die. 

[442] They who love the saintly law, 

Pure in deed and word and thought. 
Filled with kindness, calm and awe. 

Pass through both worlds as they ought. 

King am I, my people's lord ; 

Anger shall not check my bent : 
When to vice I take the sword, 

Pity prompts the punishment. 

[443] So the king declared his own good qualities in six stanzas : his 
whole court were pleased and declared his merits in the words, " Such 
excellence in moral practices and qualities is worthy of your majesty." 
Sumangala, after the court had finished speaking, saluted the king, and 
after obeisance spoke three stanzas in the king's praise : — 

Such thy glory and thy power ; 
Ne'er resign them for an hour : 
Free from anger, free from fears. 
Reign in joy a hundred years. 

Prince, whom all those virtues bless. 

Mild and bland, but firm in worth, 
Rule the world with righteousness. 

Pass to heaven when freed from earth. 

True in word, in action good. 

Take the means thy end to gain : 
Calm the troubled multitude, 

As a cloud with genial rain. 

[444] After the lesson connected with the admonition of the Kosala king, the 
Master identified the Birth : "At that time the paccekabuddha passed into 
nirvana, Sumangala was Ananda, the king was myself" 

266 The Jdtaka. Book VIII. 

No. 421. 


" The earth's like coals" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning the keeping of the weekly holy days. One day the Master 
was addressing the lay-brethren who were keeping the holy days and said, " Lay- 
brethren, your conduct is good ; when men keep the holy days they should give 
alms, keep the moral precepts, never show anger, feel kindness and do the 
duties of the day : wise men of old gained great glory from even a partial keeping 
of the holy days : " and at their request he told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, there was 
a rich merchant in that city named Suciparivara, whose wealth reached 
eighty crores and who took delight in charity and other good works. His 
wife and children and all his household and servants down to the calf -herds 
kept six holy days every month. At that time the Bodhisatta was born 
in a certain poor family and lived a hard life on workman's wages. Hoping 
to get work he came to Suciparivara's house : saluting and sitting on one 
side, he was asked his errand and said, " It was to get work for wages in 
your house'." When other workmen came to him, the merchant used to 
say to them, " In this house the workmen keep the moral precepts, if you 
can keep them you may work for me : " but to the Bodhisatta he made no 
hint in the way of mentioning moral precepts but said, [445] " Very well, 
my good man, you can work for me and arrange about your wages." 
Thenceforth the Bodhisatta did all the merchant's work meekly and 
heartily, without a thought of his own weariness ; he went early to work 
and came back at evening. One day they proclaimed a festival in the city. 
The merchant said to a female servant, "This is a holy day: you must 
cook some rice for the workpeople in the morning : they will eat it early 
and fast the rest of the day." The Bodhisatta rose early and went to his 
work : no one had told him to fast that day. The other workpeople ate 
in the morning and then fasted : the merchant with his wife, children and 
attendants kept the fast : all went, each to his own abode, and sat there 
meditating on the moral precepts. The Bodhisatta worked all day and 
came home at sunset. The cook-maid gave him water for his hands, and 
offered him in a dish rice taken from the boiler. The Bodhisatta said, 
" At this hour there is a great noise on ordinary days : where have they 
all gone to-day 1 " " They are all keeping the fast, each in his own abode." 
He thought, " I will not be the only person misconducting himself among so 

' The Pali text here is wrongly punctuated. 

No. 421. 267 

many people of moral conduct : " so he went and asked the merchant if the 
fast could be kept at all by undertaking the duties of the day at that hour. 
He told him that the whole duty could not be done, because it had not 
been undertaken in the morning ; but half the duty could be done. " So 
far be it," he answered, and undertaking the duty in his master's presence 
he began to keep the fast, and going to his own abode he lay meditating on 
the precepts. He had taken no food all day, and in the last watch he felt 
pain like a spear-wound. The merchant brought him various remedies 
and told him to eat them : but he said, " I will not break my fast : I have 
undertaken it though it cost my life." [446] The pain became intense 
and at sunrise he was losing consciousness. They told him he was dying, 
and taking him out they set him in a place of retirement. At this 
moment the king of Benares in a noble chariot with a great retinue had 
reached that spot in a progress round the city. The Bodhisatta, seeing the 
royal splendour, felt a desire for royalty and prayed for it. Dying, he was 
conceived again, in consequence of keeping half the fast-day, in the womb 
of the chief queen. She went through the ceremony of pregnancy, and 
bore a son after ten months. He was named prince Udaya. When he 
grew up he became perfect in all sciences : by his memory of previous 
births he knew his former action of merit, and thinking it was a great 
reward for a little action he sang the song of ecstasy again and again. At 
his father's death he gained the kingdom, and observing his own great 
glory he sang the same song of ecstasy. One day they made ready for a 
festival in the city. A great multitude were intent on amusement. A 
certain water-carrier who lived by the north gate of Benares had hid a 
half-penny in a brick in a boundary wall. He cohabited with a poor 
woman who also made her living by carrying water. She said to him, 
" My lord, there is a festival in the town : if you have any money, let 
us enjoy ourselves." "I have, dear." " How much ? " "A half- penny." 
" Where is it 1 " " In a brick by the north gate, twelve leagues from here 
I leave my treasure : but have you got anything in hand 1 " "I have." 
*' How much ] " "A half-penny." " So yours and mine together make a 
whole penny : we'll buy a garland with one part of it, perfume with 
another, and strong drink with a third : go and fetch your half-penny from 
where you put it." [447] He was delighted to catch the idea suggested 
by his wife's words, and saying, " Don't trouble, dear, I will fetch it," he 
set out. The man was as strong as an elephant : he went more than six 
leagues, and though it was mid-day and he was treading on sand as hot as 
if it were strewn with coals just off the flame, he was delighted with the 
desire of gain and in^ old yellow clothes with a palm-leaf fastened in his 
ear he went by the palace court in pursuit of his pui'pose, singing a 

1 nantaka as in p. 22. 1 : the pahii-leaf is used as an ear-ornament. 

268 TJie Jataka. Book VIII. 

song. King Udaya stood at an open window, and seeing him coming 
wondered who it was, who disregarding snch wind and heat went singing 
for joy, and sent a servant to call him up. "The king calls for you," he 
was told : but he said, " What is the king to me 1 I don't know the 
king." He was taken by force and stood on one side. Then the king 
spoke two stanzas in enquiry : — 

The earth's like coals, the ground like embers hot : 
You sing yom- song, the great heat burns you not. 

The sun on high, the sand below are hot : 

You sing your song, the great heat burns you not. 

Hearing the king's words he spoke the third stanza : — 

'Tis these desires that burn, and not the sun: 
'Tis all these pressing tasks that must be done. 

[448] The king asked what his business was. He answered, " O king, 
I was living by the south gate with a poor woman : she proposed that 
she and I should amuse ourselves at the festival and asked if I had 
anything in hand : I told her I had a treasure stored inside a wall by the 
north gate : she sent me for it to help us to amuse ourselves : those words 
of hers never leave my heart and as I think of them hot desire burns me : 
that is my business." " Then what delights you so much that you 
disregard wind and sun, and sing as you go?" "0 king, I sing to think 
that when I fetch my treasure I shall amuse myself along with her." 
"Then, my good man, is your treasure, hidden by the north gate, a hundred 
thousand pieces?" "Oh no." Then the king asked in succession if it 
were fifty thousand, forty, thirty, twenty, ten, five, four, three, two gold 
pieces, one piece, half a piece, a quai'ter piece, four pence, three, two, 
one penny. The man said " No " to all these questions and then, " It is a 
half-penny : indeed, O king, that is all my ti'easure : but I am going in 
hopes of fetching it and then amusing myself with her : and in that desire 
and delight the wind and sun do not annoy me." The king said, " My 
good man, don't go there in siich a heat : I will give you a half-penny." 
" O king, I will take you at your word and accept it, but I won't lose the 
other : I won't give up going there and fetching it too." " My good man, 
stay here : I'll give you a penny, two pence : " then offering more and 
more he went on to a crore, a hundred crores, boundless wealth, if the man 
would stay. But he always answered, " O king, I'll take it, but I'll fetch 
the other too." Then he was tempted by offers of posts as treasurer and 
posts of various kinds and the position of viceroy : at last he was offered 
half the kingdom [449] if he would stay. Then he consented. The king 
said to his ministers, " Go, have my friend shaved and bathed and adorned, 
and bring him back." They did so. The king divided his kingdom in 
two and gave him half : but they say that he took the northern half from 

No. 421. 269 

love of his half-penny. He was called king Half-penny. They ruled 
the kingdom in friendship and harmony. One day they went to the park 
together. After amusing themselves, king Udaya lay down with his head 
in king Half-penny's lap. He fell asleep, while the attendants were going 
here and there enjoying their amusements. King Half-penny thought, 
" Why should I always have only half the kingdom 1 I will kill him and 
be sole king : " so he drew his sword, but thinking to strike him remembered 
that the king had made him, when poor and mean, his partner and set him 
in great power, and that the thought which had risen in his mind to kill 
such a benefactor was a wicked one : so he sheathed the sword. A second 
and a thii'd time the same thought rose. Feeling that this thought, rising 
again and again, would lead him on to the evil deed, he threw the sword 
on the ground and woke the king. " Pardon me, king," he said and fell 
at his feet. "Friend, you have done me no wrong." "I have, O great 
king: I did such and such a thing." "Then, friend, I pardon you: if 
you desire it, be sole king, and I will serve under you as viceroy." He 
answered, " O king, I have no need of the kingdom, such a desire will cause 
me to be reborn in evil states : the kingdom is yours, take it : I will 
become an ascetic : I have seen the root of desire, it grows from a man's 
wish, [450] from henceforth I will have no such wish," and so in ecstasy 
he spoke the fourth stanza : — 

I have seen thy roots. Desire : in a man's own will they lie. 
I will no more wish for thee, and thou, Desire, shalt die. 

So saying, he spoke the fifth stanza declaring the law unto a great 
multitude devoted to desires : — 

Little desire is not enough, and much but brings us pain : 
Ah ! foolish men : be sober, friends, if ye would wisdom gain. 

So declai'ing the law unto the multitude, he entrusted the realm to 
king Udaya : leaving the weeping multitude with tears on their faces, he 
went to the Himalaya, became an ascetic and reached perfect insight. At 
the time of his becoming an ascetic, king Udaya spoke the sixth stanza in 
complete expression of ecstasy : — 

Little desire has brought me all the fruit. 

Great is the glory Udaya acquires ; 
Mighty the gain if one is resolute 

To be a Brother and forsake desires. 

[451] No one knew the meaning of this stanza. One day the chief 
queen asked him the meaning of it. The king would not tell. There was 
a certain court-barber, called Gangamala, who when attending to the king 
used to use the razor first, and then grasp the hairs with his tweezers'. 

1 Cf. Cidlavafiga, v. 27. 

270 The Jataka. Booh VIII. 

The king liked the first operation, but the second gave him pain : at the 
first he would have given the bai-ber a boon, at the second he would have 
cut his head off. One day he told the queen about it, saying that their 
court-barber was a fool : when she asked what he ought to do, he answered, 
"Use the tweezers first and the razor afterwards." She sent for the barber 
and said, '* My good man, when you are trimming the king's beard you 
ought to take his hairs with your tweezers first and use the razor after- 
wards : then if the king offers joxi a boon, you must say you don't want 
anything else, but wish to know the meaning of his song : if you do, I 
will give you much money." He agreed. On the next day when he was 
trimming the king's beard, he took the tweezers first. The king said, 
" Gangamala, is this a new fashion of yovirs?" "O king," he answered, 
" barbers have got a new fashion ; " and he grasped the king's hair with 
the tweezer first, using the razor afterwards. The king offered him a 
boon. " O king, I do not want anything else ; tell me the meaning of 
your song." The king was ashamed to tell what his occupation had been 
in his days of poverty, and said, " My good man, what is the use of such 
a boon to you 1 Choose something else : " but the barber begged for it. 
The king feared to break his word and agreed. As described in the 
Kummasapinda Birth' he made all arrangements and seated on a jewelled 
throne, told the whole story of his former act of merit in his last existence 
in that city. "That explains," he said, "half the stanza : for the rest, my 
comrade became an ascetic : I in my pride am sole king now [452], and 
that explains the second half of my song of ecstasy." Hearing him the 
barber thought, " So the king got this glory for keeping half a fast day : 
virtue is the right course : what if I were to become an ascetic and work 
out my own salvation?" He left all his relatives and worldly goods, 
gained the king's permission to become religious and going to the 
Himalaya he became an ascetic, realised the three qualities of mundane 
things, gained perfect insight, and became a paccekabuddha. He had a 
bowl and roljes made by supernatural power. After spending five or six 
years on the mountain Gandhamadana he wished to see the king of Benares, 
and passing through the air to the royal park there, he sat on the royal stone 
seat. The park-keeper told the king that Gangamala, now a paccekabuddha, 
had come through the air and was sitting in the park. The king went at 
once to salute the paccekabuddha: and the queen-mother went out with 
her son. The king entered the park, saluted him and sat on one side with 
his retinue. The paccekabuddha spoke to him in a friendly manner, 
" Brahmadatta" (calling him by the name of the family), " are you diligent, 
lailing the kingdom righteously, doing charitable and other good works ? " 
The queen-mother was angry. " This low-caste shampooing son of a 

^ See supra, p. 247. 

No. 421. 271 

barber does not know his place : he calls my kingly high-descended son 
Brahmadatta," and she spoke the seventh stanza : — 

Penance forsooth makes men forsake their sins, 
Their barber's, potter's, stations every one : 

Through penance Gangamala glory wins, 
And ' Brahmadatta ' now he calls my son. 

[453] The king checked his mother and declaring the qualities of the 
paccekabuddha, he spoke the eighth stanza : — 

Lo ! how, e'er his death befall, 

Meekness brings a man its fruit ! 
One who bowed before us all. 

Kings and lords must now salute. 

Though the king checked his mother, the rest of the multitude rose up 
and said, " It is not decent that sitch a low-caste person should speak to 
you by name in that way." The king rebuked the multitude, and spoke 
the last stanza to declare the virtues of the paccekabuddha : — 

Scorn not Gangamala so, 

Perfect in religion's ways : 
He has crossed the waves of woe. 

Free from sorrow now he strays. 

So saying the king saluted the paccekabuddha and asked him to forgive 
the queen-mother. The paccekabuddha did so and the king's retinue also 
gained his forgiveness. The king wished him to promise that he would 
stay in the neighbourhood : but he refused, and standing in the air before 
the eyes of the whole court he admonished the king and went away to 

[454] After the lesson the Master said, " Lay-brethren, you see how keeping 
the fast is proper to be done," and he identified the Birth : " At that time the 
paccekabuddha entered into nirvana, king Half-penny was Ananda, the chief 
queen was the mother of Rahula, king Udaya was myself." 

No. 422. 


^^ Injured Right can injicre sorely," etc. — The Master told this tale while 
dwelling at Jetavana, concerning Devadatta's being swallowed up by the earth. 
On that day they were discussing in the Hall of Truth how Devadatta had spoken 

272 The Jataha. Booh VIII. 

falsely, had sunk into the gi'ound and become destined to the hell Avici. The 
Master came and, hearing the subject of their talk, said, " This is not the first 
time he sank into the earth," and so he told the tale of old. 

Once upon a time, in the first age, there was a king named Maha- 
sammata, whose life was an asankheyya^ long. His son was Roja, his son 
Vararoja, and then the succession was Kalyana, Varakalyana, TJposatha, 
Mandhata, Varamandhata, Cara, Upacara, who was also called Apacara. 
He reigned over the kingdom of Ceti, in the city of Sotthivati ; he was 
endowed with four supernatural faculties — he could walk aloft and pass 
through the air, he had four angels in each of the four quarters to defend 
him with drawn swords, he diffused the fragrance of sandalwood from his 
body, he diffused the fragrance of the lotus from his mouth. His family 
priest was named Kapila. This brahmin's younger brother, Korakalamba, 
had been taught along with the king by the same teacher and was the 
king's playmate. When Apacara was prince, [455] he promised to make 
Korakalamba his family priest when he became king. At his father's 
death he became king, but he could not depose Kapila from the position 
of family priest : and when Kapila came to wait on him, he shewed him 
special forms of honour. The brahmin observed this and considered that 
a kinff manages best with ministers of his own age, and that he himself 
mio-ht »et leave from the king to become an ascetic, so he said, " O king, 
I am getting old ; I have a son at home : make him family piiest and I 
will become an ascetic." He got the king's leave and had his son appointed 
family priest : then he went to the king's park, became an ascetic, reached 
transcendent knowledge and lived there, near his son. Korakalambaka 
felt a crud^e against his brother because he had not got him his post 
when he became an ascetic. One day the king said to him in friendly 
conversation, "Korakalambaka, you are not family priest V "No, O king : 
my brother has managed it." " Has not your brother become an ascetic 1 " 
"He has, but he got the post for his son." "Then do you manage it." 
" kin» it is impossible for me to set aside my brother and take a post 
which has come by descent." "If so, I will make you senior and the 
other your junior." "How, O king?" "By a lie'." "O king, do you 
not know that my brother is a magician, endowed with great supernatural 
power'? He will deceive you with magical illusions: he will make your 
four ancels disappear, and make as it were an evil odour come from your 
body and mouth, he will make you come down from the sky and stand on 
the ground : you will be as if swallowed up by the earth, and you will not 
be able to abide by your story." "Do not ti-ouble ; I will manage it." 

1 In years, 1 followed by 140 ciphers. 

2 A lie was a new thing in the first age. 

No. 422. 273 

"When will you do it, king]" [456] " On the seventh day from this." 
The story went round the city, " The king is going by a lie to make the 
senior the junior, and will give the post to the junior : what kind of a 
thing is a lie ? is it blue or yellow or some other colour 1 " The multitude 
thought greatly about it. It was a time, they say, when the world told 
the truth : men did not know what the word ' lie ' might mean. The 
priest's son heard the tale and told his father, "Father, they say the 
king is going by a lie to make you junior and to give our post to my 
uncle." " My dear, the king will not be able even by a lie to take our 
post from us : on what day is he going to do it 1 " " On the seventh day 
from this, they say." " Let me know when the time comes." On the 
seventh day a great multitude gathered in the king's courtyard sitting in 
rows above rows, hoping to see a lie. The young priest went and told his 
father. The king was ready in full dress, he appeared and stood in the 
air in the courtyard amid the multitude The ascetic came through the 
air, spread his skin-seat before the king, sat on his thi-one in the air 
and said, "Is it true, king, that you wish by a lie to make the junior 
senior and to give him the post?" "Master, I have done so." Then he 
admonished the king, "O great king, a lie is a grievous destruction of 
good qualities, it causes rebirth in the four evil states ; a king who makes 
a lie destroys right, and by destroying right he is himself destroyed : " and 
he spoke the first stanza : — 

Injured Right can injure sorely, and requite with injury ; 

Therefore Right should ne'er be injured, lest the harm recoil on thee 

[457] Admonishing him farther he said, " Great king, if you make a 
lie, your four supernatural powers will disappear," and he spoke the second 
stanza : — 

The powers divine forsake and leave the man who tells a lie, 
111 smells his mouth, he cannot keep his foothold in the sky : 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

Hearing this, the king in fear looked to Korakalambaka. He said, 
"Be not afraid, O king; did I not tell you so from the first?" and so 
forth. The king, though he heard Kapila's words, still put forward his 
statement, " Sir, you are the younger, Korakalambaka is the elder." At 
the moment when he uttered this lie, the four angels said they would 
guard siTch a liar no longer, threw their swords at his feet and disappeared ; 
his mouth was fetid like a broken rotten egg and his body like an open 
drain ; and falling from the air he lighted on the earth : so all his four 
supernatural powers disappeared. His chief priest said, " Great king, be 
not afraid : if you will speak the truth, I will restore you everything," and 
so he spoke the third stanza : — 

A word of truth, and all thy gifts, king, thou shalt regain: 
A lie will fix thee in the soil of Ceti to remain. 

J. III. 18 

274 The Jataka. Book VIII. 

[458] He said, " Look, O great king : those four supernatural powers 
of yours disappeared first by your lie : consider, for it is possible now to 
restore them." But the king answered, "You wish to deceive me in this," 
and so telling a second lie he sank in the earth up to the ankles. Then 
the brahmin said once more, "Consider, great king," and spoke the 
fourth stanza : — 

Drought comes on him in time of rain, rain when it should be dry, 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

Then once again he said, " Owing to your lying you are sunk in the 
earth up to the ankles : consider, O great king," and spoke the fifth 
stanza : — 

One word of truth, and all thy gifts, king, thou shalt regain : 
A lie will sink thee in the soil of Ceti to remain. 

But for the third time the king said, "You are junior and Korakalambaka 
is elder," and at this lie he sank in the ground up to the knees. Once more 
the brahmin said, " Consider, O great king," and spoke two stanzas : — 

king, the man is forked of tongue, and like a serpent sly. 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

One word of truth, and all thy gifts, O king, thou shalt regain : 
A lie will sink thee deeper still in Ceti to remain: 

adding, " Even now all may be restored." The king, not heeding his words, 
rejDeated the lie for the fourth time, " You are junior, Sir, and Koraka- 
lambaka is elder," [459] and at these woi'ds he sank up to the hips. 
Again the brahmin said, " Consider, O great king," and spoke two 
stanzas : — 

O king, that man is like a fish, and tongueless he shall be, 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

One word of truth, and all thy gifts, king, thou shalt regain : 
A lie will sink thee deeper still in Ceti to remain. 

For the fifth time the king repeated the lie, and as he did so he sank 
up to the navel. The brahmin once more appealed to him to consider, and 
spoke two stanzas : — 

Girls only shall be born of him, no man-son shall he see, 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

One word of truth, and all thy gifts, O king, thou shalt regain : 
A lie will sink thee deeper still in Ceti to remain. 

The king paid no heed, and repeating the lie for the sixth time sank up 
to the breast. The brahmin made his appeal once more and spoke two 
stanzas : — 

His children will not stay witli him, on every side they flee. 
Whoe'er to questioning replies with falsehood wilfully. 

No. 422. 275 

One word of truth, and all thy gifts, king, thou shalt regain : 
A lie will sink thee deeper still in Ceti to remain. 

Owing to association with a wicked friend, he disregarded the words 
and repeated the same lie for the seventh time. Then the earth opened 
and the flames of Avici leapt up and seized him. 

[460] Cursed by a sage, the king who once could walk the air, they say. 
Was lost and swallowed by the earth on his appointed day. 

Wherefore the wise do not approve at all 
^Vhen that desire into the heart doth fall: 
He that is free from guile, whose heart is pui'e, 
All that he says is ever firm and sure. 

These are two stanzas inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

The multitude said in fear, " The king of Ceti reviled the sage, and 
told a lie; so he has entered Avici." The king's five sons came to the 
brahmin and said, " Be thou our helper." The brahmin answered, " Your 
father destroyed Right, he lied and reviled a sage : therefore he has entered 
Avici. If Eight is destroyed, it destroys. You must not dwell here." To 
the eldest he said, " Come, dear : leave the city by the eastern gate and go 
straight on : you will see a white royal elephant prostrate, touching the 
earth in seven places^ : that will be a sign for you to lay out a city there 
and dwell in it : and the name of it will be Hatthipura." To the second 
prince he said, " You leave by the south gate and go straight on till you 
see a royal horse pure white : that will be a sign that you are to lay ovit 
a city there and dwell in it : and it shall be called Assapura." To the third 
prince he said, " You leave by the west gate and go straiglit on till you see 
a maned lion ; that will be a sign that you are to lay out a city there and 
dwell in it : and it shall be called Sihapura." To the fourth prince he said, 
"You leave by the north gate and go straight on till you see a wheel-frame^ 
all made of jew^els : that will be a sign [461] that you are to lay out a city 
there and dwell in it : and it shall be called Uttarapancala." To the fifth 
he said, " You cannot dwell here : build a great shrine in this city, go out 
towards the north-west, and go straight on till you see two mountains 
striking against each other and making the sound of dadclara : that will 
be a sign that you are to lay out a city there and dwell in it : and it shall 
be called Daddarapura." All the five princes went, and following the 
signs laid out cities there and dwelt in them. 

1 With tusks, truuk, and four legs. 

- Another reading is pancacakkam, ' five wheels.' 

276 The Jdtaka. Book VIII. 

After the lesson, the Master said, "So, Brethren, this is not the first time 
that Devadatta has told a lie and sunk in the earth," and then he identified the 
Birth: "At that time the king of Ceti was Devadatta, and the brahmin Kapila 
was myself." 

No. 423. 


" Who through desire," etc. The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning temptation by the wife of one's former days. The story is 
that a young man of good family at Savatthi heard the Master's preaching, and 
thinking it impossible to lead a holy life, perfectly complete and pure, as a 
householder, he determined to become an ascetic under the saving doctrine and 
so make an end of misery. So he gave up his house and property to his wife 
and children, and asked the Master to ordain him. The Master did so. As he 
was the junior in his going about for alms with his teachers and instructors, and 
as the Brethren were many, he got no chair either in laymen's houses or in the 
refectory, but only a stool or a bench at the end of the novices, his food was 
tossed him hastily on a ladle, he got gruel made of broken lumps of rice, 
solid food stale or decaying, or sprouts dried and burnt ; and this was not 
enough to keep him alive. [462] He took what he had got to the wife he had 
left : she took his bowl, saluted him, emptied it and gave him instead well- 
cooked gruel and rice with sauce and curry. The Brother was captivated by the 
love of such flavours and could not leave his wife. She thought she would test 
his affection. One day she had a countryman cleansed with white clay and set 
down in her house with some others of his people whom she had sent for, 
and she gave them something to eat and drink. They sat eating and enjoying 
it. At the house-door she had some bullocks bound to wheels and a cart set 
ready. She herself sat in a back room cooking cakes. Her husband came and 
stood at the door. Seeing him, one old servant told his mistress that there 
was an elder at the door. "Salute him and bid him pass on." But though 
he did so repeatedly, he saw the priest remaining there and told his mistress. 
She came, and lifting up the ciu-tain to see, she cried, " This is the father of my 
sons." She came out and saluted him : taking his bowl and making him enter 
she gave him food : when he had eaten she saluted again and said, " Sir, you are 
a saint now : we have been staying in this house all this time ; but there can be 
no proper householder's life without a master, so we will take another house 
and go far into the country : be zealous in your good works, and forgive me if I 
am doing wrong." For a time her husband was as if his heart would break. 
Then he said, " I cannot leave you : do not go, I will come back to my worldly 
life : send a layman's garment to such and such a place, I will give up my bowl 
and robes and come back to you." She agreed. The Brother went to his 
monastery, and giving up his bowl and robes to his teachers and instructors he 
explained, in answer to their questions, that he could not leave his wife and 
was going back to worldly life. Against his will they took him to the Master 
and told him that he was backsliding and wished to go back to worldly life. 
The Master said, " Is this tale true ? " " It is, Lord." " Who causes you to 
backslide ? " " My wife." " Brother, that woman is the cause of evil to you : 
formerly also through her you fell from the four stages of mystic meditation 

No. 423. 277 

and became very miserable : then through me you were delivered from your 
misery and regained the power of meditation you had lost," and then he told 
the tale of old. 

[463] Ouce upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, 
the Bodhisatta was born as the son of the king's family priest and his 
brahmin wife. On the day of his birth there was a blazing of weapons all 
over the city, and so they called his name young Jotipala. When he 
grew \ip, he learned all the arts at Takkasila and showed his skill in them 
to the king : but he gave up his position, and without telling anyone he 
went out by the back door, and entering a forest became an ascetic in the 
Kavitthaka hermitage, called Sakkadattiya. He attained perfection in 
meditation. As he dwelt there many hundreds of sages waited on him. 
He was attended by a great company and had seven chief disciples. Of 
them the sage Salissara left the Kavitthaka hermitage for the Surattha 
country, and dwelt on the banks of the river Satodika with many thousand 
sages ill his company : Mendissara with many thousand sages dwelt near 
the town of Lambaculaka in the countiy of king Pajaka -, Pabbata with 
many thousand sages dwelt in a certain forest-country : Kjiladevala with 
many thousand sages dwelt in a cer-tain wooded mountain in AvantI and 
the Deccan : Kisavaccha dwelt alone near the city of KumbhavatI in 
the park of king Dandaki : the ascetic Anusissa was attendant on the 
Bodhisatta and stayed with him : Narada, the younger bi-other of Kalade- 
vala, dwelt alone in a cave-cell amid the mountainous country of Aranjara 
in the Central Region, Now not far from Ai'anjara there is a certain very 
populous town. In the town there is a great river, in which many men 
bathe : and along its banks sit many beautiful courtesans tempting the 
men. The ascetic Nai-ada saw one of them and being enamoured of her, 
forsook his meditations and [464] pining away without food lay in the 
bonds of love for seven days. His brother Kaladevala by reflection knew 
the cause of this, and came flying through the air into the cave. Narada 
saw him and asked why he had come. "I knew you were ill and have 
come to tend you." Nai-ada repelled him with a falsehood, "You are talking 
nonsense, falsehood, and vanity." The other refused to leave him and 
brought Salissara, Mendissara, and Pabbatissara. He repelled them all in 
the same way. Kaladevala went flying to fetch their master Sarabhaiiga 
and did fetch him. When the Master came, he saw that Narada had fallen 
into the power of the senses, and asked if it were so. Narada rose at the 
words and saluted, and confessed. The Master said, " Narada, those who 
fall into the power of the senses waste away in misery in this life, and in 
their next existence are born in hell :" and so he spoke the first stanza : — 

Who through desire obeys the senses' sway. 
Loses both worlds and pines his life away. 

278 The Jdtaka. Booh VI 11. 

Hearing him, Narada answered, " Teacher, the following of desires is 
happiness: why do you call such happiness misery?" Sarabhanga said, 
" Listen, then," and spoke the second stanza : — ■ 

Happiness and misery ever on each other's footsteps press : 
Thou hast seen their alternation: seek a truer happiness. 

[465] Narada said, "Teachei*, such misery is hard to bear, I cannot 
endure it." The Great Being said, "Narada, the misery that comes has to 
be endured," and spoke the third stanza : — 

He who endiu-es in troublous time with troubles to contend 
Is strong to reach that final bliss where all our troubles end. 

But Narada answered, " Teacher, the happiness of love's desire is the 
greatest happiness: I cannot abandon it." The Great Being said, "Virtue 
is not to be abandoned for any cause," and spoke the fourth stanza : — 

[466] For love of lusts, for hopes of gain, for miseries, great and small, 
Do not undo your saintly past, and so from virtue fall. 

Sarabhanga having thus shown forth the law in four stanzas, Kaladevala 
in admonition of his younger brother spoke the fifth stanza : — 

Know! the worldly life is trouble, victual should be freely lent. 
No delight in gathering riches, no distress when they are spent. 

The sixth stanza is one spoken by the Master in his Perfect Wisdom concern- 
ing Devala's admonition of Narada : 

So far Black '^ Devala most wisely spoke : 

" None worse than he who bows to senses' yoke." 

[467] Then Saiabhanga spoke in warning, " Narada, listen to this : 
he who will not do at first what is proper to be done, must weep and 
lament like the young man who went to the forest," and so he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time in a certain town of Kasi there was a certain young 
brahmin, beautiful, strong, stout as an elephant. His thoughts were, "Why 
should I keep my parents by working on a farm, or have a wife and children, or 
do good works of charity and so forth ? I won't keep anybody nor do any good 
work ; but I will go into the forest and keej) myself by killing deer." So with 

^ The Scholiast takes sadha with all the clauses : the meaning then would be 

Good are the cares of household life, 'tis good to give away, 
Not to be proud when riches grow, nor grieved when they decay. 

^ Both kdlo and asito mean black : this person is the Asita, the Simeon of the 
Buddhist nativity; cf. vol. i. 54. 

iVo. 423. 279 

the five kinds of weapons he went to the Himalaya and killed and ate many 
deer. In the Himalaya region he found a great defile, siu'rounded by mountains, 
on the banks of the river Vidhava, and there he lived on the flesh of the slain 
deer, cooked on hot coals. He thought, " I shall not always be strong ; when I 
grow weak I shall not be able to range the forest : now I will drive many kinds 
of wild animals into this defile, close it up by a gate, and then without roaming 
the forest I shall kill and eat them at my pleasure : " and so he did. As time 
passed over him, that very thing came to pass, and the experience of all the 
world befell him : he lost control over his hands and feet, he could not move 
freely here and there, he could not find his food or drink, his body withered, he 
became the ghost of a man, he showed wrinkles furrowing his body like the 
earth in a hot season ; ill-favoured and ill-knit, he became very miserable. In 
like manner as time passed, the king of Sivi, named Sivi, had a desire to eat 
flesh roasted on coals in the forest : so he gave over his kingdom to his ministers, 
and with the five kinds of weapons he went to the forest and ate the flesh of the 
deer he slew : in time he came to that spot and saw that man. Although afraid, 
he summoned courage to ask who he was. " Lord, I am the ghost of a man, 
reaping the fruit of the deeds I have done : who are you I " " The king of Sivi." 
" Why have you come hither ? " [468] " To eat the flesh of deer." He said, 
" Great king, I have become the ghost of a man because I came here with that 
object," and telling the whole story at length and explaining his misfortune to 
the king, he spoke the remaining stanzas : — 

King, 'tis with me as if I'd been with foes in bitter strife. 

Labour, and skill in handicraft, a peaceful home, a wife, 

All have been lost to me : my works bear fruit in this my life. 

Worsted a thousandfold I am, kinless and i^eft of stay, 

Strayed from the law of righteousness, like ghost I'm fallen away. 

This state is mine because I caused, instead of joy, distress : 
Girt as it were with flaming fire, I have no happiness. 

[469] With that he added, " O king, through desire of happiness I caused 
misery to others and have even in this life become the ghost of a man : do not 
thou commit evil deeds, go to thine own city and do good deeds of charity and 
the like." The king did so and completed the path to heaven. 

The ascetic was roused by the teacher Sarabhaiiga's account of this 
case. He became agitated, and after saluting and gaining his teacher's 
pardon, by the proper processes he regained the power of meditation he 
had lost. Sai-abhanga refused him leave to stay there, and took him back 
with him to his own hermitage. 

After the lesson, the Master declared the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
After the Truths the backsliding Brother was established in the fruition of the 
First Path ; — " At that time Narada was the backsliding Brother, Salissara was 
Sariputta, Mendissara was Kassapa, Pabbata was Anuruddha, Kaladevala was 
Kaccana, Anusissa was Ananda, Kisavaccha was Moggallana, and Sarabhanga 
was myself." 

280 The Jdtaha. Booh VIII. 

No. 424. 


" Whatever a man can save," etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in 
Jetavana, concerning an incomparable gift. The incomparable gift must be 
described in full from the commentary on the Mahagovindasutta. On the day 
after that on which it had been given, they were talking of it in the Hall of Truth, 
"Sirs, the Kosala king [470] after examination found the proper field of merit, 
and gave the great gift to the assembly with Buddha at its head." The Master 
came and was told what the subject of their talk was as they sat together : he 
said, " Brethren, it is not strange that the king after examination has under- 
taken great gifts to the supreme field of merit: wise men of old also after 
examination gave such gifts," and so he told a tale of old. 

Once upon a time a king named Bharata reigned at Roruva in the 
kingdom of Sovlra. He practised the ten royal virtues, won the people 
by the four elements of popularity, stood to the multitude like father and 
mother and gave great gifts to the poor, the wayfarers, the beggars, the 
suitors and the like. His chief queen Samuddavijaya was wise and full of 
knowledge. One day he looked round his alms-hall and thought, "My 
alms are devoured by worthless greedy people : I don't like this : I 
should like to give alms to the virtuous paccekabuddhas who deserve the 
best of gifts : they live in the Himalaya region : who will bring them here 
on my invitation and whom shall I send on this errand ? " He spoke to 
the queen, who said, " O king, be not concerned : sending flowers by 
the force of our giving suitable things, and of our virtue and truthfulness, 
we will invite the paccekabuddhas, and when they come we will give them 
gifts with all things requisite," The king agreed. He made proclamation 
by drum that all the townspeople should undertake to keep the precepts ; 
he himself with his household undertook all the duties for the holy days 
and gave great gifts in charity. He had a gold box brought, full of 
jasmine flowers, came down from his palace and stood in the royal court- 
yard. Thei'e prostrating himself on the ground with the five contacts, he 
saluted towards the eastern quarter and threw seven handfuls of flowers, 
with the words, " I salute the saints in the eastern quarter : if there is 
any merit in us, shew compassion on us and receive our alms." As there 
are no paccekabuddhas in the eastern quarter, they did not come next day. 
On the second day he paid respects to the south quarter : but none came 
from thence. On the third day he paid respects to the west quarter [471], 
but none came. On the fourth day he paid respects to the north quarter, 
and after paying respects he threw seven handfuls of flowers with the 

No. 424. 281 

words, "May the paccekabuddhas who live in the north district of 
Himalaya receive our alms." The flowers went and fell on five hundred 
paccekabuddhas in the Nandamfila cave. On reflection they understood 
that the king had invited them ; so they called seven of their number and 
said, "Sirs, the king invites you ; shew him favour." These paccekabuddhas 
came through the air and lighted at the king's gate. Seeing them the 
king saluted them with delight, made them come up into the palace, 
shewed them great honour and gave them gifts. After the meal he asked 
them for next day and so on until the fifth day, feeding them for six 
days: on the seventh day he made ready a gift with all the requisites, 
arranged beds and chairs inlaid with gold, and set before the seven pacce- 
kabuddhas sets of three robes and all other things used by holy men. The 
king and queen formally offered these things to them after their meal, and 
stood in respectful salutation. To express their thanks the Elder of the 
assembly spoke two stanzas : — 

Whate'er a man can save from flames that bum his dwelling down. 
Not what is left to be consumed, will still remain his own. 

The world's on fire, decay and death are there the flame to feed ; 
Save what you can by charity, a gift is saved indeed. 

[472] Thus expressing thanks the Elder admonished the king to be 
diligent in virtue : then he flew up in the air, straight through the peaked 
roof of the palace and lighted in the Nandamula cave : along with him all 
the requisites that had been given him flew up and lighted in the cave : 
and the bodies of the king and queen became full of joy. After his 
departure, the other six also expressed thanks in a stanza each : — 

He who gives to righteous men. 

Strong in holy energy, 
Crosses Yama's flood, and then 

Gains a dwelling in the sky. 

Like to war is charity : 

Hosts may flee before a few : 
Give a little piously : 

Bliss hereafter is your due. 

Prudent givers please the Lord, 

Worthily they spend their toil. 
Rich the fruit their gifts afford. 

Like a seed in fertile soil. 

They who never rudely speak. 

Wrong to living things abjure; 
Men may call them timid, weak : 

For 'tis fear that keeps them pure. 

Lower duties win for man, reborn on earth, a princely fate, 
Middle duties win them heaven, highest win the Purest State'. 

1 The higher heavens in the Buddhist Cosmogony. 

282 The Jcitaka. Booh VIII. 

Charity is blest indeed, 
[473] Yet the Law gains higher meed : 
Ages old and late attest, 
Thus the wise have reached their Rest. 

So they also went with the requisites given them. 

[474] The seventh paccekabuddha in his thanks praised the eternal 
nirvana to the king, and admonishing him carefully went to his abode as 
has been said. The king and queen gave gifts all their lives and passed 
fully through the path to heaven. 

After the lesson, the Master said, "So wise men of old gave gifts with dis- 
crimination," and identified the Birth : " At that time the paccekabuddha reached 
nirvana, Samuddavijaya was the mother of Eahula, and the king Bharata was 

No. 425.1 


"Make Ganges calm" etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling in Jetavana, 
concerning a backsliding Brother. The Master asked him, " Is the story true. 
Brother, that you are backsliding ?" " Yes, lord." " What is the cause ?" " The 
power of desire." " Brother, womankind are ungrateful, treacherous, untrust- 
worthy : of old wise men could not satisfy a woman, even by giving her a 
thousand pieces a day : and one day when she did not get the thousand pieces 
she had them taken by the neck and cast out : [475] so ungrateful are woman- 
kind : do not fall into the power of desire for such a cause," and so he told an 
old tale. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, his 
son, young Brahmadatta, and young Mahadhana, son of a rich merchant 
of Benares, were comrades and playfellows, and were educated in the 
same teacher's house. The prince became king at his father's death : and 
the merchant's son abode near him. There was in Benares a certain 
courtesan, beautiful and prosperous. The merchant's son gave her a 

1 Cf. Tibetan Tales, no. 12 Susroni, and .s»j;rtf, no. 374. 

No. 425. 283 

thousand pieces daily, and took pleasure with her constantly : at his 
father's death he succeeded to the rich merchant's position, and did not 
forsake her, still giving her a thousand pieces daily. Three times a day 
he went to wait upon the king. One day he went to wait upon him in 
the evening. As he was talking with the king, the sun set, and it became 
dark. As he left the palace, he thought, " There is no time to go home 
and come back again : I will go straight to the courtesan's house : " so he 
dismissed his attendants, and entered her house alone. When she saw 
him, she asked if he had brought the thousand pieces. " Dear, I was very 
late to-day ; so I sent away my attendants without going home, and have 
come alone ; but to-morrow I will give you two thousand pieces." She 
thought, " If I admit him to-day, he will come empty-handed on other 
days, and so my wealth will be lost : I won't admit him this time." So 
she said, " Sir, I am but a courtesan : I do not give my favours without a 
thousand pieces : you must bring the sum." " Dear, I will bring twice 
the sum to-morrow," and so he begged her [476] again and again. The 
courtesan gave orders to her maids, " Don't let that man stand there and 
look at me : take him by the neck, and cast him out, and then shut the 
door." They did so. He thought, " I have spent on her eighty crores of 
money ; yet on the one day when I come empty-handed, she has me seized 
by the neck and cast out : Oh, womankind are wicked, shameless, ungrate- 
ful, treacherous:" and so he pondered and pondered on the bad qualities of 
womankind, till he felt dislike and disgust, and became discontented with 
a layman's life. " Why should I lead a layman's life ? I will go this day 
and become an ascetic," he thought : so without going back to his house 
or seeing the king again, he left the city and entered the forest : he made 
a hermitage on the Ganges bank, and there made his abode as an 
ascetic, reaching the Perfection of Meditation, and living on wild roots 
and fruits. 

The king missed his friend and asked for him. The courtesan's 
conduct had become known throughout the city : so they told the king 
of the matter, adding, " king, they say that your friend through shame 
did not go home, bvit has become an ascetic in the forest." The king 
summoned the courtesan, and asked if the story were true about her treat- 
ment of his friend. She coiifessed. " Wicked, vile woman, go quickly to 
where my friend is and fetch him : if you fail, your life is forfeit." She 
was afraid at the king's words ; she mounted a chariot and drove out of 
the city with a great retinue ; she sought for his abode and hearing of it 
by report, went there and saluted and prayed, " Sir, bear with the evil I 
did in my blindness and folly : I will never do so again." " Very well, I 
forgive you; 1 am not angry with you." "If you forgive me, mount the 
chariot with me : we will drive to the city, and as soon as we enter it 
[477] I will give you all the money in my house." When he heard her, 

284 Tlie Jdtaka. Book VIII . 

he replied, " Lady, I cannot go with you now : but when something that 
cannot happen in this world will happen, then perhaps I may go ; " and so 
he spoke the first stanza : — 

Make Ganges calm like lotus-tank, cuckoos pearl-white to see. 
Make apples bear the palm-trees' fruit: perchance it then might be. 

But she said again, " Come ; I am going." He answered, " I will go." 
"When?" "At such and such a time," he said and spoke the remaining 
stanzas : — 

When woven out of tortoise-hair a triple cloth you see. 
For winter wear against the cold, perchance it then may be. 

When of mosqiiito's teeth you build a tower so skilfully, 
That will not shake or totter soon, perchance it then may be. 

When out of horns of hare you make a ladder skilfully, 

Stairs that will climb the height of heaven, perchance it then may be. 

When mice to mount those ladder-stairs and eat the moon agree, 
And bring down Rahu from the sky, the thing perchance may be. 

When swarms of flies devoiu" strong drink in pitchers full and free, 
And house themselves in burning coals, the thing perchance may be. 

When asses get them ripe red lips and faces fair to see, 

And shew their skill in song and dance, the thing perchance may be. 

When crows and owls shall meet to talk in converse privily, 
And woo each other, lover-like, the thing perchance may be. 

[478] When sun-shades, made of tender leaves from off" the forest tree, 
Are strong against the rushing rain, the thing perchance may be. 

When sparrows take Himalaya in all its majesty, 

And bear it in their little beaks, the thing perchance may be. 

And when a boy can carry light, with all its bravery, 

A ship full-rigged for distant seas, the thing perchance may be. 

So the Great Being spoke these eleven stanzas to fix impossible (atthdna) 
conditions. The courtesan, hearing him, won his forgiveness and went 
back to Benares. She told the matter to the king, and begged for her life, 
which was granted. 

After the lesson, the Master said, " So, Brethren, womankind are ungrateful 
and treacherous " ; then he declared the Truths, and identified the Birth : — After 
the Truths, the backsliding Brother was established in the fruition of the First 
Path : — " At that time the king was Ananda, the ascetic was myself." 

No. 426. 285 

No. 426. 


[479] ^'■Hoio fares it with i/ou," etc. — The Master told this tale while dwelling 
in Jetavana, concerning a certain she-goat. At one time the Elder Moggallaua 
lived in a dwelling with one door, in a mountain enclosure, surrounded by hills. 
His covered walk was close by the door. Some goatherds thought the enclosure 
would be a good place for their goats, so they drove them in and lived there 
at their pleasure. One day they came in the evening, took all the goats, and 
went away : but one she-goat had wandered far, and not seeing the goats depart- 
ing, she was left behind. Later, as she was departing, a certain panther saw 
her, and thinking to eat her stood by the door of the enclosure. She looked 
all round, and saw the panther. " He is there because he wishes to kill and eat 
me," she thought ; " if I turn and run, my life is lost ; I must play the man," 
and so she tossed her horns, and sprang straight at him with all her might. 
She escaped his grip, though he was quivering with the thought of catching her : 
then running at full speed she came up with the other goats. The Elder observed 
how all the animals had behaved : next day he went and told the Tathagata, 
" So, lord, this she-goat performed a feat by her readiness in device, and escaped 
from the panther." The Master answered, " Moggallana, the panther failed to 
catch her this time, but once before he killed her though she cried out, and ate 
her." Then at IMoggallana's request, he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta was born in a certain village of the 
Magadha kingdom, in a wealthy family. When he grew up, he renounced 
desires and adopted the religious life, reaching the perfection of meditation. 
After dwelling long in the Himalaya, he came to Rajagaha for salt and 
vinegar, and dwelt in a hut of leaves which he made in a mountain 
enclosure. Just as in the introductory story, the goatherds drove their 
goats thither : and in the same way, one day as a single she-goat was going 
out later than the rest, a panther waited by the door, thinking to eat her. 
When she saw him, she thought, " My life is forfeit : by some means I 
must get him into pleasant and kindly talk, and so soften his heart [480] 
and save my life." Beginning a friendly talk with him from some 
distance, she spoke the first stanza : — 

How fares it with you, uncle ? and is it well with you ? 

My mother sends her kind regards: and I'm your friend so true. 

Hearing her, the panther thought, " This baggage would beguile me by 
calling me ' uncle ' : she does not know how hard I am ; " and so he spoke 
the second stanza : — 

You've trod upon my tail, miss goat, and done me injury : 
And you think by saying ' Uncle ' that you can go scot-free. 

' Cf. Tibetan Tales, no. '2y, aud Folk-lore Journal, vol. iv. p. 45. 

286 Tlie Jataka. Booh VIII. 

When she heard him, she said, " uncle, don't talk in that way," and 
spoke the third stanza : — 

I faced you as I came, good Sir, you face me as you sit : 
Your tail is all behind you : how could I tread on it ? 

He answered, "What do you say, she-goat? is there any place where 
my tail might not be 1 " and so he spoke the fourth stanza : — 

[481] As far as four gi-eat continents with seas and mountains spread. 
My tail extends : how could you fail on such a tail to tread ? 

The she-goat, when she heard this, thought, " This wicked one is not 
attracted by soft words : I will answer him as an enemy," and so she 
spoke the fifth stanza : — 

Your villain's tail is long, I know, for I had warning fair : 
Parents and brothers told me so : but I flew through the air. 

Then he said, " I know you came through the air : but as you came, 
you spoilt my food by your way of coming," and so he spoke the sixth 
stanza : — 

The sight of you, miss goat, on high, the air a-flying through, 
Frightened a herd of deer : and so my food was spoilt by you. 

Hearing this, the goat in fear of death could bring no other excuse, 
but cried out, " Uncle, do not commit such cruelty ; spare my life." But 
though she cried out, the other seized her by the shoulder, killed her and 
ate her. 

'Twas thus the she-goat cried for gi'ace : but blood must satisfy 
The beast that grips her throat ; the bad will shew no courtesy. 

Conduct, nor right, nor courtesy, the bad man will display ; 
He hates the good : to face him then 'tis best in open fray. 

These are two stanzas inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

[482] A holy ascetic saw the whole matter of the two animals. 

After this lesson, the Master identified the Birth : "At that time the she-goat 
and the panther were the she-goat and the panther of to-day, the holy ascetic was 


No. 427. 


[483] '■'■Formed of rough logs,'' etc. — This story the Master told at Jetavana 
concerning a disobedient Brother. He was, they say, of gentle birth, and though 
ordained in the doctrine that leads to Salvation, was admonished by his well- 
wishers, masters, teachers, and fellow-students to this effect : " Thus must you 
advance and thus retreat ; thus look at or away from objects ; thus must the 
arm be stretched out or drawn back ; thus are the inner and outer garment to 
be worn ; thus is the bowl to be held, and when you have received sufficient food 
to sustain life, after self-examination, thus are you to partake of it, keeping 
guard over the door of the senses ; in eating you are to be moderate and exercise 
watchfulness ; you are to recognize such and such duties towards Brethren who 
come to or go from the monastery ; these are the foiu-teeu'^ sets of priestly 
duties, and the eighty great duties to be duly performed ; these are the thirteen^ 
Dhuta practices ; all these are to be scrupulously performed." Yet was he 
disobedient and impatient, and did not receive instruction respectfully, but 
refused to listen to them, saying, "I do not find fault with you. Why do you 
speak thus to me ? I shall know what is for my good, and what is not." Then 
the Brethren, hearing of his disobedience, sat in the Hall of Truth, telling of his 
faults. The Master came and asked them what it was they were discussing, and 
sent for the Brother and said, " Is it true. Brother, that you are disobedient ? " 
And when he confessed that it was so, the Master said, " Why, Brother, after 
being ordained in so excellent a doctrine that leads to Salvation, [484] do you 
not listen to the voice of your well-wishers ? Foi-merly too you disobeyed the 
voice of the wise, and were blown into atoms by the Veramba wind." And 
herewith he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time the Bodhisatta came to life as a young vulture on 
Vulture Mountain. Now his offspring Supatta, the king of the vultures, 

^ See No. 381 supra. 

" Called Khandakavattani because contained in the Khandaka division of the 

^ Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. 9. 

288 The Jdtaka. Book IX. 

was strong and lusty and had a following of many thousands of vultures, 
and he fed the parent birds. And owing to his strength he used to fly to 
a very great distance. So his father admonished him and said, " My son, 
you must not go beyond such and such a point." He said, " Very good," 
but one day when it rained, he flew up with the other vultures, and 
leaving the rest behind, and going beyond the prescribed limit, he came 
within the range of the Veramba wind, and was blown into atoms. 

The Master, in his Perfect Wisdom, to illustrate this incident, uttered these 
verses : 

Formed of rough logs, an ancient pathway led 
To dizzy heights, where a young vulture fed 
The parent birds. Lusty and strong of wing 
He oft to them would fat of serpents bring ; 
And when his father saw him flying high 
And venturing far afield, he thus would cry, 
" My son, when thou canst scan from thy look out 
Earth's rounded sphere by ocean girt about, 
No farther go, but straight return, I pray." 
Then would this king of birds speed on his way. 
And bending o'er the earth, with piercing sight 
He viewed below forest and mountain height : 
And earth wovild, as his sire described, appear 
Amid the encircling sea a roimded sphere. 
But when beyond these limits he had passed, 
Strong bird though he might be, a raging blast 
Swept him away to an untimely death. 
Powerless to cope with storm-wind's fiery breath. 
[485] Thus did the bird by disobedience prove 
Fatal to those dependent on his love : 
So perish all that scornful of old age 
Deride the warnings uttered by the sage. 
As the young vulture Wisdom's voice defied 
And scorned the limits set to bound his pride. 

[486] " Therefoi-e, Brother, be not like unto this vulture, but do the 
bidding of your well-wishers." And being thus admonished by the 
Master, he thenceforth became obedient. 

The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : " The disobedient vulture 
of those days is now the disobedient Brother. The parent vulture was myself" 

No. 428. 289 

No. 428. 


" Wkene''er the Brotherhood" etc. — This story the Master, while dwelling in the 
Ghosita park near Kosambi, told concerning certain quarrelsome folk at Kosambi. 
The incident that led to the story is to be found in the section of the Vinaya 
relating to Kosambi i. Here is a short summary of it. At that time, it is said, 
two Brothers lived in the same house, the one versed in the Vinaya, the other in 
the Sutras. The latter of these one day having occasion to visit the lavatory 
went out leaving the surplus water for rinsing the mouth in a vessel. After- 
wards the one versed in the Vinaya went in and seeing the water came out and 
asked his companion if the water had been left there by him. He answered, 
"Yes, Sir." "What! do you not know that this is sinful?" "No, I was not 
aware of it." " Well, Brother, it is sinful." " Then I will atone for it." " But 
if you did it inadvertently and heedlessly, it is not sinful." So he became as one 
who saw no sin in what was sinful. The Vinaya scholar said to his pupils, 
" This Sutra scholar, though falling into sin, is not aware of it." They on seeing 
the other Brother's pupils said, " Your master though falling into sin does not 
recognize its sinfulness." They went and told their master. He said, "This 
Vinaya scholar before said it was no sin, and now says it is a sin : he is a liar." 
They went and told the others, "Your master is a liar." Thus they stirred up a 
quarrel, one with another. Then the Vinaya scholar, finding an opportunity, 
went through the form of excommunication of the Brother for refusing to see 
his offence. Thenceforth even the laymen who provided necessaries for the 
priests were divided into two factions. The sisterhoods too that accept their 
admonitions, and tutelary gods, with their friends and intimates and deities from 
those that rest in space^ [487] to those of the Brahma World, even all such as were 
unconverted, formed two parties, and the uproar reached to the abode of the 
Sublime gods '^. 

Then a certain Brother drew nigh to the Tathagata, and announced the view 
of the excommunicating party who said, "The man is excommunicated in 
orthodox form," and the view of the followers of the excommunicated one, who 
said, " He is illegally exconuaiunicated," and the practice of those who though 
forbidden by the excommunicating pai"ty, still gathered round in support of him. 
The Blessed One said, " There is a schism, yea, a schism in the Brotherhood," 
and he went to them and pointed out the misery involved in excommunication 
to those that excommunicated, and the misery following upon the concealment 
of sin to the opposite party, and so departed. Again when they were holding 
the Uposatha and similar services in the same place, within the boundary, and 
were quarrelling in the refectory and elsewhere, he laid down the rule that they 
were to sit down together, one by one from each side alternately. And hearing 
that they were still quarrelling in the monastery he went there and said, 
"Enough, Brothers, let us have no quarrelling." And one of the heretical side 3, 
not wishing to annoy the Blessed One, said, " Let the Blessed Lord of Truth 
stay at home. Let the Blessed One dwell quietly at ease, enjoying the bliss he 
has already obtained in this life. We shall make ourselves notorious by this 
quarrelling, altercation, disputing and contention." 

^ Mahdvagga, x. 1 — 10. 

2 These include all gods except those in the four highest heavens {arupa-brahma- 
lokas). Hardy, Mmmal of Budhism, p. 20. 

^ Beading adJiammavddinu as in the parallel passage of the Mahdvagga, p. 341. 

J. III. 19 

290 The Jataka. Book IX. 

But the Master said to them, " Once upon a time, Brethren, Brahmadatta 
reigned as king of Kasi in Benares, and he robbed Dighati, king of Kosala, of his 
kingdom, and put him to death, when living in disguise, and when prince 
Dighavu spared the life of Brahmadatta, they became thenceforth close friends. 
And since such must have been the long-suflfering and tenderness of these 
sceptred and sword-bearing kings, verily. Brethren, you ought to make it clear 
that you too, having embraced the religious life according to so well-taught a; 
doctrine and discipline, can be forgiving and tender-hearted." And thus ad- 
monishing them for the third time he said, " Enough, Brothers, let there be no 
quarrelling." And when he saw that they did not cease at his bidding, he went 
away, saying, "Verily, these foolish folk are like men possessed, they are not 
easy of persuasion." Next day returning from the collection of alms he rested 
awhile in his perfumed chamber, and put his room in order, and then taking his 
bowl and robe he stood poised in the air and delivered these verses in the midst 
of the assembly : 

[488] Whene'er the Brotherhood in twain is rent, 

The common folk to loud-mouthed cries give vent : 

Each one believes that he himself is wise, 

And views his neighbour with disdainfid eyes. 

Bewildered souls, puffed up with self-esteem, 

With open mouth they foolishly blaspheme ; 

And as through all the range of speech they stray, 

They know not whom as leader to obey. 

"TVw'si man abused me, that struck me a blow, 

A third o'ercame and robbed me long ago." 

All such as harbom" feelings of this kind, 

To mitigate their wrath are ne'er inclined. 

"^e did abuse and buffet me of yore. 

He overcame me and oppressed me sore." 

They who such thoughts refuse to entertain, 

Appease their wrath and live at one again. 

Not hate, but love alone makes hate to cease : 

This is the everlasting law of peace. 

Some men the law of self-restraint despise. 

But who make up their quarrels, they are wise. 

If men all scarred with wounds in deadly strife. 

Reivers and robbers, taking human life. 

Nay those that plunder a whole realm, may be 

Friends with their foes, should Brethren not agree ? 

Shouldst thou a wise and honest comrade find, 

A kindred soul, to dwell with thee inclined. 

All dangers past, with him thou still wouldst stray. 

In happy contemplation all the day. 

But shouldst thou fail to meet with such a friend. 

Thy life 'twere best in solitude to spend. 

Like to some prince that abdicates a throne, 

Or elephant that ranges all alone. 

For choice adopt the solitary life, 

Companionship with fools but leads to strife ; 

In careless innocence pursue thy way. 

Like elephant in forest wild astray. 

[489] When the Master had thus spoken, as he failed to reconcile these 
Brethren, he went to Balakalonakaragama (the village of Balaka, the salt-maker), 

1 Dhammapada, v. 3 — 5. See also No. 371 supra. 

No. 428. 291 

and discoursed to the venerable Bhagu of the blessings of solitude. Thence he 
repaired to the abode of three youths of gentle birth and spoke to them of 
the bliss to be found in the sweets of concord. Thence he journeyed to the 
Parileyyaka forest, [490] and after dwelling there three months, without 
returning to Kosambi, he went straight to Savatthi. And the lay folk of 
Kosambi consulted together and said, "Surely these reverend Brothers of 
Kosambi have done us much harm ; worried by them the Blessed One is 
gone away. We will neither offer salutation nor other marks of respect to 
them, nor give alms to them when they visit us. So they will depart, or 
return to the world, or will propitiate the Blessed One." And they did so. 
And these Brethren overwhelmed by this form of punishment went to Savatthi 
and begged forgiveness of the Blessed One. 

The Master thus identified the Birth: "The father was the great king 
Suddhodana, the mother was Mahamaya, prince Dighavu was myself" 

No. 429. 


" Whei'ever fruitful trees," etc. — This story the Master dwelling at Jetavana 
told concerning a certain Brother. The story goes that he lived in a forest near 
a border village in the Kosala country, and received instruction in forms of 
meditation from the Master. The people made him a dwelling-place on a site 
where men continually passed to and fro, providing him with day and night 
quarters, and attentively ministered to him. In the very first month after he 
had entered upon the rainy season the village was burned down and the people 
had not so much as a seed left and were unable to supply his alms-bowl with 
savoury food ; and though he was in a pleasant place of abode, he was so 
distressed for alms that he could not enter upon the Path or its Fruition. So 
when at the end of three months he went to visit the Master, after words of 
kindly greeting the Master hoped that though distressed for alms he had a 
pleasant place to live in. The Brother told him how matters stood. The 
Master on hearing that he had pleasant quarters said, *' Brother, if this is so, an 
ascetic ought to lay aside covetous ways, and be content to eat whatever food he 
can get, and to fulfil all the duties of a priest. Sages of old when born into the 
world as animals, [491] though they lived on the powdered dust of the decayed 

1 Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 67. 


292 The Jataka. Book IX. 

tree in which they had their abode, laid aside greedy desires and were contented 
to stay where they were, and fulfilled the law of love. Why then do you abandon 
a pleasant dwelling-place, because the food you receive is scanty and coarse ? " 
And at his request the Master told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time many myriads of parrots lived in the Himalaya 
country on the banks of the Ganges in a grove of fig-trees. A king of 
the parrots there, when the fruit of the tree in which he dwelt had come 
to an end, ate whatever was left, whether shoot or leaf or bark or rind, 
and drank of water from the Ganges, and being very happy and contented 
he kept where he was. Owing to his happy and contented state the abode 
of Sakka was shaken. Sakka reflecting on the cause saw the parrot, and 
to test his virtue, by his supernatural power he withered up the tree, 
which became a mere stump perfoi-ated with holes, and stood to be buflfeted 
by every blast of wind, and from the holes dust came out. The parrot 
king ate this dust and drank the water of the Ganges, and going nowhere 
else sat perched on the top of the fig-stump, recking nought of wind and 

Sakka noticed how very contented the parrot was, and said, " After 
hearing him speak of the virtue of friendship, I will come and give him 
his choice of a boon, and cause the fig-tree to bear ambrosial fruit." So 
he took the form of a royal goose, and preceded by Suja in the shape of 
an Asura nymph, he went to the grove of fig-trees, and perching on the 
bough of a tree close by, he entered into conversation with the parrot and 
spoke the first stanza : 

Wherever fruitful trees abound, 
A flock of hungry birds is found : 
But should the trees all withered be, 
Away at once the birds will flee. 

[492] And after these words, to drive the parrot tlience, he spoke the 
second stanza : 

Haste thee, Sir Redbeak, to be gone ; 
Why dost thou sit and dream alone 1 
Come tell me, prithee, bird of spring. 
To this dead stump why dost thou cling 1 

Then the parrot said, " O goose, from a feeling of gratitude, I forsake 
not this tree," and he repeated two stanzas : 

They who have been close friends from youth, 
Mindful of goodness and of truth. 
In life and death, in weal and woe 
The claims of friendship ne'er forego. 

I too would fain be kind and good 
To one that long my friend has stood ; 
I wish to live, but have no heart 
From this old tree, though dead, to part. 

No. 429. 293 

Sakka on hearing what he said was delighted, and praising him wished 
to offer him a choice, and uttered two stanzas : 

[493] I know thy friendship and thy grateful love. 
Virtues that wise men surely must approve. 

I offer thee whate'er thou wilt for choice ; 
Parrot, what boon would most thy heart rejoice? 

On hearing this, the king parrot making his choice spoke the seventh 
stanza : 

If thou, goose, what most I crave wouldst give. 
Grant that the tree I love, again may live. 
Let it once more with its old vigour shoot, 
Gather fresh sweetness and bear goodly fruit. 

Then Sakka, granting the boon, spoke the eighth stanza : 

Lo ! friend, a fruitful and right noble tree. 
Well fitted for thy dwelling-place to be. 
Let it once more with its old vigour shoot, 
Gather fresh sweetness and bear goodly fruit. 

[494] With these words Sakka quitted his present form, and mani- 
festing the supei'natural power of himself and Suja, he took up water from 
the Ganges in his hand and dashed it against the fig-tree stump. Sti'aight- 
way the tree rose up rich in branch and stem, and with honey-sweet fruit, 
and stood a charming sight, like unto the bare Jewel-Mount. The parrot 
king on seeing it was highly pleased, and singing the praises of Sakka he 
spoke the ninth stanza : 

May Sakka and all loved by Sakka blessed be, 
As I to-day am blest this goodly sight to see ! 

Sakka, after granting the parrot his choice, and causing the fig-tree to 
bear ambrosial fruit, returned with Sujata to his own abode. 

In illustration of this story these stanzas inspired by Perfect Wisdom were 
added at the close : 

Soon as king parrot wisely made his choice, 
The tree once more put forth its fruit again ; 
Then Sakka with his queen did fly amain 

To where in Nandana the gods rejoice. 

The Master, his lesson ended, said, "Thus, Brother, sages of old though 
born in animal forms were free from covetousness. Why then do you, after 
being ordained under so excellent a dispensation, follow greedy ways ? Go and 
dwell in the same place." And he gave him a form of meditation, and thus 
identified the Birth : — The Brother went back and by spiritual insight attained 
to Sainthood : — " At that time Sakka was Anuruddha, and the parrot king was 

294 The Jataka. Book IX. 

No. 430. 


"Lo ! countless trees," etc. — This story the Master dwelling at Jetavana told 
concerning the Veraiija section i. When the Master after passing the rainy season 
at Veraiija in due course arrived at Savatthi, the Brethren in the Hall of Truth 
raised a discussion saying, " Sirs, a Tathagata, a delicately nurtured kshatriya 
and Buddha, though possessed of supernatural powers, at the invitation of a 
brahmin of Verauja stayed three months with him, and when owing to the 
temptation of Mara he failed to receive an alms at the hands of the brahmin, 
even for a single day, he gave up all covetous ways, and keeping in the same 
place for three months lived on water and a modicum of the ground flour of 
roots. [495] Oh the contented nature of Tathagatas !" When the Master came 
and on inquiry learned the nature of their discussion he said, " It is no marvel. 
Brethren, that a Tathagata now has lost all covetousness, seeing that formerly 
when born in an animal form he forsook covetousness." And hereupon he told 
a story of the past. The whole story is now to be related in detail in exactly 
the same way as in the preceding tale. 

Lo ! countless trees are here, all green and fruitful see ! 
Why, i^arrot, dost thou cling to this poor withered tree ? 

Long years we have enjoyed the luscious fruit it bare. 
And tho' it now has none, it still should claim our care. 

Nor leaves nor fi'uit it yields, alas ! the tree is dead : 
Why blame thy fellow-birds, that they should all have fled ? 

They loved it for its fruit, and now that it has none. 
Poor selfish fools ! their love and gratitude is gone. 

Thy gratitude I own, thy true and constant love, 
Siu-e virtue such as this the wise will aye approve. 

I offer thee, O bird, whate'er thou wilt for choice ; 

Tell me, I pray, what boon would most thy heart rejoice ? 

Would that this tree might bear fresh leaves and fruit again ; 
I would be glad as they that treasiu-e trove obtain. 

Then was the tree by Sakka with ambrosia sprinkled o'er. 
And boughs sprang up with cooling shade, as lovely as before. 

May Sakka and all loved by Sakka blessed be. 
As I to-day am blest this joyous sight to see. 

Thus was the tree made fruitful by the parrot's gratefid choice. 
And Sakka and his queen in groves of Nandana rejoice. 

[496] The Master, his lesson ended, identified the Birth : " In those days 
Sakka was Anuruddha, the parrot king was myself." 

1 See Vinaya, Par. i. 1 — 4. 

No. 431. 295 

No. 431. 


'■^Friend Harita" etc. — This story the Master dwelling at Jetavana told 
concerning a discontented Brother. Now this Brother after seeing a smartly 
attired woman grew discontented and allowed his hair and nails to grow long, 
and wished to return to the world. And when he was brought against his will 
by his teachers and preceptors to the Master, and was asked by him, if it were 
true that he was a backslider, and if so why, he said, " Yes, your Reverence, it is 
owing to the power of sinful passion, after seeing a beautiful woman." [497] The 
Master said, "Sin, Brother, is destructive of virtue, and insipid withal, and 
causes a man to be re-born in hell ; and why should not this sin prove your 
destruction ? For the hurricane that smites Mount Sineru is not ashamed to 
carry off a withered leaf. But owing to this sin men who walk according to 
knowledge and wisdom, and have acquired the five Faculties and the eight 
Attainments, though they were great and holy men, being unable to fix their 
thoughts, fell away from mystic meditation." And then he told a story of the 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born in a certain village in a brahmin family worth eighty 
crores, and from his golden complexion they called him Harittacakumara 
(Young Goldskin). When he was grown up, and had been educated at 
Takkasila, he set up as a householder, and on the death of his father and 
mother he made inspection of his treasures and thought, "The treasure 
only continues to exist, but they who produced it cease to exist : I too 
must be reduced to atoms by means of death," and alarmed by the fear of 
death he gave great gifts, and entering the Himalaya country he adoj^ted 
the religious life, and on the seventh day he entered upon the Faculties 
and Attainments. There for a long time he lived on wild fruit and roots, 
and going down from the mountain to procure salt and vinegar, he in due 
course reached Benares. There he abode in the royal park, and on the 
next day in going his round for alms he came to the door of the king's 
palace. The king was so glad to see him that he sent for him and made 
him sit on the royal couch beneath the shade of the white umbrella, and 
fed him on all manner of dainties, and on his returning thanks the king 
being exceedingly pleased asked him, "Reverend Sir, where are you 
going r' "Great king, we are looking out for a dwelling-place for the 
rainy season." "Very well, Reverend Sir," he said, and after the early 
meal he went with him to the park, and had quarters both for the day and 
night built for him, and, assigning the keeper of the park as his attendant, 
he saluted him and departed. The Great Being from that time fed con- 
tinually in the palace, and lived there twelve years. 

296 The Jdtaha. Booh IX. 

Now one day the king went to quell a disturbance on the frontier, 
[498] and committed the Bodhisatta to the care of the queen, saying, " Do 
not neglect our ' Field of Merit '." Thenceforth she ministered to the 
Great Being with her own hands. 

Now one day she had prepared his food, and as he delayed his coming, 
she bathed in scented water, and put on a soft tunic of fine cloth, and 
opening the lattice lay down on a small couch, and let the wind play upon 
her body. And the Bodhisatta later on in the day, dressed in a goodly 
inner and outer robe, took his alms-bowl and walking through the air 
came to the window. As the queen rose up in haste, at the rustling 
sound of his bark garments, her robe of fine cloth fell from off her. An 
extraordinary object struck upon the eye of the Great Being. Then the 
sinful feeling, that had been dwelling for countless aeons in his heart, 
I'ose up like a snake lying in a box, and put to flight his mystic meditation. 
Being unable to fix his thoughts he went and seized the queen by the 
hand, and forthwith they drew a curtain round them. After misconducting 
himself with her, he partook of some food and returned to the park. And 
every day thenceforth he acted after the same manner. 

His misconduct was blazed abroad throughout the whole city. The 
king's ministers sent a letter to him, saying, " Harita, the ascetic, is acting 
thus and thus." 

The king thought, "They say this, being eager to separate us," and 
disbelieved it. When he had pacified the border country he returned to 
Benares, and after marching in solemn procession round the city, he went 
to the queen and asked her, " Is it true that the holy ascetic Harita mis- 
conducted himself with you ? " " It is true, my lord." He disbelieved 
her also, and thought, "I will ask the man himself," and going to the 
park he saluted him, and sitting respectfully on one side he spoke the first 
stanza in the form of a question : 

Friend Harita, I oft have heard it said 
A sinful life is by your Reverence led ; 
I trust there is no truth in this report, 
And thou art innocent in deed and thought? 

[499] He thought, " If T were to say I am not indulging in sin, this 
king would believe me, but in this world there is no sure ground like 
speaking the truth. They who forsake the truth, though they sit in the 
sacred enclosure of the Bo tree, cannot attain to Buddhahood. I must 
needs just speak the truth." In certain cases a Bodhisatta may destroy 
life, take what is not given him, commit adultery, drink strong drink, 
but he may not tell a lie, attended by deception that violates the reality 
of things. Therefore speaking the truth only he uttered the second 
stanza : 

In evil ways, great king, as thou hast heard. 
Caught by the world's delusive arts, I erred. 

No. 431. 297 

Hearing this the king spoke the third stanza : 

Vain is man's deepest wisdom to dispel 
The passions that within his bosom swell. 

Then Harita pointed out to him the power of sin and spoke the fourth 
stanza : 

There are four passions in this world, great king, 
That in their power are over-mastering : 
Lust, hate, excess and ignorance their nanie ; 
Knowledge can here no certain footing claim. 

[500] The king on hearing this spoke the fifth stanza : 

Endowed with holiness and intellect 
The saintly Harita wins our respect. 

Then Harita spoke the sixth stanza : 

111 thoughts, with pleasant vices if combined, 
Corrupt the sage to saintliness inclined. 

Then the king, encouraging him to throw off sinful passion, spoke the 
seventh stanza : 

The beauty that from purest hearts doth shine 
Is marred by lust, born of this morta,! frame ; 

Away with it, and blessings shall be thine. 
And multitudes thy wisdom shall proclaim. 

Then the Bodhisatta recovered the power to concentrate his thoughts, 
and observing the misery of sinful desire, he spoke the eighth stanza : 

Since blinding passions yield a bitter fruit, 
All growth of lust I cut down to the root. 

[501] So saying he asked the king's leave, and having gained his 
consent he entered his hermit hut, and fixing his gaze on the mystic circle 
he entered into a trance, and came forth from the hut, and sitting cross- 
legged in the air he taught the king the true doctrine and said, "Great 
king, I have incurred censure in the midst of the people by reason of my 
dwelling in a place where I ought not. But be thou vigilant. Now will 
I return to some forest free from all taint of womankind." And amidst 
the tears and lamentations of the king he returned to the Himalaya, 
and without falling away from mystic meditation he entered the Brahma 

The Master knowing the whole story said : 

Thus Harita for truth right stoutly did contend. 
And lust forsaking did to Brahma world ascend. 

And havino- in his Perfect Wisdom spoken this stanza, he declared the 
Truths and identified the Birth :— At the conclusion of the Truths the worldly- 
minded Brother attained to Sainthood :— "At that time the king was Ananda 
Harita was myself." 

298 The Jataka. Book IX. 

No. 432. 


" Pdtala, by Ganges" etc. — This story the Master dwelling at Jetavaua told 
concerning a certain boy. He was, they say, the son of a householder at 
Savatthi, just seven years old, and skilled in recognizing footsteps. Now his 
father being minded to prove him went without his knowing it to a friend's 
house. The boy, without even asking where his father had gone, by tracing his 
footsteps, came and stood before him. So his father one day asked him saying, 
" When 1 went off without telling you, how did you know where I was gone ? " 
[502] " My dear father, I recognized your footsteps. I am skilled in this way." 
Then his father, to prove him, went out of his house after the early meal, and 
going into his next-door neighbour's house, from it passed into another, and 
from this third house again returned to his own home, and thence made his way 
to the North gate, and passing out by it made a circuit of the city from right 
to left. And coming to Jetavana he saluted the Master and sat down to listen 
to the Law. The boy asked where his father was, and when they said, " We do 
not know," by tracing his father's steps, and starting from the next-door 
neighbour's house he went by the same road by which his father had travelled 
to Jetavana, and after saluting the Master stood in the presence of his father, 
and when asked by him, how he knew that he had come here, he said, " I 
recognized your footsteps and following in your track came hither." The Master 
asked, " Lay Brother, what are you saying ? " He answered, " Yoiu- Reverence, 
this boy is skilled in knowing footsteps. To test him I came hither in such and 
such a manner. Not finding me at home, by following in my footsteps, he 
arrived here." " There is no marvel," said the Mastei', " in recognizing steps 
upon the ground. Sages of old recognized steps in the air," and on being asked, 
he told a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, his 
queen-consort after falling into sin was questioned by the king, and taking 
an oath she said, " If I have sinned against you, I shall become a female 
Yakkha with a face like a horse." After her death she became a horse-faced 
Yakkha and dwelt in a rock-cave in a vast forest at the foot of a mountain, 
and used to catch and devour the men that frequented the road leading 
from the East to the Western border. After serving Vessavana^ three 
years, it is said, she got leave to eat people in a certain space, thirty leagues 
long by five leagues broad. Now one day a rich, wealthy, handsome 
brahmin, accompanied by a large suite, ascended that road. The Yakkha, 
on seeing him, with a loud laugh rushed upon him, and his attendants all 
fled. With the speed of the wind she seized the brahmin [503] and threw 
him on her back, and in entering the cave, through coming into contact 
with the man, under the influence of passion she conceived an afiection 

1 The lord of Yakkhas. 

No. 432. 299 

for him, and instead of devouring him she made him her husband, and 
they lived harmoniously together. And thenceforth the Yakkha whenever 
she captured men, also took their clothes and rice and oil and the like, 
and serving him with various dainty food she herself would eat man's 
flesh. And whenever she went away, for fear of his escaping, she closed 
the mouth of the cave with a huge stone before leaving. And while they 
were thus living amicably together, the Bodhisatta passing from his former 
existence was conceived in the womb of the Yakkha by the brahmin. 
After ten months she gave birth to a son, and filled with love for the 
brahmin and her child, she fed them both. By and bye when the boy was 
grown up, she put him also inside the cave with his fathei', and closed the 
door. Now one day the Bodhisatta knowing she had gone away removed 
the stone and let his father out. And when she asked on her return who 
had removed the stone, he said, " I did, mother : we caunot sit in dark- 
ness." And through love for her child she did not say another word. 
Now one day the Bodhisatta asked his father, saying, " Dear father, your 
mouth is difierent from my mother's; what is the reason?" "My son, 
your mother is a Yakkha and lives on man's flesh, but you and I are 
men." " If so, why do we live here 1 Come, we will go to the haunts of 
men." " My dear boy, if we shall try to escape, your mother will kill us 
both." The Bodhisatta reassured his father and said, " Do not be afraid, 
dear father; that you shall return to the haunts of men shall be my 
charge." And next day when his mother had gone away, he took his 
father and fled. When the Yakkha returned and missed them, she rushed 
forward with the swiftness of the wind and caught them and said, " O 
brahmin, why do you run away? Is there anything that you want here?" 
" My dear," he said, " do not be angry with me. [504] Your son carried 
me off with him." And without another word, owing to her love for her 
child, she comforted them and making for her place of abode she brought 
them back after a flight of some days. The Bodhisatta thought, " My 
mother must have a limited sphere of action. Suppose I were to ask her 
the limits of space over which her authority extends. Then I will escape 
by going beyond this." So one day sitting respectfully near his mother he 
said, " My dear, that which belongs to a mother comes to the children ; 
tell me now what is the boundary of our ground." She told him all the 
landmarks, mountains and such like in all directions, and pointed out to 
her son the space, thirty leagues long and five leagues broad, and said, 
" Consider it to be so much, my son." After the lapse of two or three 
days, when his mother had gone to the forest, he put his father on his 
shoulder and rushing on with the swiftness of the wind, by the hint given 
him by his mother, he reached the bank of the river that was the limit. 
The mother too, when on her return she missed them, pursued after them. 
The Bodhisatta carried his father into the middle of the river, and she 

300 The Jataka. Book IX. 

came and stood on the river bank, and when she saw that they had passed 
beyond the limits of her sphere, she stopped where she was, and cried, 
" My dear child, come here with your father. What is my offence 1 In 
what respect do not things go well with you 1 Come back, my lord." 
Thus did she beseech her child and husband. So the brahmin crossed the 
river. She prayed to her child also, and said, " Dear son, do not act after 
this sort : come back again." " Mother, we are men : you are a Yakkha. 
We cannot always abide with you." " And will you not return ?" " No, 
mother." " Then if you refuse to return — as it is painful to live in the 
world of men, and they who know not any craft cannot live — I am skilled 
in the lore of the philosopher's stone : by its power, one can follow after 
the lapse of twelve years in the steps of those that have gone away. This 
will prove a livelihood to you. Take, my child, this invaluable charm." 
And though overcome by such great sorrow, through love of her child, she 
gave him the charm. [505] The Bodhisatta, still standing in the river, 
folded his hands tortoise-wise and took the charm, and saluting his mother 
cried, "Good-bye, mother." The Yakkha said, "If you do not return, my 
son, I cannot live," and she smote upon her breast, and straightway in 
sorrow for her son her heart was broken and she fell down dead on the 
spot. The Bodhisatta, when he knew his mother was dead, called to his 
father and went and made a funeral pile and burned her body. After 
extinguishing the flames, he made offerings of various coloured flowers, 
and with weeping and lamentation returned with his father to Benares. 

It was told the king, " A youth skilled in tracking footsteps is standing 
at the door." And when the king bade him enter, he came in and saluted 
the king. "My friend," he said, "do you know any craft?" "My lord, 
following on the track of one who has stolen any property twelve years 
ago, I can catch him." " Then enter my service," said the king. " I will 
serve you for a thousand pieces of money daily." "Very well, friend, 
you shall serve me." And the king had him paid a thousand pieces of 
money daily. Now one day the family priest said to the king, " My lord, 
because this youth does nothing by the power of his art, we do not know 
whether he has any skill or not: we will now test him." The king 
readily agreed, and the pair gave notice to the keepers of the various 
treasures, and taking the most valuable jewels descended from the terrace, 
and after groping their way three times round the palace, they placed a 
ladder on the top of the wall and by means of it descended to the outside. 
Then they entered the Hall of Justice, and after sitting there they returned 
and again placing the ladder on the wall descended by it into the city. 
Coming to the edge of a tank they thrice marched solemnly round it, and 
then dropped their treasure in the tank, and climbed back to the terrace. 
[506] Next day there was a great outcry and men said, " Treasure has 
been stolen from the palace." The king pretending ignorance summoned 

No. 432. 301 

the Bodhisatta and said, " Friend, much valuable treasure has been stolen 
from the palace : we must trace it." " My lord, for one who is able to 
follow the traces of robbers and recover treasure stolen twelve years ago, 
there is nothing marvellous in his recovering stolen property after a single 
day and night. I will recover it; do not be troubled." "Then recover 
it, friend." "Yery well, my lord," he said, and went and saluting his 
mother's memory he repeated the spell, still standing on the terrace, and 
said, "My lord, the steps of two thieves are to be seen." And following 
in the steps of the king and the priest he entered the royal closet, and 
issuing thence he descended from the terrace, and after thrice making a 
cii'cuit of the palace he drew near the wall. Standing on it he said, " My 
lord, starting in this place from the wall I see footsteps in the air : bring 
me a ladder." And having had a ladder placed for him against the wall, 
he descended by it, and still following in their track he came to the Hall 
of Justice. Then returning to the palace he had the ladder planted 
against the wall, and descending by it he came to the tank. After thrice 
mai'ching round it he said, "My lord, the thieves went down into this 
tank," and taking out the treasure, as if he had deposited it there himself, 
he gave it to the king and said, "My lord, these two thieves are men of 
distinction : by this way they climbed up into the palace." The people 
snapped their fingers in a high state of delight, and there was a gi-eat 
waving of cloths. The king thought, "This youth, methinks, by following 
in their steps knows the place where the thieves put the treasure, but the 
thieves he cannot catch." Then he said, "You at once brought us the 
property carried off by the thieves, but will you be able to catch the 
thieves and bring them to us?" "My lord, the thieves are here: they 
are not far off." [507] " Who are they 1 " " Great king, let any one that 
likes be the thief. From the time you recovered your treasure, why 
.should you want the thieves ? Do not ask about that." " Friend, I pay 
you daily a thousand pieces of money : bring the thieves to me." " Sire, 
when the treasure is recovered, what need of the thieves'?" "It is better, 
friend, for us to catch the thieves than to recover the treasure." " Then, 
sire, I will not tell you, ' So and so are the thieves,' but I will tell you a 
thing that happened long ago. If you are wise, you will know what it 
means." And herewith he told an old tale. 

Once upon a time, sire, a certain dancer named Patala lived not far 
from Benares, in a village on the river's bank. One day he went into 
Benares with his wife and after gaining money by his singing and dancing, 
at the end of the fete he procured some rice and strong drink. On his 
way to his own village he came to the bank of the river, and sat down 
watching the freshly flowing stream, to drink his strong drink. When 
he was drunk and unconscious of his weakness, he said, " I will fasten my 
big lute about my neck and go down into the river." And he took his 

302 The Jdtaka. Book IX. 

wife by the hand and went down into the river. The water entered into 
the holes of the lute, and then the weight of his lute made him begin to 
sink. But when his wife saw he was sinking, she let go of him and went 
up out of the river and stood upon the bank. The dancer Patala now 
rises and now sinks, and his belly became swollen from swallowing the 
water. So his wife thought, " My husband will now die : I will beg of 
him one song, and by singing this in the midst of the people, I shall earn 
my living." And saying, " My lord, you are sinking in the water : give 
me just one song, and I will earn my living by it," she spoke this 
stanza : 

[508] Patala, by Ganges swept away, 

Famous in dance and skilled in roundelay, 
Patala, all hail ! as thou art borne along. 
Sing me, I pray, some little snatch of song. 

Then the dancer Patala said, " My dear, how shall I give you a little 
song ? The water that has been the salvation of the people is killing me," 
and he spoke a stanza : 

Wherewith are sprinkled fainting souls in pain, 
I straight am killed. My refuge proved my bane. 

The Bodhisatta in explanation of this stanza said : *' Sire, even as 
water is the refuge of the people, so also is it with kings. If danger arises 
from them, who shall avert that danger? This, sire, is a secret matter. 
I have told a story intelligible to the wise : understand it, sire." "Friend, 
I understand not a hidden story like this. Catch the thieves and bring 
them to me." Then the Bodhisatta said, "Hear then this, sire, and under- 
stand." And he told yet another tale. 

"My lord, formerly in a village outside the city gates of Benares, a 
potter used to fetch clay for his pottery, and constantly getting it in the 
same place he dug a deep pit inside a mountain-cave. Now one day while 
he was getting the clay, an unseasonable storm-cloud sprang up, and let 
fall a heavy rain, and the flood overwhelmed and threw down the side of 
the pit, and the man's head was broken by it. Loudly lamenting he spoke 
this stanza : 

That by which seeds do grow, man to sustain. 
Has crushed my head. My refuge proved my bane. 

" For even as the mighty earth, sire, which is the refuge of the people, 
broke the potter's head, even so when a king, who like the mighty earth is 
the refuge of the whole world, rises up and plays the thief, who shall avert 
the danger 1 Can you, sire, [509] recognize the thief hidden under the 
guise of this story?" "Friend, we do not want any hidden meaning. 
Say, ' Here is the thief,' and catch him and hand him over to me." 

Still shielding the king and without saying in words, "Thou art the 
thief," he told yet another story. 

No. 432. 303 

In this very city, sire, a certain man's house was on fire. He ordered 
another man to go into the house and bring out his property. When 
this man had entered the house and was bringing out his goods, the 
door was shut. Blinded with smoke and unable to find his way out and 
tormented by the rising flame, he remained inside lamenting, and spoke 
this stanza : 

That which destroys the cold, and parches grain, 
Consumes my limbs. My reftige proves my bane. 

" A man, O king, who like fire was the refuge of the people, stole the 
bundle of jewels. Do not ask me about the thief." " Friend, just bring 
me the thief." Without telling the king that he was a thief, he told yet 
another story. 

Once, sire, in this very city a man ate to excess and was unable to 
digest his food. Maddened with pain and lamenting he spoke this 
stanza : 

Food on which countless brahmins life sustain 
Killed me outright. My refuge proved my bane. 

" One, who like rice, sire, was the refuge of the people, stole the 
property. When that is recovered, why ask about the thief ? " " Friend, 
if you can, bring me the thief." To make the king comprehend, he told 
yet another story. 

[510] Formerly, sire, in this very city a wind arose and broke a certain 
man's limbs. Lamenting he spoke this stanza : 

Wind that in June wise men by prayer would gain. 
My limbs doth break. My refuge proved my bane. 

"Thus, sire, did danger arise from my refuge. Understand this story." 
"Friend, bring me the thief" To make the king understand, he told him 
yet another story. 

Once upon a time, sire, on the side of the Himalayas grew a tree with 
forked branches, the dwelling-place of countless birds. Two of its boughs 
rubbed against one another. Hence arose smoke, and sparks of fire were 
let fall. On seeing this the chief bird uttered this stanza : 

Flame issues from the tree where we have lain : 
Scatter, ye birds. Our refuge proves our bane. 

"For just as, sire, the tree is the refuge of birds, so is the king the 
refuge of his people. Should he play the thief, who shall avert the 
danger? Take note of this, sire." "Friend, only bring me the thief." 
Then he told the king yet another story. 

In a village of Benares, sire, on the western side of a gentleman's 
house was a river full of savage crocodiles, and in this family was an only 
son, who on the death of his father watched over his mother. His mother 
against his will brought home a gentleman's daughter as his wife. At 

304 The Jataka. Book IX. 

first she showed affection for her mother-in-law, but afterwards when blest 
with numerous sons and daughters of her own, she wished to get rid of 
her. Her own mother also lived in the same house. In her husband's 
presence she found all manner of fault with her mother-in-law, to prejudice 
him against her, saying, " I cannot possibly support your mother : you 
must kill her," [511] And when he answered, "Murder is a serious 
matter : how am I to kill her ? " she said, " "When she has fallen asleep, 
we will take her, bed and all, and throw her into the crocodile river. 
Then the crocodiles will make an end of her." *' And where is your 
mother 1" he said. "She sleeps in the same room as your mother." 
"Then go and set a mark on the bed on which she lies, by fastening a 
rope on it." She did so, and said, "I have put a mark on it." The 
husband said, "Excuse me a moment; let the people go to bed first.'' 
And he lay down pretending to go to sleep, and then went and fastened 
the rope on his mother-in-law's bed. Then he woke his wife, and they 
went together and lifting her up, bed and all, threw her into the river. 
And the crocodiles there killed and ate her. Next day she found out 
what had happened to her own mother and said, " My lord, my mother is 
dead, now let us kill yours." " Very well then," he said, " we will make 
a funeral pile in the cemetery, and cast her into the fire and kill her." So 
the man and his wife took her while she was asleep to the cemetery, and 
deposited her there. Then the husband said to his wife, " Have you 
brought any fire ? " "I have forgotten it, my lord." " Then go and fetch it." 
" I dare not go, my lord, and if you go, I dare not stay here : we will go 
together." When they were gone, the old woman was awakened by the 
cold wind, and finding it was a cemetery, she thought, "They wish to kill 
me : they are gone to fetch fire. They do not know how strong I am." 
And she stretched a corpse on the bed and covered it over with a cloth, 
and ran away and hid herself in a mountain cave in that same place. The 
husband and wife brought the fire and taking the corpse to be the old 
woman they burned it and went away. A certain robber had left his 
bundle in this mountain cave and coming back to fetch it he saw the old 
woman and thought, " This must be a Yakkha : my bundle is possessed by 
goblins," and he fetched a devil-doctor. The doctor uttered a spell and 
entered the cave. Then she said to hiin, "I am no Yakkha: come, we 
will enjoy this treasure together." " How is this to be believed % " " Place 
your tongue on my tongue." He did so, and she bit a piece off his tongue 
and let it drop to the ground. The devil-doctor thought, " This is certainly 
a Yakkha," and he cried aloud and fled away, with the blood dripping 
from his tongue. [512] Next day the old woman put on a clean under- 
garment and took the bundle of all sorts of jewels and went home. The 
daughter-in-law on seeing her asked, "Where, mother, did you get this ? " 
" My deal-, all that ai-e burned on a wooden pile in this cemetery receive 

No. 432. 305 

the same." " My dear mother, can I too get this 1 " " If you become 
like me, you will." So without saying a word to her husband, in her 
desire for a lot of ornaments to wear, she went there and burned herself. 
Her husband next day missed her and said, " My dear mother, at this time 
of day is not your daughter-in law coming ? " Then she reproached him 
saying, "Fie! you bad man, how do the dead come back?" And she 
uttered this stanza : 

A maiden fair, with wreath upon her head. 

Fragrant with sandal oil, by me was led 

A happy bi'ide within my home to reign : 

She drove me forth. My refuge proved my bane. 

" As the daughter-in-law, sire, is to the mother-in-law, so is the king a 
refuge to his people. If danger arises thence, what can one dot take 
note of this, sire." " Friend, I do not understand the things you tell me : 
only bring me the thief." He thought, "I will shield the king," and he 
told yet another story. 

Of old, sire, in this very city a man in answer to his prayer had a son. 
At his birth the father was full of joy and gladness at the thought of 
having got a son, and cherished him. When the boy was grown up, he 
wedded him to a wife, and by and bye he himself grew old and could not 
undertake any woi'k. So his son said, " You cannot do any work : you 
must go from hence," and he drove him out of the house. [olS] With 
great difficulty he kept himself alive on alms, and lamenting he uttered 
this stanza : 

He for whose liirth I longed, nor longed in vain, 
Drives me from home. IVIy refuge proved my bane. 

"Just as an aged father, sire, ought to be cared for by an able-bodied 
son, so too ought all the people to be protected by the king, and this 
danger now present has arisen from the king, who is the guardian of all 
men. Know, sire, from this fact that the thief is so and so." " I do not 
understand this, be it fact or no fact : either bring me the thief, or you 
yourself must be the thief." Thus did the king again and again question 
the youth. So he said to him, " Would you, sire, really like the thief to 
be caught?" " Yes, friend." "Then I will proclaim it in the midst of 
the assembly. So and So is the thief." "Do so, friend." On hearing his 
words he thought, " This king does not allow me to shield him : I will 
now catch the thief." And when the people had gathered together, he 
addressed them and spoke these stanzas : 

Let town and country folk assembled all give ear, 

Lo ! water is ablaze. From safety cometh fear. 

The plundered realm may well of king and priest complain ; 

Henceforth protect yourselves. Your refuge proves your bane. 

J. III. 20 

306 The Jataka. Book IX. 

[514] When they heard what he said, people thought, "The king, 
though he ought to have protected others, threw the blame on another. 
After he had with his own hands placed his treasure in the tank, he went 
about looking for the thief. That he may not in future go on playing the 
part of a thief, we will kill this wicked king." So they rose up with 
sticks and clubs in their hands, and then and there beat the king and the 
priest till they died. But they anointed the Bodhisatta and set him on 
the throne. 

The Master, after relating this story to illustrate the Truths, said, "Lay 
Brother, there is nothing marvellous in recognizing footsteps on the earth : sages 
of old recognized them in the air," and he identified the Birth :— At the con- 
clusion of the Truths the lay Brother and his son attained to fruition of the 
First Path : — " In those days the father was Kassapa, the youth skilled in foot- 
steps was myself." 

No. 433. 


"^ king like Indra" etc. — This story the Master dwelling at Jetavana told 
concerning a worldly-minded Brother. The Master asked him if he were longing 
for the world, and when he admitted that it was so, the Master said, " Brother, 
even men of the highest fame sometimes incur infamy. Sins like these defile 
even pure beings ; much more one like you." And then he told a story of the 

Once iipon a time prince Brahmadatta, son of Brahmadatta king of 
Benares, and the son of his family priest named Kassapa [515], were 
schoolmates and learned all the sciences in the house of the same teacher. 
By and bye the young prince on his father's death was established in the 
kingdom. Kassapa thought, " My friend has become king : he will 
bestow great power on me : what have I to do with power ? I will take 
leave of the king and my parents, and become an ascetic." So he went 
into the Himalayas and adopted the religious life, and on the seventh day he 
entered on the Faculties and Attainments, and gained his living by what 
he gleaned in the fields. And men nicknamed the ascetic Lomasakassapa 
(Hairy Kassapa). With his senses mortified he became an ascetic of 

No. 433. 307 

grim austei'ity. And by virtue of his austerity the abode of Sakka was 
shaken. Sakka, reflecting on the cause, observed him and thought, "This 
ascetic, by the exceedingly fierce fire of his vii-tue, would make me fall 
even from the abode of Sakka. After a secret interview with the king of 
Benares, I will break down his austerity." By the power of a Sakka he 
entered the royal closet of the king of Benares at midnight and illuminated 
all the chamber with the radiance of his form, and standing in the air 
Ijefore the king he woke him np and said, " Sire, arise," and when the 
king asked, " Who are you ]" he answered, "I am Sakka." "Wherefore 
are you come?" "Sire, do you desire or not sole rule in all India?" 
"Of course I do." So Sakka said, "Then bring Lomasakassapa here and 
bid him offer a sacrifice of slain beasts, and you shall become, like Sakka, 
exempt from old age and death, and exercise rule throughout all India," 
and he repeated the first stanza : 

A king like Indra thou shalt be. 
Ne'er doomed old age or death to see. 
Should Kassapa by thy advice 
Ofter a living sacrifice. 

On hearing his words the king readily assented. Sakka said, "Then 
make no delay," and so departed. [516] Next day the king summoned a 
councillor named Sayha and said, "Good sir, go to my dear friend Lomasa- 
kassapa and in my name speak thus to him : ' The king by persuading you 
to offer a sacrifice will become sole ruler in all India, and he will grant 
you as much land as you desire : come with me to ofter sacrifice '." He 
answered, " Very well, sii-e," and made proclamation by beat of drum to 
learn the place where the ascetic dwelt, and when a certain forester said, 
" I know," Sayha went there under his guidance with a large following, 
and saluting the sage sat respectfully on one side and delivered his message. 
Then he said to him, "Sayha, what is this you say?" and refusing him he 
spoke these four stanzas : 

iNo island realm, safe-guarded in the sea, 
Shall tempt me, Sayha, to this cruelty. 

A curse upon the lust of fame and gain, 
Whence spring the sins that lead to endless pain. 

Better, as homeless waif, to beg one's bread 
Than by a crime bring shame upon my head. 

Yea better, bowl in hand, to flee from sin 
Than by such cruelty a kingdom win. 

The councillor, after hearing what he said, went and told the king. 
Thought the king, "Should he refuse to come, what can I do?" and kept 
silent. [517] But Sakka at midnight came and stood in the air and said, 

1 These stanzas occur in No. 310 sn^ra, in a different context. 


308 The Jataka. Book IX. 

"Why, sire, do you not send for Lomasakassapa and bid him offer sacri- 
fice?" "When he is sent for, he refuses to come." "Sire, adoi*n your 
daughter, princess CandavatI, and send her by the hand of Sayha and bid 
him say, ' If you will come and offer sacrifice, the king will give you this 
maiden to wife.' Clearly he will be struck with love of the maiden and 
will come." The king readily agreed, and next day sent his daughter by 
the hand of Sayha. Sayha took the king's daughter and went there, and 
after the usual salutation and compliments to the sage, he presented to 
him the princess, as lovely as a celestial nymph, and stood at a respectful 
distance. The ascetic losing his moral sense looked at hei-j and with the 
mere look he fell away from meditation. The councillor seeing that he 
was smitten with love said, "Your Reverence, if you will offer saci'ifice, 
the king will give you this maiden to wife." He trembled with the power 
of passion and said, "Will he surely give her to mel" "Yes, if you offer 
sacrifice, he will." "Very well," he said, "If I get her, I will sacrifice," 
and taking her with him, just as he was, ascetic locks and all, he mounted 
a splendid chariot and went to Benares. But the king, as soon as he 
heard he was certainly coming, prepared for the cei-emony in the sacrificial 
pit. So when he saw that he was come, he said, "If you offer sacrifice, I 
shall become equal to Indra, and when the sacrifice is completed, I will 
give you my daughter." Kassapa readily assented. So the king next day 
went with CandavatI to the sacrificial pit. There all four-footed beasts, 
elephants, horses, bulls and the rest were placed in a line. Kassapa 
essayed to offer sacri6ce by killing and slaying them all. Then the people 
that were gathered together thei-e said, [518] "This is not proper or 
befitting you, Lomasakassapa: why do you act thus?" And lamenting 
they uttered two stanzas : 

Both sun and moon bear potent sway, 
And tides no power on earth can stay, 
Brahmins and priests almighty are. 
But womankind is mightier far. 

E'en so CandavatI did win 
Grim Kassapa to deadly sin, 
And urged him by her sire's device 
To offer living sacrifice^. 

At this moment Kassapa, to offer sacrifice, lifted up his precious sword 
to strike the royal elephant on the neck. The elephant at the sight of the 
sword, terrified with the fear of death, uttered a loud cry. On hearing his 
cry the other beasts too, elephants, horses, and bulls through fear of death 
uttered loud cries, and the people also cried aloud. Kassapa, on hearing 
these loud cries, grew excited and reflected on his matted hair. Then he 
became conscious of matted locks and beard, and the hair upon his body 

' See Weber, Ind. Stud. x. 348. 

No. 433. 309 

and breast. Full of remorse he cried, " Alas ! I have done a sinful deed, 
unbecoming my character," and showing his emotion he spoke the eighth 
stanza : 

[519] This cruel act is of desire the fruit ; 

The growth of lust I'll cut down to the root. 

Then the king said, " Friend, fear not : offer the sacrifice, and I will 
now give you the princess CandavatI, and my kingdom and a pile of the 
seven treasures." On hearing this Kassapa said, "Sire, I do not want 
this sin upon my soul," and spoke the concluding stanza : 

Curse on the lusts upon this earth so rife, 
Better by far than these the ascetic life ; 
I will forsaking sin a hermit be : 
Keep thou thy realm and fair CandavatI. 

With these words he concentrated his thoughts on the mystic object, 
and recovering the lost idea sat cross-legged in the air, teaching the law to 
the king, and, admonishing him to be zealous in good works, he bade him 
destroy the sacrificial pit and grant an amnesty to the people. And at 
the king's request, flying up into the air he returned to his own abode. 
And as long as he lived, he cultivated the Brahma perfections and became 
destined to birth in the Brahma world. 

The Master having ended his lesson revealed the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the worldly-minded Brother attained to 
Sainthood : — " In those days the great councillor Say ha was Sariputta, Lomasa- 
kassapa was myself ' 

No. 434. 


[520] " Tiviii pair of birds" c^c— This story the Master dwelling at Jetavana 
told concerning a greedy Brother. He was, it was said, greedy after the 
Buddhist requisites and casting oft" all duties of master and pastor, entered 
Savatthi quite early, and aftci- drinking excellent rice-gruel served with many a 
kind of solid food in the house of Visakha, and after eating in the daytime various 
dainties, paddy, meat and boiled rice, not satisfied with this he goes about thence 

' See R. Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 69. 

310 The Jataka. Book IX. 

to the house of Culla-Aiiathapindika, and the king of Kosala, and various others. 
So one day a discussion was raised in the Hall of Truth concerning his greediness. 
When the Master heard what they were discussing, he sent for that Brother and 
asked him if it were true that he was greedy. And when he said " Yes," the 
Master asked, " Why, Brother, are you greedy ? Formerly too through your 
greediness, not being satisfied with the dead bodies of elephants, you left Benares 
and, wandering about on the bank of tlie Ganges, entered the Himalaya country." 
And hereupon he told a story of the past. 

Once npon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, a 
greedy crow went about eating the bodies of dead elephants, and not 
satisfied with them he thought, " I will eat the fat of fish on the bank of 
the Ganges," and after staying a few days there eating dead fish he went 
into the Himalaya and lived on various kinds of wild fruits. Coming to 
a large lotus-tank abounding in fish and turtles, he saw there two golden- 
coloured geese who lived on the sevala plant. He thought, " These birds 
are very beautiful and well-favoured : their food be delightful. T 
will ask them what it is, and by eating the same I too shall become golden- 
coloured." So he went to them, and after the usual kindly greetings to 
them as they sat perched on the end of a bough, he spoke the first stanza 
in connexion with their praises : 

Twin pair of birds in yellow dressed. 

So joyous roaming to and fro ; 
What kind of bii'ds do men love best ? 

This is what I am fain to know. 

[521] The ruddy goose on hearing this spoke the second stanza : 

bird, of human kind the pest. 
We above other birds arc blest. 
All lands with our " devotion i" ring 
And men and birds our praises sing. 
Know then that ruddy geese ai-e we, 
And fearless wander o'er the sea'^. 

Hearing this the crow spoke the third stanza : 

What fruits upon the sea abound. 
And whence may flesh for geese be found ? 
Say on what heavenly food ye live. 
Such beauty and such strength to give. 

[522] Then the ruddy goose spoke the fourth stanza : 

No fruits ai'e on the sea t(j eat, 

And whence should ruddy geese have meat 1 

Sevala plant, stript of its skin. 

Yields food without a taint of sin. 

^ The ruddy goose, iu the poetry of the Hindus, is their turtle-dove. See Wilson's 
Meghaduta, p. 77. 

2 By the word ' sea ' the Ganges is here intended. 

No. 434. 311 

Then the crow spoke two stanzas : 

I like not, goose, the words you use : 
I once believed the food we choose 
To nourish us, ought to agree 
With what our outward form might be. 

But now I doubt it, for I eat 

Rice, salt, and oil, and fruit, and meat : 

As heroes feast returned from hght, 

So I too in good cheer delight. 

But though I live on dainty fare, 

My looks with yours may not compare. 

[523] Then the ruddy goose told the reason why the crow failed to 
attain to personal beauty, while he himself attained to it, and spoke the 
remaining stanzas : 

Not satisfied with fruit, or garbage found 
Within the precincts of the charnel ground. 
The greedy crow pursues in wanton flight 
The casual prey that tempts his appetite. 

But all that thus shall work their wicked will, 
And for their pleasure harmless creatures kill, 
Upbraided by their conscience pine away, 
And see their strength and comeliness decay. 

So happy beings that no creatures harm 
In form gain vigour and in looks a charm. 
For beauty surely be it understood 
Depends not wholly on the kind of food. 

[524] Thus did the ruddy goose in many ways reproach the crow. 
And the crow having brought this reproach upon himself said, " I want 
not your beauty." And with a cry of ' Caw, Caw,' he flew away. 

The Master, his lesson ended, revealed the Truths and identified the Birth : — 
At the conclusion of the Truths the greedy Brother attained to fruition of the 
Second Path : — " In those days the crow was the greedy Brother, the she-goose 
was the mother of Rahula, the he-goose myself." 

No. 435. 


" In lonesome forest," etc. — This story the Master at Jetavana told about a 
youth who was temjited by a certain coarse maiden. The introductory story 
wiU be found in the Thirteenth Book in the CuUanarada Birth i. 

1 No. 477, Vol. iv. 

312 The Jataka. Booh IX. 

Now in the old legend this maiden knew that if the young ascetic 
should break the moral law, he would be in her power, and thinking to 
cajole him and bring him back to the haunts of men, she said, "Virtue 
that is safe-guarded in a forest, where the qualities of sense such as beauty 
and the like have no existence, does not prove very fruitful, but it bears 
abundant fruit in the haunts of men, in the immediate presence of beauty 
and the like. So come with me and guard your virtue there. What have 
you to do with a forest 1 " And she uttered the first stanza : 

In lonesome forest one may well be pm*e, 
'Tis easy there temptation to endure ; 
But in a village with seductions rife, 
A man may rise to a far nobler life. 

On hearing this the young ascetic said, " My father is gone into the 
forest. When he returns, I will ask his leave and then accompany you." 
She thought, [525] " He has a father, it seems ; if he should find me here, 
he will strike me with the end of his cai'rying-pole and kill me : I must 
be off beforehand." So she said to the youth, "I will start on the road 
before you, and leave a trail behind me : you are to follow me." When 
she had left him, he neither fetched wood, nor brought water to di'ink, but 
just sat meditating, and when his father arrived, he did not go out to 
meet him. So the father knew that his son had fallen into the power of 
a woman and he said, "Why, my son, did you neither fetch wood nor 
bring me water to drink, nor food to eat, but why do you do nothing but 
sit and meditate f The youthful ascetic said, "Father, men say that 
virtue that has to be guarded in a forest is not very fruitful, but that it 
brings forth much fruit in the haunts of men. I will go and guard my 
virtue there. My companion has gone forward, bidding me follow: so I 
will go with my companion. But when I am dwelling there, what manner 
of man am I to afiect?" And asking this question he spoke the second 
stanza : 

^This doubt, my father, solve for me, I pray; 
If to some village from this wood I stray, 
Men of what school of morals, or what sect 
Shall I most wisely for my friends aftect ? 

Then his father spoke and repeated the rest of the verses : 

One that can gain thy confidence and love, 
Can trust thy word, and with thee patient prove, 
In thought and word and deed will ne'er oftend — 
Take to thy heart and cling to him as friend. 
To men capricious as the monkey kind. 
And found unstable, be not thou inclined. 
Though to some wilderness thy lot's confined. 

1 This stanza and the first seven of the following verses are to be found in No. 348 

No. 435. 313 

Eschew foul ways, e'en as thou would'st keep clear 
Of angry serpent, or as charioteer 
[526] Avoids a rugged road. Sorrows abound 

Whene'er a man in Folly's train is found : 
Consort not thou with fools — my voice obey — 
The fool's companion is to grief a prey. 

Being thus admonished by his father, the youth said, " If I should go 
to the haunts of men, I should not find sages like you. I dread going 
thither. I will dwell here in your presence." Then his father admonished 
him still further and taught him the preparatory rites to induce mystic 
meditation. And before long, the son developed the Faculties and 
Attainments, and with his father became destined to birth in the Brahma 

The Master, his lesson ended, proclaimed the Truths and identified the 
Birth : — At the conclusion of the Truths the Brother who longed for the world 
attained to fruition of the First Path : — "In those days the young ascetic was 
the worldly-minded Brother, the maiden then is the maiden now, but the father 
was myself." 

No. 436. 


[527] " Whence come ye, friends," e^c\— This story the Master, while dwelling 
at Jetavana, told of a worldly-minded Brother. The Master, they say, asked him 
if it were true that he was hankering after the world, and on his confessing that 
it was so, he said, "Why, Brother, do you desire a woman? Verily woman is 
wicked and ungrateful. Of old Asura demons swallowed women, and though 
they guarded them in their belly, they could not keep them faithful to one man. 
How then will you be able to do so ?" And hereupon he related an old-world 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta foregoing sinful pleasures entered the Himalayas and adopted 
the religious life. And he dwelt there living on wild fruits, and developed 
the Faculties and Attainments. Not far from his hut of leaves lived an 
Asura demon. From time to time he drew nigh to the Great Being and 

314 The Jataka. Book IX. 

listened to the Law, but taking his stand in tlie forest on the high road 
where men gatliered together, he caught and ate them. At this time a 
certain noble lady in the kingdom of Kasi, of exceeding beauty, settled in 
a frontier village. One day she went to visit her parents, and as she was 
returning this demon caught sight of the men that formed her escort and 
rushed upon them in a terrible form. The men let fall the weapons 
in their hands and took to flight. The demon on seeing a lovely woman 
seated in the chariot, fell in love with her, and carrying her off to his cave 
made her his wife. Thenceforth he brought her ghee, husked rice, fish, 
flesh, and the like, as well as ripe fruit to eat, and arrayed her in robes 
and ornaments, and in order to keep her safe he put her in a box which 
he swallowed, and so guarded her in his belly. One day he wished to 
bathe, and coming to the tank he threw up the box and taking her out of 
it he bathed and anointed her, and when he had dressed her he said, " For 
a short time enjoy youi'self in the open air," and without suspecting any 
harm he went a little distance and bathed. [528] At this time the son 
of Vayu, who was a magician, girt about with a sword, was walking 
through the air. When she saw him, she put her hands in a certain 
position and signed to him to come to her. The magician quickly descended 
to the ground. Then she placed him in the box, and sat down on it, 
waiting the approach of the Asura, and as soon as she saw him coming, 
before he had drawn near to the box, she opened it, and getting inside lay 
over the magician, and wrapped her garment about him. The Asura came 
and without examining the box, thought it was only the woman, and 
swallowed the box and set out for his cave. While on the I'oad he 
thought, "It is a long time since I saw the ascetic : I will go to-day and 
pay my respects to him." So he went to visit him. The ascetic, spying 
him while he was still a long way off, knew that there were two people in 
the demon's belly, and uttering the first stanza, he said : 

Whence come ye, friends i Right welcome all the three ! 

Be pleased to rest with me awhile, I pray : 
I trust you live at ease and happily ; 

'Tis long since any of you passed this way. 

On hearing this the Asura thought, " I have come quite alone to see 
this ascetic, and he speaks of three people : what does he mean 1 Does 
he speak from knowing the exact state of things, or is he mad and talking 
foolishly ?" Then he drew nigh to the ascetic, and saluted him, and sitting 
at a respectful distance he conversed with him and spoke the second 
stanza : 

[529] I've come to visit thee alone to-day. 

Nor docs a creature bear me company. 
Why dost thou then, O holy hermit, say, 

"Whence come ye, friends? Right welcome, all the three." 

No. 43G. 315 

Said the ascetic, "Do you really wish to hear the reason?" "Yes, 
holy Sir." "Hear then," he said, and spoke the third stanza : 

Thyself and thy dear wife are twain, be sure ; 
Enclosed within a box she lies secure : 
Safe-guarded ever in thy belly, she 
With Vayu's son doth sport her merrily. 

On hearing this the Asura thought, " Magicians surely are full of 
tricks : supposing his sword should be in his hand, he will rip open my 
belly and make his escape." And being greatly alarmed he threw up the 
box and placed it before him. 

The Master, in his Perfect Wisdom to make the matter clear, repeated the 
fourth stanza : 

The demon by the sword was greatly terrified. 

And from his maw disgorged the box upon the ground ; 
[530] His wife, with lovely wreath adorned as if a bride. 
With Vayu's son disporting merrilj^ was found. 

No sooner was the box opened than the magician muttered a spell 
and seizing his sword sprang up into the air. On seeing this, the Asura 
was so pleased with the Great Being that he repeated the remaining 
verses, inspired mainly with his praises : 

stern ascetic, thy clear vision saw 

How low pool" man, a woman's slave, may sink ; 
As life itself tho' guarded in my maw. 

The wretch did play the wanton, as I think. 

1 tended her with care both day and night. 
As forest hermit cherishes a flame, 

And yet she sinned, beyond all sense of right: 
— To do with woman needs must end in shame. 

Methought within my body, hid from sight, 

She must be mine — but "Wanton" was her name — 

And so she sinned beyond all sense of right: 
— To do with woman needs must end in shame. 

Man with her thousand wiles doth vainly cope, 
In vain he trusts that his defence is sure ; 

Like precipices down to Hell that slope, 
Poor careless souls she doth to doom allure. 

The man that shuns the path of womankind 

Lives happily and from all sorrow free ; 
He his true bliss in solitude will find, 

Afar from woman and her treachery. 

[531] With these words the demon fell at the feet of the Great Being, 
and praised hiiu, saying, " Holy Sir, through you my life was saved. 
Owing to that wicked woman 1 was nearly killed by the magician." Then 
the Bodhisatta expounded the Law to him, saying, " Do no harm to her : 

316 The Jataka. Book IX. 

keep the commandments," and established him in the five moral precepts. 
The Asura said, " Though I guarded her in my belly, I could not keep 
her safe. Who else will keep her?" So he let her go, and returned 
straight to his forest home. 

The Master, his lesson ended, proclaimed the Truths, and identified the 
Birth: — At the conclusion of the Truths the worldly-minded Bi'other attained 
fruition of the First Path : — " In those days the ascetic with supernatural powers 
of sight was myself." 

No. 437. 


[532] " Why thus does Pntimansa," etc. — This was a story told by the Master 
while at Jetavana concerning the subjugation of the senses. For at one time 
there were many Brethren who kept no guard over the avenues of the senses. 
The Master said to the elder Ananda, " I must admonish these Brethren," and 
owing to their want of self-restraint he called together the assembly of the 
Brethren, and seated in the middle of a richly-adorned couch he thus addressed 
them : " Brethren, it is not right that a Brother under the influence of personal 
beauty should set his aft'ections on mental or physical attributes, for should he 
die at such a moment, he is re-born in hell and the like evil states ; therefore set 
not your aflections on material forms and the like. A Brother ought not to feed 
his mind on mental and physical attributes. They who do so even in this 
present condition of things are utterly ruined. Therefore it is good. Brethren, 
that the eye of the senses should be touched with a red-hf)t iron pin." And here 
he gave other details, adding, " There is a time for you to regard beauty, and a 
time to disregai'd it : at the time of regarding it, regard it not under the influence 
of what is agreeable, but of what is disagreeable. Thus will ye not fall away 
from your proper sphere. What then is this sphere of yours ? Even the four 
earnest meditations, the holy eight-fold path, the nine transcendent conditions. 
If ye walk in this your proper domain, Mara will not find an entrance, but if ye 
are subject to passion and regard things under the influence of personal beauty, 
like the jackal Putimansa, ye will fall away from your true sphere," and with 
these words he related a story of the past. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Brahmadatta, king of Benares, many 
hundreds of wild goats dwelt in a mountain-cave in a wooded district on 

' See R. Morris, Folk-Lore Journal, iii. 71. 

No. 437. 317 

the slopes of the Himalayas. Not far from their place of abode a jackal 
named Pfitimaiisa with his wife Venl lived in a cave. <Jne day as he was 
ranging about with his wife, he spied those goats and thought, " I must 
find some means to eat the flesh of these goats," and by some device he 
killed a single goat. Both he and his wife by feeding on goat's flesh 
waxed strong and gross of body. Gradually the goats diminished in 
number. [5.33] Amongst them was a wise she-goat named Melamata. 
The jackal though skilful in devices could not kill her, and taking counsel 
with his wife he said, " My dear, all the goats have died oiit. We must 
devise how to eat this she-goat. Now here is my plan. You are to go by 
yourself, and become fi"iendly with her, and when confidence has sprung 
up between you, I will lie down and pretend to be dead. Then you are to 
draw nigh to the goat and say, ' My dear, my husband is dead and T am 
desolate ; except you I have no friend : come, let us weep and lament, 
and bury his body.' And with these words come and bring her with you. 
Then I will spring up and kill her by a bite in the neck." She readily 
agreed and after making friends with the goat, when confidence was 
established, she addressed her in the words suggested by her husband. 
The goat replied, " My dear, all my kinsfolk have been eaten by your 
husband. I am afraid ; I cannot come." " Do not be afraid ; what harm 
can the dead do yowl" "Your husband is cruelly-minded; I am afraid." 
But afterwards being repeatedly importuned the goat thought, " He 
certainly must be dead," and consented to go with her. But on her way 
there she thought, "Who knows what will happen?" and being suspicious 
she made the she-jackal go in front, keeping a sharp look-out for the jackal. 
He heard the sound of their steps and thought, " Here comes the goat," 
and put up his head and rolling his eyes looked about him. The goat on 
seeing him do this said, "This wicked wretch wants to take me in and kill 
me : he lies there making a pretence of being dead," and she tiirned 
about and fled. When the she-jackal asked why she ran away, the goat 
gave the reason and spoke the first stanza : 

[534] Why thus does Putimansa stare ? 
His look misliketh me : 
Of such a friend one should beware. 
And far away should flee. 

With these words she turned about and made sti-aight for her own 
abode. And the she-jackal failing to stop her was enraged with her, and 
went to her husband and sat down lamenting. Then the jackal rebuking 
her spoke the second stanza : 

Veni, my wife, seems dull of wit, 

To boast of friends that she has made ; 

Left in the lurch she can but sit 
And grieve, by Mela's art betrayed. 

318 The Jdtaka. Book IX. 

On hearing this the she-jackal spoke the third stanza : 

You too, my lord, were hardly wise. 
And, foolish creature, raised your head, 

Staring about with open eyes, 
Though feigning to be dead. 

At fitting times they that are wise 
Know when to ope or close their eyes, 
Who look at the wrong moment, will. 
Like Putimaiisa, suffer ill. 

This stanza was inspired by Perfect Wisdom. 

[535] But the she-jackal comforted Putimansa and said, " My lord, do 
not vex yourself, I will find a way to bring her here again, and when she 
comes, be on your guard and catch her." Then she sought the goat and 
said, "My friend, your coming proved of service to us; for as soon as you 
appeared, my lord recovered consciousness, and he is now alive. Come 
and have friendly speech with him," and so saying she spoke the fifth 
stanza : 

Our former friendship, goat, once more revive. 
And come with well-filled bowl to us, I pray. 

My lord I took for dead is still alive. 
With kindly greeting visit him to-day. 

The goat thought, " This wicked wretch wants to take me in. 1 must 
not act like an open foe ; I will find means to deceive her," and she spoke 
the sixth stanza : 

Our former friendship to revive, 
A well-filled bowl I gladly give : 
With a big escort I shall come ; 
To feast us well, go hasten home. 

Then the she-jackal inquired about her followers, and spoke the seventh 
stanza : 

What kind of escort will you bring. 

That I am bid to feast you well ? 
The names of all remembering 

To us, I pray you, truly tell. 

The goat spoke the eighth stanza and said : 

Hounds 1 grey and tan, four-eyed one too. 
With Jambuk form my escort true : 
Go hurry home, and quick jjrepare 
For all abundance of good fare. 

1 Maliya and Pingiya probably refer to the colour of the dogs ; Caturaksha is one 
of Yama's dogs in the Rigveda; Jambuka is a spirit in the train of Skanda. 

No. 437. 319 

[536] "Each of these," she added, "is accomi»anied by five hundred 
dogs : so I shall appear with a guard of two thousand dogs. If they 
should not find food, they will kill and eat you and your mate." On 
hearing this the she-jackal was so frightened that she thought, " I have 
had quite enough of her coming to us ; I will find means to stop her from 
coming," and she spoke the ninth stanza : 

Don't leave your house, or else I fear 
Your goods will all soon disappear : 
I'll take your greeting to my lord ; 
Don't stir : nay, not another word I 

With these words she ran in great haste, as for her life, and taking 
her lord with her, fled away. And they never durst come back to that 

The Master here ended his lesson and identified the Birth : " In those days 
I was the divinity that dwelt there in an old forest tree." 

No. 438. 


"7%y harmless offspring,'' e^c— This story the Master, while dwelUng at 
Vulture Peak, told concerning the going about of Devadatta to slay him. It 
was at this time that they started a discussion in the Hall of Truth, saying, 
" Alas ! Sirs, how shameless and base was Devadatta. Joining himself to 
Ajatasattu, he formed a plot to kill the excellent and supreme Buddha, by the 
suborning of archers, the hurUng of a rock, and the letting loose of Nalagiri." 
The Master came and inquired of the Brethren what they were discussing in 
their assembly, and on being told what it was said, [537] "Not only now, but 
formerly too, Devadatta went about to kill me, but now he cannot so much as 
frighten me," and he related an old-world legend. 

Once upon a time in the reign of Erahmadatta, king of Benares, a 
world-renowned professor at Benares gave instruction in science to five 
hundred young brahmins. One day he thought, "So long as I dwell here, 

1 See Pi. Morris, Folh-Lorc Journal, in. 74. 

320 The Jdtaka. Booh IX. 

I meet with hindrances to the religious life, and my pupils are not 
perfected in their studies. T will retire into a forest home on the slopes 
of the Himalayas and carry on my teaching there." He told his pupils, 
and, bidding them bring sesame, husked rice, oil, garments and such like, 
he went into the forest and building a hut of leaves took up his abode 
close by the highway. His pupils too each Imilt a hut for himself. 
Their kinsfolk sent rice and the like, and the natives of the country 
saying, "A famous professor, they say, is living in such and such a place 
in the forest, and giving lessons in science," bi'ought presents of rice, and 
the foresters also offered their gifts, while a certain man gave a milch cow 
and a calf, to supply them with milk. Now a lizard along with her two 
young ones came to dwell in the hut of the teacher, and a lion and a tiger 
ministered to him. A partridge too constantly resided there, and from 
hearing their master teach sacred texts to his pupils, the partridge got to 
know three Vedas. And the young brahmins became very friendly with 
the bird. By and bye before the youths had attained to proficiency in the 
sciences, their master died. His pupils had his body burnt, set up a tope 
of sand over his ashes, and with weeping and lamentation adoi-ned it with 
all manner of flowers. So the partridge asked them why they wept. 
"Our master," they replied, "has died while our studies are still in- 
complete." "If this is so, do not be distressed : I will teach you science." 
"How do you know it 1 " "I used to listen to your master, while he 
was teaching you, and got up three Vedas by heart." "Then do you 
impart to us what you have learned by heart." [538] The partridge said, 
"Well, listen," and he expounded knotty points to them, as easily as one 
lets down a stream from a mountain height. The young brahmins were 
highly delighted and acquired science from the learned partridge. And 
the bird stood in the place of the far-famed teacher, and gave lectures in 
science. The youths made him a golden cage and fastening an awning 
over it, they served him with honey and parched grain in a golden dish 
and presenting him with divers coloured flowers, they paid great honour 
to the bird. It was blazed abroad throughout all India that a partridge in 
a forest was instructing five hundred young brahmins in sacred texts. At 
that time men pi'oclaimed a high festival — it was like a gathering together 
of the people on a mountain top. The parents of the youths sent a 
message for their sons to come and see the festival. They told the 
partridge, and entrusting the learned bird and all the hermitage to the 
care of the lizard, they left for their several cities. At that moment an 
ill-conditioned^ wicked ascetic wandering about hither and thither came to 
this spot. The lizard on seeing him entered into friendly talk with him. 

1 The reading is doubtful. Another reading is nikkdruniko, "pitiless" : Morris for 
niffpntiko suggests nifiavtho, "naked ascetic". 

No. 438. • ■ 321 

saying, " In such and such a place you will find rice, oil and such like ; 
boil some rice and enjoy yourself," and so saying he went off in qviest of 
his own food. Early in the morning the wretch boiled his rice, and killed 
and ate the two young lizards, making a dainty dish of them. At midday 
he killed and ate the learned partridge and the calf, and in the evening no 
sooner did he see the cow had come home than he killed her too and ate 
the Hesh. Then he lay down grunting at the foot of a tree and fell asleep. 
In the evening the lizard came back and missing her young ones went 
about looking for them. A tree-spi'ite observing the lizard all of a tremble 
because she could not find her young ones, by an exercise of divine power 
stood in the hollow of the trunk of the tree and said, " Cease trembling, 
lizard ; your young ones and the partridge and the calf and cow have been 
killed by this wicked fellow. Give him a bite in the neck, and so bring 
about his death." And thus talking with the lizard the deity spoke the 
first stanza : 

[539] Thy harmless offspring he did eat, 

Though thou didst rice in plenty give ; 
Thy teeth make in his flesli to meet. 
Nor let the wretch escape alive. 

Then the lizard repeated two stanzas : 

Filth doth his greedy soul, like nurse's garb, besmear, 
His person all is proof against my fangs, I fear. 

Flaws by the base iiigrate are everywhere espied, 
Not by the gift of worlds can he be satisfied. 

The lizard so saying thought, "This fellow will wake up and eat me," 
and to save her own life she fled. Now the lion and the tiger were on 
very friendly terms with the partridge. Sometimes they used to come 
and see the partridge, and sometimes the partridge went and taught the 
Law to them. To-day the lion said to the tiger, " It is a long time since 
we saw the partridge ; it must be seven or eight days : go and bring back 
news of him." The tiger i-eadily assented, and he arrived at the place the 
very moment that the lizard had run away, and found the vile wretch 
sleeping. In his matted locks were to be seen some feathers of the 
partridge, [540] and close by appeared the bones of the cow and calf. 
King tiger seeing all this and missing the partridge from his golden cage 
thought, " These creatures must have been killed by this wicked fellow," 
and he roused him by a kick. At the sight of the tiger the man was 
terribly frightened. Then the tiger asked, "Did you kill and eat these 
creatures?" "I neither killed nor ate them." "Vile wretch, if you did 
not kill them, tell me who else would ? And if you do not tell me, you 
are a dead man!" Frightened for his life he said, "Yes, sir, I did kill 
and eat the young lizards and the cow and the calf, but I did not kill the 

J. 111. 21 

322 The Jataka. Book IX. 

partridge." And though he protested much, the tiger did not believe him 
but asked, "Whence did you come here'?" "My lord, I hawked about 
merchant's wai'es for a living in the Kaliiiga country, and after trying one 
thing and another I have come here." But when the man had told him 
everything that he had done, the tiger said, " You wicked fellow, if you 
did not kill the partridge, who else could have done so 1 Come, I shall 
bring you before the lion, the king of beasts." So the tiger went off, 
driving the man before him. When the lion saw the tiger bringing the 
man with him, putting it in the form of a question he spoke the fourth 
stanza : 

Why thus in haste, Subahui, art thou hei-e. 
And why with thee doe.s this good youth appear ? 
What need for urgency is here, I pray ? 
Quick, tell me truly and without delay. 

[541] On hearing this the tiger spoke the fifth stanza: 

The partridge. Sire, our very worthy friend, 
I doubt, to-day has come to a bad end : 
This fellow's antecedents make me fear 
We may ill news of our good partridge hear. 

Then the lion spoke the sixth stanza : 

What may the fellow's antecedents be, 
And what the sins that he confessed to thee, 
To make thee doubt that some misfortune may 
Have fallen on the learned bird to-day ? 

Then in answer to him king tiger repeated the remaining verses : 

As pedlar thro' Kalinga land 
Rough roads he travelled, staff in hand ; 
With acrobats he has been found, 
And harmless beast in toils has bound ; 
With dicers too has often played, 
And snares for little birds has laid ; 
In crowds with cudgel-sticks has fought, 
And gain by measuring corn has sought : 
False to his vows, in midnight fray 
Wounded, he washed the blood away : 
His hands he burned thro' being bold 
To snatch at food too hot to hold. 
[542] Such was the life I heard he led. 
Such are the sins upon his head. 
And since we know the cow is dead, 
And feathers midst his locks appear, 
I greatly for friend partridge fear. 

The lion asked the man, " Did you kill the learned partridge ?" "Yes, 
my lord, I did." The lion on hearing him speak the truth, was anxious to 

^ Subahu (strong-arm) is the name of the tiger. Compare no. 3G1 supra, p. 127. 

No. 438. 323 

let him go, but king tiger said, "The villain deserves to die," and then and 
there rent him with his teeth. Then he dug a pit and threw the body into 
it. [543] The young brahmins when they returned home, not finding the 
partridge, with weeping and lamentation left the place. 

The Master ended his lesson saying, " Thus, Brethren, did Devadatta of old 
too go about to kill me," and he identified the Birth : " At that time the ascetic 
was Devadatta, the lizard KisagotamI, the tiger Moggallana, the lion Sariputta, 
the world-renowned teacher Kassapa, and the learned partridge was myself." 


Abhassara heaven 220 

Aciravati river 90, 151 

Aggalava shrine 52, 216 

Ajatasattu 80, 81, 142, 245, 319 

Alavi, a city 52, 216 

AJnbattha, court of 248 

Ananda 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, 22, 37, 
66, 80, 96, 103, 125, 135, 153, 160, 
174, 183, 186, 191, 198, 203, 215, 217, 
224, 227, 228, 235, 239, 243, 245, 260, 
265, 271, 279, 284, 297, 316 

Anathapindika 78, 85, 93, 129, 165, 260 

Aiigulimala 203 

Anjanavana park 172 

Anotatta lake 165, 168, 230 

Anuruddha 97, 279, 293, 294 

Anusissa 277 

Apacara, a king 272 

Arafijara, a country 277 

Aruna, a king 3 

Asaiika 162, 164 

Asavati, the heavenly creeper 162 

Assaka country and people 2, 5 

Assaka, a king 2 — 

Assapura, a city 275 

Asuras 313 — 

Atthanani (impossible conditions), 284 

Atthisena 216 

Avanti, kingdom of 277 

Avariyapita 152 

Avavadaka 1 

Avici hell 28, 48, 120, 272, 275 

Ayura 208 

Badarika monastery 43 

Baka the Brahma 219 

Balaka-lonakara-gama 290 

Bandhura, a groom 258 

Baveru, a kingdom 83 

Benares 6, 8, 9, 10, passim 

Benfey 99, 115, 126, 174 

Bhaddavatika, an elephant 233 

Bhaggas, country of the 105 

Bhagu, an elder 291 

Bharata, a hunter 259 ; a king of Eoruva 

Bharukaccha, a country 124 

Bhesakala grove 105 
Bimbisara, king 80 
Bodhi, a prince 105, 107 
Bodhisatta, the 3, 4, 6, ■passim 
Brahmadatta, king passim 
Brahmadatta-kumara 156, 237, 246, 282, 

Brahma-world 10, 54, 64, 68, 99, 112, 159, 

162, 188, 193, 217, 220, 224, 232, 

239, 200, 289, 309, 313 
Bulls, tutelary gods in the shape of 4 

Canda, queen 118 — 

Candavati, princess 308 

Captain of the Faith, see Silriputta 

Cauldrons, the four in hell 31 

Ceti, kingdom of 272— 

Chanua 123, 204 

Chatta 76, 77 

Chittalata garden 162 

Cifica-manavika 186 

Cittakuta, Mount 137, 138, 160 

Culla-anathapindika 310 

CuUadaddara 11 

Cullatundila 181 

Dabbasena, a king 9, 10 

Daddara, Mount 11 
,, a city 275 

Daddara Nagas 11 

Dalhadhamma, a king 233 

Dandaki, a king 277 

Dantapura, a city 2, 228 

Darimukha 156 — 

Dasanna swords 208 

Deccan, the 277 

Devadatta 17, 29, 58, 60, 65, 66, 74, 75, 
87, 88, 107, 115, 117, 118, 120, 133, 
186, 200, 218, 226, 249, 252, 271, 319, 

Devala, Black 278 

Deva -world, the 30 

Dhananjaya 65, 241 

Dhanapala, a prince 118, 119 
,, the elephant 184 

Dhatarattha, one of the Four Kings 165 — 

Dhiimakari 242 

Dighati, a king 290 



Dighavu, prince 139, 290 
Dummukha, a king 230 

Eni, a river 220 

Eravana, Sakka's elephant 237 

Feer, L, 128 

Folk-lore Journal 205, 210, 285 
Footsteps, skill to trace 298 — 
Fourteen sets of priestly duties 287 

Gandhamadana, a mountain 270 
Gandhara Kingdom 221— , 229 
Gaiigamala, a barber 269 — 
Ganges 35, 88, 106, 220, 225, 283, 284, 

292, 310 
Garuda, Garudas 58, 69, 123— 
Ghata 111, 112 
Ghosita park 233, 289 
Gijjha-pabbata 164, see Vulture-mountain 
Gotama 30, 220 
Gumbika (-biya) 132 

Hardy 219, 287, 289 

Hare, the Moon's 37 

Harita, au ascetic 296 

Harittaca-Kumilra 295 

Hatthipura, a city 275 

Heaven of the Four Kings, the 165, 168 

Himalaya, 11, 17, 21, 24, 26, 30, 48, 53, 
63, 73, 75, 79, 80, 88, 94, 96, 98, 112, 
115, 137, 140, 151, 160, 161, 188, 216, 
222, 225, 235, 239, 242, 243, 257, 
259, 269, 270, 278, 280, 284, 285, 292, 
295, 303, 306, 310, 313, 317, 320 

Horseman, the great 6 

Indapattana, a city 241 
Indra 97, 308 (see Sakka) 
ludra (Vasava) 219 [see Sakka) 
Indra (Maghavan) 97 (set' Sakka) 

Jain (nigantha) 1, 84 

Jambuka 318 

Janaka, a king 210, 214 

Jatakamala 17, 26, 34, 85, 225, 244 

Jatakas referred to in the text ; 

Bhaddasala 225 

Cullabodhi 62 

CuUaharnsa 183 

Cullanandaka 117 

CuUanarada 311 

CuUanaradakassapa 98 

"Daddara 117 

*Indriya 39, 161 

* Kan aver a 261 

Khadiraiigara 85 

Khandahala 183 

^Kliantivadi 117 

*KummasaiJinda 270 

Kunala 87 

Mahajanaka 157 

INIahakauha 96, 189 

Jatakas referred to in the text : 

Mahamittavinda 136 

Mahasilava 9 

Mahaummagga 130, 178 

Mahilamukhata 199 

Manikantha 52, 216 


Nigrodha 173 

Panlya 12, 228 

Pafiua 137, 239 

Salaka 130 

Sama 201 

Saiighabhedaka 139 

Seyyamsa 9 

Takkaiika 68 

Tesakuna 73, 197 

Tipallattha 43 

Uddfila 153 

Ummagga 101, 210 

Vevatiyakapi 117 
Jetavaua 1, 6, 9, 10, passim 
Jewel-mount, the 293 
Jotipala 277 

Kaccana 279 

Kakati, a queen 61 

Kalabahu, a monkey 65 

Kalabu, a king 26 

Kaladevala 277— 

Kaiakanni, goddess of ill-luck 165, 166 

Kalinga,'king 2— ; kingdom 2, 228, 322 

Kama-heavens, the six 166 

Kampilla, a city 230 

Kampillaka, a kingdom 52 

Kapila, a priest 272 — 

Kappa-kumara 94, 95, 96 

— -manava 221 

Karandiya 113, 114 

Karandu, a king 228 

Kashmir 222 

Kasi, country 21, 24, 26, 30, 39, 63, 94, 

140, 170, 178, 183, 189, 192, 193, 237, 

245, 278, 290, 314 
Kassapa, the elder 60, 279, 323 
Kassapa 25 
Kathiisarits 244 
KatiyanT (kaccani) 256 
Kavitthaka hermitage 277 
Kebuka (a river) 61 
Kesava 94, 95, 96 
Kliema 111, 200 
Khujjuttara 111 
Kisavaccha 277 
Kokalika 68, 75 
Kokanada palace 105 
Korakalamba, -baka 272 — 
Kosala, king of 9, 15, 29, 69, 76, 80, 89, 

103, 111, 140, 172, 241, 245, 256, 265, 

280, 290, 310 
Kosala, country of 21, 191, 291 
Kosambi, city 43, 139, 233, 289, 291 
KumbhavatI, a city 277 
Kundaka-kumara 26 

These Jatakas occur in the present volume. 



Kurus, kingdom of the 241 

Lambacfilaka, a town 277 
Liccbavis, the 1 
Lola 1 
Lomasa-kassapa 307 — 

Maddava, a king 207 

Magadha king, the 156 

Magadha kingdom 184, 285 

Mahadaddara 11 

Mahfidhana 282 

Maliilgovindasutta quoted 280 

Mahakassapa, the elder 47 

Mahamaya 291 

Mahapajapati 120 

Mahapatapa, a king 118, 119 

Maliasammata, a king 272 

Rrahatundila 181 

Makhadeva 201 

Malhka, a queen 13, 14, 15, 29, 244— 

Manoja 200 

Manosila, Mount 230 

Mara 186, 294, 316 

Mayha bird, the 188 

Mejjharanna 193 

Melamata, a goat 317 

Meiidissara 277, 279 

Migalopa 164 

Mittavindaka 136 

Mitthila, a city 222, 230 

Moggallana 22, 37, CO, 126, 127, 210, 279, 

285, 323 
Musika 143 

Naga island 124 

Nagas, the 11, 58, 174 

Naggaji, a king 229 

Nillagiri, an elephant 65, 118, 249, 319 

Nandamiila cave 157, 190, 229, 230, 245, 

259, 263, 281 
Nandisena, a minister 3 — 
Nandiya 172 

Narada, a minister 95 ; an ascetic 277 — 
Natakuvera 61 
Nataputta, a Jain 84 
Neru, Mount 160, 295 
Nimi, a king 230 

Pabbata 277 

Pacceka buddhas 157, 187, 190, 229, 230, 

245, 259, 263, 270, 280 
Paficala kingdom, north, see Uttara P. 
PannalakkhanadevI 260 
Parantapa 250 — 
Parileyyaka forest 291 
Partridge, the learned 320 
Pasenadi, a king 13, 243 
Patacara 1 
Patala, a dancer 301 
Pavement, liouse of tlie golden (Kotisam- 

tharo) 12, 228, 239 
Piliudiyavaccha 221 
Pihgala 67 
Pihgiya 105, 106, 107 

Potah, a city 2 
Potthapada, a parrot 65, 66 
Pukkusa 208 
Putimausa, a jackal 317 

Eadha, a parrot 65, 66 

Eahu 222, 284 

Kiihula 43, 44, 111, 232 

Kahula's mother 64, 180, 200, 232, 239, 

248, 271, 282, 311 
Eajagaha 22, 47, 48, 156, 184, 221, 285 
Red flowers round a condemned criminal's 

head 40 
Requisites of a priest, the eight 229 
Right, the dead, oifering for 254 
Roruva, a city 280 
Roruva hell 187 

Sacca 1 

Saccaka 1 

Sagga, a minstrel 124 

Saketa (Oude) 172, 173 

Sakka 3, 5, 26, 36, 37, 85, 86, 91, 97, 109, 
110, 140, 145, 161, 163, 166, 174, 177, 
189, 193, 235, 236, 247, 255, 292, 294, 

Sakkadattiya 277 

Sakya tribe 205 

Salindiya, a village 184 

Sfilissara 277, 279 

Samsi 40, 42 

Sammilla-bhasini 63 — 

Samuddavijaya, a queen 280 

Sarabhaiiga 277— 

Sariputta 1, 2, 5, 13, 22, 23, 29, 32, 
60, 96, 113, 114, 121, 126, 127, 
174, 177, 210, 215, 241, 260, 279, 

Satodika, a river 277 

Sattuka, a robber 261 

Savatthi 1, 14, 20, 24, 29, 32, 34, 38 
49, 55, 76, 77, 78, 92, 103, 112, 
180, 186, 228, 241, 243, 244, 253, 
291, 294, 298, 309 

Sayha, a councillor 21, 22, 307 

Senaka 174, 176, 207— , 210— 

Serpents' breath 251 

Seruma island 124 

Setaketu 154 — 

Sihajjura, a city 275 

Simbali lake, the 60 

Sindh asses 176 ; horses 5 

Sineru, see Neru 

Siri (daughter of Dasarattha) 165 — 

Sirisayana, origin of 168 

Sivi, a kingdom 279 

Six priests, the heretical 18, 99 

Sixteen unsatisfied things, the 210 

Sotthivati (-vatthi?), a city 272 

Sovira, a kingdom 280 

Spell for understanding all voices 175 

Stiipa of Bharhut 168, 225 

Subhakinna heaven 220 

Sublime gods, the 289 

Suciparivara, a merchant 165, 166, 168, 266 





Suddhodana, a king 291 
Suja, Sujfita 97, 176, 292, 293 
Sujata-kumaia 103, 104 
Sujata, a queen 14, 15 
Sulasa 261— 

Sumaiigala, a park-keeper 263 — 
Sumedha 159 
Sumsumara-giri 105 
Supatta, the vulture-king 287 
Suradaddara 11 
Surattba country 277 
Susima-kumilra 237 
Sussondi 124 
Sutana 201— 

Tagarasikhi 187 

Takkasila 21, 26, 43, 52, 62, 76, 79, 81, 
94, 98, 99, 105, 106, 111, 113, 128, 
145, 151, 154, 161, 192, 210, 216, 
229, 237, 241, 243, 246, 249, 257, 
277, 295 

Tamba, a king 124 

Three properties, the 229 

Tibetan Tales 17, 49, 61, 62, 80, 99, 120, 
126, 144, 205, 210, 218, 282, 285 

Tree-spirits 15, 22, 205, 243, 261, 319 

Tutelary gods of kings 4, 5 

Udaya, a king 267 — 
Udena, a king 105, 233 

Upananda 205, 207 

Uppalavanna 2, 111, 168, 193, 200, 232, 

Ussada hell 136 
Uttara-paficala 52, 230, 275 

Vahka, a king 112 

Vasittha 242 

Vayu, the son of 314 

Vehapphala heaven 220 

Verambha, -ba, wind 164, 287, 288 

Veraiija, a city 294 

Vesali 1 

Vessavana, one of the Four Kings 165, 

166; 201, 298 
Videha, king 222 
Videha, kingdom 222, 230 
Vidhura-pandita 241, 242 
Virulha, one of the Four Kings 165, 166 
Viriipakkha, one of the Four Kings 165 
Visakha 78, 309 
Visayha 85 — 
Vulture Mountain, the 287, 319, see Gijjha- 


Yakkhas 96, 97, 106, 132, 201— , 298, 

Yama, the god 281 
Yava, prince 142 
Yudhitthila, a king 241 




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